Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
G & D Ch. 9
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

G & D Ch. 9


Published on

Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence

Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence

Published in: Education

1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide
  • Transcript

    • 1. CHAPTER 9 Physical & Cognitive Development in Adolescence
    • 2. Physical Maturational Changes
      • Signs of Puberty
      • Puberty is the end of childhood & the beginning of adolescence seen in physical and sexual growth
      • Physical Growth:
      • Gains for both boys & girls
      • Girls begin generally 2 years earlier than boys
      • Growth spurt where bones become longer & denser
      • Muscle growth in boys & girls
      • more pronounced growth in boys
      • body fat increase
      • Increases more rapidly in girls
      • heart & lung capacity increases more in boys
    • 3. Sexual Maturation
      • Primary Sexual Characteristics
      • Organs directly involved in sexual reproduction
      • Secondary Sexual Characteristics
      • Physical signs of maturity not directly linked to the reproductive organs
      • Changes in primary & secondary sexual characteristics occur in a predictable sequence for boys & girls
      • For girls, puberty begins w/growth of the breasts & a growth spurt, followed by pubic hair
      • Menarch – the onset of menstruation typically occurs about 13
      • For boys, puberty usually starts w/growth of the testes & scrotum followed by pubic hair, a growth spurt, & growth of the penis
      • Spermarche – 1st spontaneous ejaculation of sperm-laden fluid typically occurs about age 13
    • 4. Mechanisms of Maturation
      • Hypothalamus sends hormones to the pituitary gland triggering release of growth hormones
      • Timing of puberty’s events regulated, in part, by genetics
      • Genetic forces greatly influenced by environmental factors
      • Nutrition & health
      • Puberty occurs earlier in those well-nourished & healthy
      • Social environment also influences puberty’s onset for girls
      • Menarche occurs in younger girls due to family conflict
      • Psychological Impact of Puberty
      • Body image:
      • Adolescents more concerned about overall appearance
      • Girls worry more about & more dissatisfied with their appearance
      • Boys concerned about appearance in early adolescence & become more pleased as changes occur
    • 5. Response to Menarche & Spermarche
      • Menarche is private occasion in industrialized countries
      • Celebrated with traditions in older cultures
      • Presentation Rites and Rites of Passage
      • Reaction to spermarche less known because of previous knowledge of boys
      • Rate of maturation
      • Early & late maturation:
      • Early maturing boys perceived as more mature & may be more willing to take adult-like responsibilities
      • Late maturing boys often treated like little boys instead of young men
      • Early maturing girls tend to be encouraged to engage in age-appropriate activities such as drinking, smoking, & sex
    • 6. Sexual Relations
      • Masturbation
      • Sexual self-stimulation
      • By age 15, 80% of boys & 20% of girls report masturbating
      • Can still produce guilt feelings
      • Now viewed as normal & harmless
      • Sexual Intercourse
      • About 50% of adolescents begin intercourse between 15 & 18 years
      • 10% are postponing sex
      • Double-standard
      • Permissible for males, not for females
      • For many girls, it is okay with affection
    • 7. Pregnancy
      • Statistics
      • Teen pregnancies have dropped 30% in the last 10 years
      • 43 of 1000 births is a teen
      • Pledges in sex classes are useless
      • Teen pregnancies in the U.S. are still 2 – 10 X higher than most other industrialized countries
      • Caring for the child generally goes to the mother with little or no help from the father
    • 8. Sexual Orientation
      • Heterosexuality
      • Sexual attraction & behavior with members of the opposite sex
      • Homosexuality
      • Sexual attraction & behavior with members of the same sex
      • Gay: male homosexuals
      • Lesbian: female homosexuals
      • Bisexuality
      • Sexual attraction & behavior with members of either sex
      • Gender Identity
      • The gender a person believes he or she is psychologically
    • 9. Sexually Transmitted Diseases
      • AIDS
      • A leading cause of death among young people
      • Transmitted through body fluids
      • Other STDs
      • 1 in 4 adolescents will contract an STD before graduating high school
      • Chlamydia
      • A bacterial disease
      • Genital herpes
      • Virus-like cold sores or blisters
      • Trichomoniasis
      • Caused by a parasite
      • Gonorrhea & syphilis
      • Oldest known
      Genital Herpes Syphilis
    • 10. Health & Nutrition
      • Obesity
      • Body mass index (BMI)
      • Adjusted ratio of weight to height
      • Number of overweight children doubled in past 25 – 30 years
