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Middle Childhood
Middle Childhood 
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
The Healthiest Time 
 Growth slows 
 Gain 5-7 pounds and 2 inches per year 
 Slim down 
 Muscle strength and lung capacity 
 Motor skills improve
Children and Sports 
 Sports are best when parents stay 
home 
 College Sports Excesses Seep Into High 
School
Childhood Obesity 
 16-33 percent 
American children 
obese 
 Doubled since 1980s 
 Orthopedic, self-esteem 
problems 
 Pediatric type II 
diabetes on the rise
School Lunches
Nutrients for the Day
Middle Childhood 
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Concrete Operational 
Stage 
 Classification 
 Identity: 5 is always 5 
 Reversibility: 2+3=5 and 5-3=2 
 Reciprocity: 4x6=2x12
Information Processing 
Theory 
 Sensory register 
 Working memory 
 Knowledge base 
 Processing speed improves 
 Metacognition: strategize
Language Development 
 Vocabulary growth at 20 words per day 
 5th graders know about 40,000 words 
 New understanding of words 
 Grammar more easily learned
Kohlberg’s Moral 
Development 
 Preconventional based on reward and 
punishment 
 Conventional based on what other 
people think 
 Postconventional based on the welfare 
of others rather than self
Developmental Problems 
Consequences of labeling 
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Autism Spectrum Disorders 
 Autism or “selfism” 
 Poor language skills 
 Sensitive to touch, sound, detail 
 Fear change and prefer repetition 
 Lack social awareness or social 
emotions 
 Asperger’s syndrome
Learning Disability: 
“A measured discrepancy between 
expected learning and actual 
accomplishment in a particular 
academic area” (Berger, p. 282)
Learning Difficulties 
 Specific to academic skills (not 
retardation) 
 Dyslexia (reading) 
 Dyscalcula (math) 
 Attention deficit disorder (attention) 
 Numerous causes
Assessment of Intellectual 
Skills 
 Achievement tests are designed to 
measure what kids have learned 
 Aptitude tests are designed to measure 
potential to learn 
 IQ tests are a type of aptitude test
Gardner’s Domains of 
Intelligence 
 Logical-mathematical 
 Linguistic 
 Spatial 
 Bodily-kinesthetic 
 Musical 
 Intrapersonal 
 Interpersonal 
 Naturalistic 
 Existential
Sternberg’s Triarchic 
Theory of Intelligence 
 Academic (Componential) 
 Creative (experiential) 
 Practical (contextual)
The World of School 
 Parental involvement 
 Family capital 
 Student perspectives 
 McLaren 
 Student state (298 minutes) 
 Street corner state (66) 
 Home state 
 Sanctity state
Cultural Influences 
 Hidden curriculum 
 What lessons do children learn that are 
not part of the stated curriculum?
Psychosocial Development
The Society of Children 
 A living laboratory for social skills 
 Popular-prosocial children 
 Popular-antisocial children 
 Withdrawn-rejected children 
 Aggressive-rejected children
Self-Concept 
 Where do the comparisons come from? 
http://www.bratz.com/ 
Industry vs. Inferiority
False Self-Training: 
Being a child but being held to 
external, adult standards; having 
developmental needs denied
Child Sexual Abuse 
 Sexual act with a child performed by an 
adult or an older child 
 Disregard for child’s developmental 
immaturity and inability to understand 
the sexual behavior (Steele)
Consequences of Abuse 
 Traumatic Sexualization 
 Betrayal 
 Powerlessness 
 Stigmatization
Family Tasks 
 Food, clothing, shelter 
 Encourage learning 
 Developing self-esteem 
 Nurturing friendships 
 Providing harmony/stability
Divorce’s Impact Depends on: 
 Degree of conflict prior to divorce 
 Amount of financial hardship 
 Actions of divorcing couple 
 Adjustment of custodial parent
Short Term Consequences 
(First Year) 
 Grieving over loss 
 Reduced standard of living 
 Adjusting to transitions 
 Relief from conflict
Long Term Negative 
Consequences 
 Greater anxiety about marriage 
 Unrealistically high expectations for a 
partner 
 Economic/Occupational impact (tied to 
financial hardship rather than divorce)
Positive Consequences: 
Beyond the Deficit Model 
 Most lead happy, well-adjusted lives 
 Better relationship with custodial parent 
 More communication with mothers 
 More democratic parenting 
 Freedom to escape negative role 
models 
 Greater emotional independence in sons
How to Take Care of Yourself 
During Divorce 
 Take care of your own mental health 
 Allow children to grieve 
 Try to have a conflict-free relationship 
with ex 
 Comfortable, healthy environment
Impact of Repartnering 
 Remarriage more difficult than divorce 
 Changes in parenting 
 Disagreement over roles
Impact of Repartnering 
 Impact on parental involvement 
 Greatest involvement when neither partner 
has remarried 
 Least involvement when father has 
remarried and mother has not
Impact of Repartnering 
 Dating concerns 
 Cohabitation and severed ties
Stepfamilies/Blended Families 
 As common today as in the 1700-1800s 
 From divorce rather than death 
 “Incomplete institution” (Cherlin) 
 Do children in stepfamilies have more 
difficulties than those in single-parent 
families?
