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Adolescence

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Adolescence

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Adolescence

  1. 1. Students should be able to:  Know the concept of adolescence  Understand the hormonal and psychosoical change of adolescence  Describe the problems of adolescence
  2. 2.  Anxiety and uncertainty  Overt biological and psychological changes  Biological changes include skeletal growth, physical and sexual development  Role adoption  Psychologically --- cognitive development and maturation of personality  Adoption of Adult role
  3. 3.  Marked by profound hormonal changes mainly the sex hormones  Adolescents are too sensitive to their physical appearance  Age of puberty  Puberty in males and females  Factors influencing onset of puberty
  4. 4.  Large increase at age 17 years in boys  Hormonal changes bring about tremendous sexual desires  Sex hormones greatly influence the maturation of central nervous system  Mood is also affected by these hormones  Increase in testosterone causes heightened sex desire and thus adolescents resort to masturbation
  5. 5.  There is difference in attitude towards sex arousal in both sexes  Unresolved Oedipal Complex may cause problems in adolescents  Adolescents now idealize stars (movie, music, sports, politicians)  Sexual adventures begin  Negotiate sex orientation and persuade adolescents for healthy practices through counseling by parents and teachers  Onset of menarche and required education may be imparted at home and at school
  6. 6.  Neurological maturation through formation of more dendritic synapses  Abstract thinking also develops at this stage  Creative interest in different fields take their final form  Achievement of secure sense of identity  Negativism and argument with parents on different issues is not very uncommon
  7. 7.  Ziegler a child psychologist warns, “do not misinterpret acceptance as permissiveness Letting children do what they want when they want does no- one any good. Homework must be done family rules respected and consideration shown”.
  8. 8.  Psychological distress  Personality disorganization  Changes in mood and behavior  This state may be mistaken as psychosis and should therefore be investigated and negotiated with patience
  9. 9.  Traditional Adolescent Conflict  Looking for resolution of developmental  “angst;” working through adolescent conflict  at multiple levels:  – Identity (self, family & society)  – Sexuality  – Independence  – Loss of innocence  – Vulnerability
  10. 10.  Opportunities for making friends of same age sex and interest are provided by school  Parental support is necessary as a buffer  Sudden changes in behavior, friendship and personal appearance are warning signs of concern for parents
  11. 11.  Represents conflicting approaches and perception between the child and parents about variety of life events  Attempts at independence and parental worries add to this generation gap  Parents’ own weaknesses in setting limits may further complicate the relationship
  12. 12.  Superego weaknesses of parents and unrealistic anxiety about the sex life of the children may cause emotional turmoil in the parents  With time this generation gap may be narrowed through conscious and unconscious attempts by both the parties
  13. 13.  In late adolescence moral and ethical values are further ingrained  In the absence of formal guidance the child may develop inclination according to his/her own perceptions and background knowledge
  14. 14.  Role models are principal determinants of choice of occupation  Other factors like opportunities, finances, motivation, aptitude and emotional stability play a facilitatory or inhibitory role
  15. 15.  It is a risk taking behavior like fast driving and adventure seeking etc.  Many drugs of abuse are available and the incidence is increasing day by day in school and college students due to peer pressure, easy availability of drugs and influence of drug marketers  Parental vigilance, high morality and choice of good friends are protective factors
  16. 16.  In the west the incidence of pregnancy through illicit relationships is on the increase  Boys are sexually more aggressive but not faithful as compared to girls  Availability of contraceptives and facilities for voluntary abortions further encourage the teenagers to indulge in sex practice  The future of children born to these mothers is stormy and uncertain
  17. 17.  Violent crimes and homicides are on the increase in U.S.A. These are more common in boys, in blacks, in children brought up only, by mothers and probably adolescents with low social economic state.
  18. 18.  Adolescence ends when one assumes the role of young adult and develops a sense of intimacy likely to conclude in marriage and parenthood. Depression and anxiety in adolescents is not uncommon but not all have the opportunity for treatment or counseling .

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