High school brochure


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High school brochure

  1. 1.    High SchoolDevelopmentNortheast Leadership Academy Cohort IIHugh Scott . Zach Marks . Kelly Anne Mudd . Erin Robbins
  2. 2.        2  As teens transition from mid to late adolescence, their cognitiveabilities also mature. Cognitive abilities in teens shift from onlythinking on a concrete level to a more abstract understandingof what could be possible.High school aged adolescents develop strong critical thinkingskills and are able to problem solve better than younger peers.The increased problem solving of the adolescent brain, new andcontinued questioning of personal identity, along with socialpressure all lead to teens changing interests and hobbies suchas fashion, music, jobs, religion, political issues, and socialcauses.These changes and increased exposure allow them to thinkmore critically in the classroom, and also plan for the future,balance many activities, appreciate other’s opinions, and betterunderstand the effects of their decisions.While late adolescents are better able to make decisions andcontrol their actions than children, they are not fully equippedwith the cognitive tools to do so until early adulthood. There aretwo main components of the brain responsible for judgment andimpulse control—the limbic system and prefrontal lobe.The limbic system develops first, and deals mostly with emotions;.The prefrontal cortex develops later, and aids in judgment anddecision-making. The delayed development of the prefrontalcortex contributes to the likelihood that adolescences will stillreact impulsively by partaking in reward- seeking, novelty, risk-taking, and sensation-seeking behaviors without soundjudgment.  CognitiveDevelopmentStudents’ cognitive skills are expanding toinclude deductive and systematicreasoning that allow for the processing ofmultiple variables and scientific inquiry.Metacognitive skills and knowledgeimprove during adolescences as studentsbecome more focused and in control oftheir own thoughts.VocabularyTerms to know whenworking with HighSchool Students  Adolescent Egocentrism:Assumption that all share one’sthoughts, feelings, concerns;teens become focused on owntheir ideas.Executive Functioning: Theneuropsychological skills that weneed to plan, focus andremember.Egocentricity: The assumptionthat others experience the worldthe way you do.Person-Environment Fit Theory:Theory that development andlearning are greatest when theneeds and characteristics of thelearner fit the characteristics ofthe learning environment.Stereotype Threat: Extraemotional and cognitive burdenthat your performance is a givensituation might confirm astereotype others may haveabout you.
  3. 3. jhhjghgh        3  PubertyBy high school adolescence, the majority of males and femaleshas already entered into puberty, and has begun to seechanges in their physical appearance.By the end of puberty, both girls and boys have an adultshape. Characteristics marking maturation for girls aredeveloped breasts and hips. For boys, an adult shape ismarked by a developed penis and broadened shoulders. Bothmales and females will have lower, more adult voices as well asnearly full adult height and shoe size. While both boys and girlsgradually grow taller until age 25, most females reach theiradult height by 15 or 16 years old; boys will not reach their adultheight until approximately 19 years old. The rate of maturationmay lead to physical, social, and emotional effects on teens.A national trend shows that puberty is happening earlier in thelives of young males and females – a secular trend. The causesof this secular trend are not conclusive, but research suggests anumber of factors including healthcare, nutrition, or increasedtoxins in the environment.Nutrition and SleepDuring high school adolescence, teens begin to developpatterns in diet, physical activity, lifestyle and exercise. Many ofthe patterns adopted during adolescences can impact thehabits well into adulthood as well.The increased physical growth during middle and lateadolescence requires additional energy, protein, vitamins andminerals. However, many teens make poor nutritional choices,contrary to their body’s needs during puberty. These poorchoices can be contributed to the heightened focus on bodyimage and physical appearances. Teens are unable to weighthe cause, effects and risks of such choices, and thus eatingdisorders can be a problem fro both boys and girls duringpuberty – but often are undetected in males.Teens require at least 9 hours of sleep per night, but many oftheir biological clocks are not set as adults or young children.This causes many adolescents to be sleep deprived as theystruggle to fall asleep during conventional nighttime hours.Many teens struggle to fall asleep before midnight.From  70  –  90%  of  teens  in  the  United  States  reported  engaging  in  sexual  intercourse  by  the  age  of  18.    Early  sexual  activity  can  impact  behavior,  aggression  and  depression  during  adolescence.    It  can  also  be  linked  to  students  having  fewer  positive  connections  with  peers,  and  a  negative  outlook  on  school.  There  are  two  widely  accepted  approaches  to  sex  education  in  the  United  Stated:  Abstinence  Only  (AO)  and  Comprehensive  Sex  Education  (CSE).    Abstinence  Only  curriculums  teach  that  sex  should  always  be  delayed  until  marriage.    Most  research  shows  that  AO  is  not  effective  in  preventing  sexual  activity,  but  it  can  contribute  to  delayed  first  experiences.  Comprehensive  Sex  Education  programs  include  information  about  birth  control,  condoms  and  STI  prevention.        SexualDevelopmentPhysical DevelopmentIn High School Adolescence