Characteristics of Stepfamilies 
 More complex 
 Born of loss 
 Love not assumed 
 Unclear roles 
 Sexual attractions
Ten Commandments for 
Step parenting 
 Neutral territory 
 No preconceived roles 
 Set limits 
 Past loyalties 
 Neutral responses 
 No instant love
Developmental Stages of 
Stepfamilies 
 A 7 year process 
 Early stages 
 Fantasy, immersion, and awareness 
 Middle stages 
 Mobilization and action 
 Later stages 
 Contact and resolution

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Lifespan Psychology Module 6 Middle Childhood Powerpoint

  • 3. The Healthiest Time  Growth slows  Gain 5-7 pounds and 2 inches per year  Slim down  Muscle strength and lung capacity  Motor skills improve
  • 4. Children and Sports  Sports are best when parents stay home  College Sports Excesses Seep Into High School
  • 5. Childhood Obesity  16-33 percent American children obese  Doubled since 1980s  Orthopedic, self-esteem problems  Pediatric type II diabetes on the rise
  • 9. Concrete Operational Stage  Classification  Identity: 5 is always 5  Reversibility: 2+3=5 and 5-3=2  Reciprocity: 4x6=2x12
  • 10. Information Processing Theory  Sensory register  Working memory  Knowledge base  Processing speed improves  Metacognition: strategize
  • 11. Language Development  Vocabulary growth at 20 words per day  5th graders know about 40,000 words  New understanding of words  Grammar more easily learned
  • 12. Kohlberg’s Moral Development  Preconventional based on reward and punishment  Conventional based on what other people think  Postconventional based on the welfare of others rather than self
  • 13. Developmental Problems Consequences of labeling Self-fulfilling prophecy
  • 14. Autism Spectrum Disorders  Autism or “selfism”  Poor language skills  Sensitive to touch, sound, detail  Fear change and prefer repetition  Lack social awareness or social emotions  Asperger’s syndrome
  • 15. Learning Disability: “A measured discrepancy between expected learning and actual accomplishment in a particular academic area” (Berger, p. 282)
  • 16. Learning Difficulties  Specific to academic skills (not retardation)  Dyslexia (reading)  Dyscalcula (math)  Attention deficit disorder (attention)  Numerous causes
  • 17. Assessment of Intellectual Skills  Achievement tests are designed to measure what kids have learned  Aptitude tests are designed to measure potential to learn  IQ tests are a type of aptitude test
  • 18. Gardner’s Domains of Intelligence  Logical-mathematical  Linguistic  Spatial  Bodily-kinesthetic  Musical  Intrapersonal  Interpersonal  Naturalistic  Existential
  • 19. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence  Academic (Componential)  Creative (experiential)  Practical (contextual)
  • 20. The World of School  Parental involvement  Family capital  Student perspectives  McLaren  Student state (298 minutes)  Street corner state (66)  Home state  Sanctity state
  • 21. Cultural Influences  Hidden curriculum  What lessons do children learn that are not part of the stated curriculum?
  • 23. The Society of Children  A living laboratory for social skills  Popular-prosocial children  Popular-antisocial children  Withdrawn-rejected children  Aggressive-rejected children
  • 24. Self-Concept  Where do the comparisons come from? http://www.bratz.com/ Industry vs. Inferiority
  • 25. False Self-Training: Being a child but being held to external, adult standards; having developmental needs denied
  • 26. Child Sexual Abuse  Sexual act with a child performed by an adult or an older child  Disregard for child’s developmental immaturity and inability to understand the sexual behavior (Steele)
  • 27. Consequences of Abuse  Traumatic Sexualization  Betrayal  Powerlessness  Stigmatization
  • 28. Family Tasks  Food, clothing, shelter  Encourage learning  Developing self-esteem  Nurturing friendships  Providing harmony/stability
  • 29. Divorce’s Impact Depends on:  Degree of conflict prior to divorce  Amount of financial hardship  Actions of divorcing couple  Adjustment of custodial parent
  • 30. Short Term Consequences (First Year)  Grieving over loss  Reduced standard of living  Adjusting to transitions  Relief from conflict
  • 31. Long Term Negative Consequences  Greater anxiety about marriage  Unrealistically high expectations for a partner  Economic/Occupational impact (tied to financial hardship rather than divorce)
  • 32. Positive Consequences: Beyond the Deficit Model  Most lead happy, well-adjusted lives  Better relationship with custodial parent  More communication with mothers  More democratic parenting  Freedom to escape negative role models  Greater emotional independence in sons
  • 33. How to Take Care of Yourself During Divorce  Take care of your own mental health  Allow children to grieve  Try to have a conflict-free relationship with ex  Comfortable, healthy environment
  • 34. Impact of Repartnering  Remarriage more difficult than divorce  Changes in parenting  Disagreement over roles
  • 35. Impact of Repartnering  Impact on parental involvement  Greatest involvement when neither partner has remarried  Least involvement when father has remarried and mother has not
  • 36. Impact of Repartnering  Dating concerns  Cohabitation and severed ties
  • 37. Stepfamilies/Blended Families  As common today as in the 1700-1800s  From divorce rather than death  “Incomplete institution” (Cherlin)  Do children in stepfamilies have more difficulties than those in single-parent families?
  • 38. Characteristics of Stepfamilies  More complex  Born of loss  Love not assumed  Unclear roles  Sexual attractions
  • 39. Ten Commandments for Step parenting  Neutral territory  No preconceived roles  Set limits  Past loyalties  Neutral responses  No instant love
  • 40. Developmental Stages of Stepfamilies  A 7 year process  Early stages  Fantasy, immersion, and awareness  Middle stages  Mobilization and action  Later stages  Contact and resolution