01 part1-ideal-gas

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  • http://pages.towson.edu/ladon/gases.htmlhttp://rsnr.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/10/12/rsnr.2009.0038.fullAn ideal gas has the following properties: 1. An ideal gas is considered to be a "point mass". A point mass is a particle so small, its mass is very nearly zero. This means an ideal gas particle has virtually no volume. 2. Collisions between ideal Gases are "elastic". This means that no attractive or repulsive forces are involved during collisions. Also, the kinetic energy of the gas molecules remains constant since theses interparticle forces are lacking.
  • temperature will always be expressed in the Kelvin scale
  • http://pages.towson.edu/ladon/gases.htmlhttp://rsnr.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/10/12/rsnr.2009.0038.fullAn ideal gas has the following properties: 1. An ideal gas is considered to be a "point mass". A point mass is a particle so small, its mass is very nearly zero. This means an ideal gas particle has virtually no volume. 2. Collisions between ideal Gases are "elastic". This means that no attractive or repulsive forces are involved during collisions. Also, the kinetic energy of the gas molecules remains constant since theses interparticle forces are lacking.
  • http://pages.towson.edu/ladon/gases.htmlhttp://rsnr.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/10/12/rsnr.2009.0038.fullAn ideal gas has the following properties: 1. An ideal gas is considered to be a "point mass". A point mass is a particle so small, its mass is very nearly zero. This means an ideal gas particle has virtually no volume. 2. Collisions between ideal Gases are "elastic". This means that no attractive or repulsive forces are involved during collisions. Also, the kinetic energy of the gas molecules remains constant since theses interparticle forces are lacking.
  • http://pages.towson.edu/ladon/gases.htmlhttp://rsnr.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/10/12/rsnr.2009.0038.fullAn ideal gas has the following properties: 1. An ideal gas is considered to be a "point mass". A point mass is a particle so small, its mass is very nearly zero. This means an ideal gas particle has virtually no volume. 2. Collisions between ideal Gases are "elastic". This means that no attractive or repulsive forces are involved during collisions. Also, the kinetic energy of the gas molecules remains constant since theses interparticle forces are lacking.
  • http://pages.towson.edu/ladon/gases.htmlhttp://rsnr.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/10/12/rsnr.2009.0038.fullAn ideal gas has the following properties: 1. An ideal gas is considered to be a "point mass". A point mass is a particle so small, its mass is very nearly zero. This means an ideal gas particle has virtually no volume. 2. Collisions between ideal Gases are "elastic". This means that no attractive or repulsive forces are involved during collisions. Also, the kinetic energy of the gas molecules remains constant since theses interparticle forces are lacking.
  • http://pages.towson.edu/ladon/gases.htmlhttp://rsnr.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/10/12/rsnr.2009.0038.fullAn ideal gas has the following properties: 1. An ideal gas is considered to be a "point mass". A point mass is a particle so small, its mass is very nearly zero. This means an ideal gas particle has virtually no volume. 2. Collisions between ideal Gases are "elastic". This means that no attractive or repulsive forces are involved during collisions. Also, the kinetic energy of the gas molecules remains constant since theses interparticle forces are lacking.
  • http://pages.towson.edu/ladon/gases.htmlhttp://rsnr.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/10/12/rsnr.2009.0038.fullAn ideal gas has the following properties: 1. An ideal gas is considered to be a "point mass". A point mass is a particle so small, its mass is very nearly zero. This means an ideal gas particle has virtually no volume. 2. Collisions between ideal Gases are "elastic". This means that no attractive or repulsive forces are involved during collisions. Also, the kinetic energy of the gas molecules remains constant since theses interparticle forces are lacking.