  4. 4.        4  Physical  Activity    Boys  do  tend  to  be  more  active  than  girls  at  most  every  developmental  age;  however,  there  is  little  biological  difference  between  males  and  females  in  terms  of  physical  activity  in  late  adolescence.    The  U.S.  Department  of  Health  does  recommend  that  teens  engage  in  at  least  60  minutes  of  daily  physical  activity.    Unfortunately,  approximately  only  64%  of  females  and  73%  of  males  in  the  9th  grade  are  getting  enough  daily  exercise.    These  percentages  continue  to  drop  throughout  high  school.    Threats  to  Health  &  Well-­‐‑Being  Teenagers  can  be  impulsive  and  lack  self-­‐‑control,  especially  when  interacting  with  peers  and  within  their  social  groups.  Adolescents  also  feel  overly  optimistic  and  invulnerable.  These  characteristics  can  often  lead  to  teens  taking  part  in  tobacco  use,  drug  and  alcohol  abuse,  and  reckless  driving.    Over  the  last  20  years,  such  risky  behaviors  have  led  to  an  increase  mortality  rates  for  teens.    Specifically  for  motor  vehicle  and  alcohol-­‐‑related  crashes.  Motor  vehicle  crashes  of  all  types  (involving  and  not  involving  alcohol)  are  most  often  the  leading  cause  of  death  amount  American  teenagers  each  year.  It  can  be  assumed  that  the  increased  use  of  technology,  such  as  cell  phones  and  text  messages,  have  contributed  to  this  statistic.    Approximately  27%  of  10th  graders  report  having  used  an  illicit  drug  in  the  last  year.  This  number  increases  throughout  high  school.    Alcohol  is  the  most  widely  used  drug  by  teenagers,  followed  my  marijuana.    Students  who  have  a  negative  connection  with  school  and  poor  relationships  with  their  teachers  are  more  likely  to  partake  in  such  risky  behaviors.  As  mentioned  previously,  early  sexual  activity  can  influence  additional  risky  behaviors  such  as  tobacco,  drug  and  alcohol  use.  Sexual  activity  can  also  lead  to  HIV/AIDS.    Across  the  globe,  half  of  the  new  HIV  infections  are  among  adolescents.    VocabularyBody  Image:  An  individual’s  dynamic  perception  of  his  or  her  body  –  how  it  looks,  feels  and  moves.    Secular  Trends:  The  trend  for  menarche  and  other  events  in  puberty  to  be  experienced  earlier  with  each  new  generation.    Primary  Sex  Characteristics:  Physical  characteristics  directly  involved  with  reproduction    Secondary  Sex  Characteristics:  Physical  characteristics  that  are  not  needed  for  reproduction  but  are  markers  for  mature  Continued:  Physical  Development  in  H.S.  Adolescence  
  5. 5. jhhjghgh        5  There are three cognitive aspects that support forming andcommunicating a life story:• The ability to use language and memory to establisha coherent description of the teens identify.• The metacognitive ability to reflect on situations andthen ask such questions as, “Why did I do that?” or“Why did that happen?”• An understanding that, in addition to self, othershave thoughts, feelings, and personal histories aswell.During high school, older adolescents have the opportunityto develop personal narratives through creatingautobiographies, participating in job/college interviews,keeping diaries or journals, and introducing themselves tonew friends or possible dates.Teens connect with each other through a language oftheir own. This teen specific language may include specialvocabulary and varied pronunciations that may changedepending on time, place or situation. Thiscommunication also varies based on cultural influence,generational trends, and technology.  Language &LiteracyA main aspect of adolescent languageand literacy is the development of thepersonal life story. Adolescents begin tosee themselves as a consistent figureacross different situations and multipletime spans. This developmentcontributes to personal identify.Technologyand theLanguage of Leadership  Based on a 2006 digitalcommunity study (Cassell,Huffaker, Tversky, & Ferriman),young leaders did not usetraditional language of adultleaders when describingglobal issues online.Traditional adult leaders usepowerful vocabulary andcontribute many of their ownthoughts and ideas. Incontrast, young leaders focuson the group’s goals and referto group more often thenthemselves.The study suggest that thelanguage of young leadersmay reflect communityengagement when discussedwithin the online and digitalforum.      