      • Number of overweight adolescents tripled
      • Overweight youngsters unpopular & w/low self-esteem
      • At risk for medical problems
      • Heredity plays a role in juvenile obesity
      • Genes influence obesity by influencing activity level
      • Being genetically prone to inactivity makes it more difficult to burn off calories & easier to gain weight
      • Genes sets up the basal metabolic rate
      • Speed at which the body consumes calories
      • Slower BMR burns off calories more slowly
    • 11. Health & Nutrition
      • Environment influences weight
      • Many external cues to eat the wrong foods, ads on the media, encouraging youth to eat tasty but fattening foods
      • Can lose weight with a program that contains:
      • 1. Focus on eating habits & encouragement to become more active
      • 2. Monitoring eating, exercise, & sedentary behaviors
      • Parents help by monitoring their own lifestyle and to set realistic goals & help children reach those goals
      • 3. Eat very little fast food
    • 12. Threats to Well-being
      • Illegal Drugs
      • 50% of U.S. high school seniors & 20% of 8 th graders used marijuana in the past year
      • Reasons for use
      • Pleasurable experiences
      • Everyday pressures
      • Peer pressures
      • Thrill of doing something illegal
      • Addictive Drugs
      • Drugs producing a biological or psychological dependence leading to cravings
      • Physiological dependence
      • Psychological dependence
    • 13. Legal Drugs
      • Alcohol
      • Binge drinking a “tradition” on college campuses
      • Reasons adolescents start drinking
      • Release inhibitions
      • Reduce tensions & stress
      • Family patterns & genetics play a role
      • Tobacco
      • Nicotine is 4 ½ X more addicting than heroin
      • Produces psychological & physiological addiction
      • Produces a quick dependency
      • Produces pleasant emotional state
      • Seeing parents & peers smoking increases chances of starting
    • 14. Anorexia & Bulimia
      • Anorexia nervosa
      • Disorder marked by a persistent refusal to eat & an irrational fear of being overweight
      • Have a grossly distorted body image
      • Bulimia nervosa
      • Alternate between binge eating & purging via vomiting or laxatives
      • Commonality in all bulimia is the feeling of not being able to stop eating
    • 15. Piaget
      • Formal Operations
      • Abstract thinking using formal logic
      • Hypotheticodeductive reasoning;
      • Start with a general theory about what produces a particular outcome then deduce explanations for specific situations in which that particular outcome is seen
      • Can begin with abstract possibilities & move to the concrete
      • Propositional thought:
      • Reasoning that uses abstract logic in the absence of concrete examples
      • It’s a gradual unfolding
      • Culture influences the operations
    • 16. Adolescent Egocentricism
      • Imaginary Audience
      • The adolescent belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are. The attention-getting behavior is motivated by a desire to be noticed, visible, and “on stage.”
      • Personal Fable
      • The part of adolescent egocentricism that involves their view of their uniqueness and invincibility. It is often seen in the belief that they’ll never suffer horrendous experiences that happen to other people .
    • 17. Information Processing
      • Information Processing Approach
      • Seeks to identify the way that we take in, use, & store information
      • Metacognition
      • Knowledge that people have about their own thinking processes & their ability to monitor them
      • Decision Making
      • Dating, sex, work or college, friends, etc.
      • Critical Thinking
      • Many even into the 11 th grade still have a self-serving bias in their reasoning
    • 18. School Performance
      • 78% of U.S. High School Students Graduate
      • SES Scores
      • Middle- & high-SES students score higher grades on standardized tests of achievement & complete more years of education
      • Poverty contributes to lower scores, less years of education, etc.
    • 19. Ethnic/Racial Differences in Performance
      • African American & Hispanic Performance
      • Asian Americans performance higher
      • Difference in part to SES & their view of education
      • Education is less important than getting a job
      • Hard work in school has no payoff
      • Beliefs Regarding Academic Success
      • African Americans more apt to view success as the result of external causes, luck, or social biases
      • They have no control over their success
      • Adolescent beliefs about the consequences of not doing will may also contribute to the differences in school performance
    • 20. Dropping Out
      • Statistics
      • ½ million drop out each year
      • Earn 42% less than high school grads
      • Unemployment rate for drop outs is 50%
      • Males drop out more than females
      • Hispanic & African Americans are more likely to drop out
      • Poverty plays a major role in who completes high school