Transcript

  • 1. Ideal Gas S.Gunabalan Associate Professor Mechanical Engineering Department Bharathiyar College of Engineering & Technology Karaikal - 609 609. e-Mail : gunabalans@yahoo.com
  • 2. Ideal Gas • An ideal gas is a theoretical gas or imaginary gas composed of a set of randomly moving, non-interacting point like particles and they obeys the gas law always. An ideal gas is an imaginary gas that obeys gas law under all conditions
  • 3. Properties of ideal gas – The gas particles are so small (Point mass) or nearly zero mass or virtually no volume – The collision between ideal gases are elastic. i.e. no attractive or repulsive force during collision
  • 4. Ideal Gas Equation of state Real gas Perfect gas Ideal gas
  • 5. Ideal Gas Equation of state
  • 6. Ideal Gas Equation of state
  • 7. Gas Constant R Gas Molar Weight ( M)Kg/Kmol Gas Constant (R )KJ/KgK Air 28.97 0.287 Nitrogen 28.01 0.297 Oxygen 32 0.260 Hydrogen 2.016 4.124 Helium 4.004 2.077 Carbon dioxide 44.01 0.189 Steam 18.02 0.461 A mole of a substance has a mass numerically equal to the molecular weight of the substance. • One g mol of oxygen has a mass of 32 g, • 1 kgmol of oxygen has a mass of 32 kg, • 1 kgmol of nitrogen has a mass of 28 kg
  • 8. Ideal Gas Equation of state
  • 9. Ideal Gas Equation of state
  • 10. Ideal Gas Equation of state
  • 11. Units of Pressure • atmospheric pressure (1 Atm.) = 1.013 bar, = 101325 Pascal (Pa = N/m²); = 760 millimeters of mercury absolute (mmHgA) = 760 Torr (1 Torr = 1 mm HgA)
  • 12. Units of Volume & Temperature • Volume – m3 – Liter (L) – CC (Centimeter Cube) Temperature - always be expressed in Kelvin scale T = oC + 273
  • 13. Important Laws of Perfect Gases 01)Boyle's Law The Volume of a given Mass of a Gas varies inversely as its absolute Pressure, provided the moles and Temperature remains constant. 02)Charles's Law The volume of a given Mass of a Gas varies directly as its absolute Temperature provided the moles and Pressure is kept constant. 03)Gay Lussac law The Pressure of a given Mass of a Gas varies directly as its absolute Temperature provided the moles and volume is kept constant. 04)Avogadro's Law For a given mass of an ideal gas, the volume and amount (moles) of the gas are directly proportional if the temperature and pressure are constant
  • 14. Important Laws of Perfect Gases 05) Regnault's Law:- This Law states that "The two specific Heat at constant Pressure (Cp) and specific Heat at constant Volume (Cv) of a Gas do not change with the change of Temperature and pressure”. 06) Joule's Law:- This Law states that "The internal Energy of a given quantity of a Gas depends on the Temperature".
  • 15. Boyle's Law
  • 16. Charles's Law
  • 17. Gay Lussac law
  • 18. Avogadro's Law If any two gases have the same pressure, volume and temperature then they contain the same number of molecules
  • 19. Joule effect and Joule's law English physicist James Prescott Joule
  • 20. Joule effect and Joule's law English physicist James Prescott Joule
  • 21. Joule effect and Joule's law • The magnetostriction effect describes a property of ferromagnetic materials which causes them to change their shape when subjected to a magnetic field. • Joule first reported observing change in the length of ferromagnetic rods in 1842 English physicist James Prescott Joule
  • 22. Joule effect and Joule's law • Gough–Joule effect – A stretched piece of rubber contracts when heated • demonstrating this effect is to suspend a weight on a rubber band sufficient to elongate it at least 50%. When the stretched rubber band is heated up by an infrared lamp, it does not elongate because of thermal expansion, as may be expected, but it retracts and lifts the weight. English physicist James Prescott Joule
  • 23. Ideal Gas Law Problems 1. you have 10 mol of a gas at 30oC, occupying a container which is 0.5 L in size. What is the pressure of this gas in atmospheres? • Given data • n = 10 mol • T = 30oC • V = 0.5 L • P = ?
  • 24. Ideal Gas Law Problems
  • 25. Ideal Gas Law Problems Class Ex: 2. find the volume of 5 mol of gas which is at 350 mm Hg of pressure, and at a temperature of 110 oC. 1 atm = 760 mmHg ? atm = 350 mmHg
  • 26. The specific volume of a substance is the ratio of the substance's volume to its mass. It is the reciprocal of density and is an intrinsic property of matter. Substance Name Density Specific Volume Kg/m3 m3/Kg Air 1.2 0.83 Ice 916.7 0.00109 Water (liquid) 1000 0.00100 Salt Water 1030 0.00097 Mercury 13546 0.00007
  • 27. Note: Molar volume
  • 28. Specific heat
  • 29. Specific heat • The specific heat - the amount of heat required to raise a unit mass of the substance through a unit rise in temperature. • The product of mass and specific heat (mCv) is called the heat capacity at constant volume (J/K) • The latent heat is the amount of heat transfer required to cause a phase change in unit mass of a substance at a constant pressure and temperature
  • 30. Questions • What is an ideal gas ? • What is the difference between Universal gas constant and characteristics gas constant ?
  • 31. Questions
  • 32. Questions
  • 33. Questions Gas Molar Weight ( M)Kg/Kmol Air Nitrogen Oxygen Hydrogen Helium Carbon dioxide Steam Fill the table
  • 34. QuestionsFill the table S. No Symbol Name Units Formulae/ Value 1 2 3 4 5 6 V 7 8 T 9 ρ 10 C
  • 35. Reference • Rajput, R. K. 2010. Engineering thermodynamics. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, Mass. • Singh, O. 2003. Applied thermodynamics. New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers, New Delhi. • Nag, P. K. 2002. Basic and applied thermodynamics. Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi. • http://pages.towson.edu/ladon/gases.html • http://rsnr.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/10/12/rsnr.200 9.0038.full • http://en.wikipedia.org/