  6. 6.        6  Much  like  their  younger  counterparts,  older  adolescents  belong  to  peer  groups  that  identify  with  a  specific  set  of  values  or  common  set  of  behaviors.  These  groups  are  often  guided  by  a  set  of  rules  that  are  understood  by  all  members  of  the  group.  Rules  might  include  the  following:  how  to  dress,  talk,  style  hair,  or  interact  with  others.  Romantic  relationships  provide  older  adolescents  with  an  increased  feeling  of  self-­‐‑esteem  and  sense  of  self-­‐‑worth.    Teens  who  engage  in  romantic  relationships  experience  more  conflict  and  more  severe  mood  swings  than  their  non-­‐‑dating  peers.  This  conflict  may  be  a  result  of  how  males  and  females  view  the  need  for  dating.    Male  teens  most  often  date  for  sexual  reasons.    Female  teens  are  most  often  looking  for  a  close  and  personal  relationship.  Girls  are  also  often  uncertain  of  sexual  activity.    Peer  Culture:    The  social  values  and  norms  for  behavior  that  different  groups  of  adolescents  share.    Peer  Pressure:  The  influence  peers  have  on  each  other’s  attitudes  and  behaviors.    Peer  Groups:  Social  groups  formed  on  the  basis  of  shared  interest  and  values;  they  are  typically  composed  of  children  of  the  same  age,  sex,  race/ethnicity,  as  well  as  other  commonalties.      Selection:    The  process  by  which  adolescents  choose  friends  and  peer  groups.    Deviancy  Training:    Learning  that  occurs  in  peer  groups  when  members  talk  favorably  about  breaking  rules  and  engaging  in  delinquent  behaviors.      VocabularyPeer RelationshipsMoral Development
  7. 7. jhhjghgh        7    Teens can often describe themselves in conflicting ways asa result of their setting, situation or circumstance. Thesecontradictions can lead to teens asking themselves, “Whois the real me?” Adolescents are very concerned with howothers perceive them, and rely on the opinions of others totry and determine the “real me”. Teens will listen to theopinions from peer groups and cliques to determine whichare the best attributes to adopt. However, as groups andcliques shift, their opinions of popular or favorableattributes also change.Older adolescents can begin to recognize the differencebetween their “real” self and the identity they develop inresponse to group/clique opinions. As teens begin torecognize this difference they begin to ask themselves,“How do I like myself?” If teens feel there is a largediscrepancy between their true identity and their socialidentify, they can develop a negative self-esteem andpersonal image.Throughout high school, as adolescents become older,many teens become less concerned about the opinions ofgroups and cliques. During this time, teens become lessconcerned with peer pressure and more concerned withthe reality of their future.  Self IdentityDevelopmentAdolescents will try out many different rolesand most will begin to emerge with a strongsense of self throughout their tenure in highschool. This journey may be more difficult forsome, but identity is viewed as a gradual,life-long process.VocabularyTerms to know whenworking with HighSchool Students  Identity Achievement: The resultof healthy exploration anddecision-making regardingidentities involved in occupations,political and religious afflictionsand relationships.Identity Foreclosure: Occurswhen adolescents makecommitments without exploringoptions.Identity Diffusion: A state in whichadolescents re not exploringidentity alternatives or makingcommitments.Gender Intensification:Adolescents’ decline in flexibility,which reflects their enhancedself-consciousness and increasedawareness of social norms andexpectations concerningmasculinity and femininity.