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### Thermodynamics Fundamentals Explained in 40 Characters

• 2.  Thermo means Heat  Dynamics means motion under the action of force  Thermodynamics is the branch of science dealing with heat or work (Broadly energy interaction) and related changes in the physical properties of substance.
• 3. Macroscopic A quantity of matter is taken into account for analysis .It does not consider matter at molecular level. This kind of approach is made in classical thermodynamics. Microscopic In this approach analysis is done on molecular level. By adding up the behavior of each molecule analysis can be done. This kind of approach is made in Statistical thermodynamics.
• 4.  System-It is a region or space for study  Surrounding-Everything external to the system is surrounding  Universe-System and surrounding together constitute Universe.  Boundary-System and surrounding is separated by Boundary.  Boundary can be 1.Fixed(gas inside a rigid box)2.Movable (piston cylinder arrangement)
• 5. Open system • Both mass and energy can cross the boundary • e.g. Pump, compressor, turbine, Heat exchanger Closed system • Only energy can cross the boundary • e.g. Refrigerator, AC Isolated system • No transfer of energy and matter across the boundary • e.g. Thermo flask, universe
• 6.  Properties are used to define the characteristics of a system.  E.g. Pressure , Temperature, volume, mass  Thermodynamics properties are mainly divided into 2 classes 1.Extensive Properties-Properties are dependent on mass . e.g. volume, energy, enthalpy 2.Intensive Properties-Properties are independent of mass . e.g. Pressure, Temperature , density  All specific properties are intensive properties.
• 7.  States-conditions of a system described by its properties  Process-when system changes from one state to another then It is called a Process.  Reversible Process-A process when reversed does not leave any effect on system and surrounding or it can goes back to its original state.  Irreversible Process-A process which cannot be reversed to its original state  Cycle-Sequence of different processes whose initial and final states are same.
• 8. Point function • Properties whose value depends on end states • exact or perfect differentials • e.g. Pressure, Temperature , Volume Path function • Properties whose value depend on path • Inexact differentials • e.g. Work , Heat
• 9.  A system is said to be in thermodynamic equilibrium if it satisfies the following three conditions 1. Thermal Equilibrium-No temperature difference between system and surrounding 2. Mechanical equilibrium-no unbalanced forces within the system or with the surrounding 3. Chemical equilibrium-no chemical reaction and no change in chemical composition
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