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G & D Ch. 10


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Socioemotional Development in Adolescence

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G & D Ch. 10

  1. 1. CHAPTER 10 Socioemotional Development in Adolescence
  2. 2. Social & Personality Development <ul><li>Self-Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Identity is the important issue </li></ul><ul><li>Able to distinguish between one’s self and others & take others’ views into account </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing one’s self & liking one’s self are two different things </li></ul><ul><li>Liking one’s self is self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Liking one’s self involves seeing one’s self with all your faults and accepting it </li></ul>
  3. 3. Identity Formation <ul><li>Identity v. Identity Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Stage where adolescents seek to find what makes them unique & distinct </li></ul><ul><li>They adopt different roles </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion comes by failing to organize around a central, unified core identity </li></ul><ul><li>A good, stable sense of identity is the foundation for future development & choices, esp. marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Social Pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Career or occupation </li></ul><ul><li>The future us now up to them </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on friends & peers for information </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Moratorium </li></ul><ul><li>Period when adolescents take time off from coming adult responsibilities to explore different roles & possibilities </li></ul>
  4. 4. Marcia’s Identity Development <ul><li>Identity Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Gone through a period of crisis & developed relatively firm commitments </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Foreclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Never gone through an identity crisis but has become committed to certain goals </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Moratorium </li></ul><ul><li>Currently going through an identity crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Never had a crisis, is not in one now, & has not formed or established goals </li></ul>
  5. 5. Identity, Race, & Ethnicity <ul><li>Cultural Assimilation Model </li></ul><ul><li>Individual cultural identities should be assimilated into a unified culture </li></ul><ul><li>Pluralistic Society Model </li></ul><ul><li>Society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their individual features </li></ul><ul><li>Bicultural Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Draw on the cultural identity while integrating into the dominant culture </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Formation & Racial & Ethnic Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Identity formation is more difficult with racial & ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>There are contradictory social values </li></ul><ul><li>A society should be color-blind but opportunities differ for races & ethnic groups </li></ul>
  6. 6. Relationships <ul><li>Changing Family Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking autonomy: control over one’s life </li></ul><ul><li>Parents become frustrated over the increasing autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy slowly grows during adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Changes the relationship with the parents </li></ul><ul><li>The degree of autonomy varies with the number of children & the culture </li></ul>
  7. 7. Family Changes <ul><li>Generation Gap </li></ul><ul><li>The divide between parents & children in attitudes, values, aspirations, & worldview </li></ul><ul><li>The actual “gap” is very narrow </li></ul><ul><li>On social, political, & religious issues parents & adolescents tend to agree </li></ul><ul><li>Most adolescents & their parents get along quite well </li></ul><ul><li>There’s a deep love, affection, & respect for parents </li></ul><ul><li>Most relationships are more positive than negative </li></ul>
  8. 8. Relations with Peers <ul><li>Social Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing & evaluating opinions, abilities, & physical changes of others </li></ul><ul><li>Reference Group </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of people with whom you compare yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Clique </li></ul><ul><li>Group of from 2 – 12 whose members have frequent social interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Crowd </li></ul><ul><li>Larger than a clique made up of those who share particular characteristics but who may not interact with each other </li></ul>
  9. 9. Popularity <ul><li>Controversial Adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Those liked by some peers & disliked by others </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected Adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Those actively disliked & whose peers may react to them in an obviously negative manner </li></ul><ul><li>Neglected Adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Those receiving relatively little attention from peers in either positive or negative interactions </li></ul>
  10. 10. Peer Relations <ul><li>Peer Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of one’s peers to conform to their behavior & attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents are highly susceptible to the influence of peers </li></ul><ul><li>What to wear, who do date, movies to see, what group to belong to </li></ul><ul><li>Conformity to peers due to pressure to conform & seek an identity </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately, conform less to peers & parents & develop their own autonomy </li></ul>
  11. 11. Teen Dating <ul><li>Liking & Loving </li></ul><ul><li>By 6 th grade “liking” a special person develops </li></ul><ul><li>By 10 th grade ½ of adolescents have had a romantic relationship that lasted 2 months or longer </li></ul><ul><li>Gays & Lesbians </li></ul><ul><li>Many date the opposite sex </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural Contexts & Dating </li></ul><ul><li>Values, religious beliefs, & tradition are strong influences </li></ul>
  12. 12. Rites of Passage <ul><li>Tribal Initiation Rites </li></ul><ul><li>In many native cultures when a boy or girl enters adolescence, they must undergo an initiation into the tribe. At this time, they assume the responsibilities of an adult. </li></ul><ul><li>What remnants of adolescent initiation rites do we have in our modern society? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Delinquency <ul><li>Undersocialized Delinquents </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents raised with little discipline or with harsh, uncaring parental supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Not socialized appropriately & not taught standards of conduct to regulate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Socialized Delinquents </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents who know & subscribe to the norms of society & who are fairly normal psychologically </li></ul><ul><li>Adhere to social norms </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>16% of all arrests for serious crimes involve a person under 18 years </li></ul><ul><li>Undersocialized delinquents most likely to be diagnosed with attention-deficit disorder as a child & seen as less intelligent </li></ul><ul><li>May also have psychological disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Socialized delinquents are fairly normal psychologically </li></ul><ul><li>Most engage in petty crimes & stop at adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Very influenced by peers & crimes occur in groups </li></ul>
  14. 14. Depression <ul><li>Who is Depressed? </li></ul><ul><li>25% report feeling sad or hopeless for 2 or more weeks in a row so they stop doing normal activities </li></ul><ul><li>Girls experience depression more often than boys </li></ul><ul><li>Girls’ coping skills different than boys’ </li></ul><ul><li>Girls are more apt to turn inward, boys turning outward </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans have higher rates of depression than Whites </li></ul><ul><li>Not supported by studies </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the environment & social factors related to much depression </li></ul>
  15. 15. Leading Causes of Death: 15 to 24 Year Olds <ul><li>Top 5 </li></ul><ul><li>1. Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>2. AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>4. Heart Disease </li></ul><ul><li>5. Suicide </li></ul>
  16. 16. Suicide <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd major cause of death among 15 – 24 age group </li></ul><ul><li>12.2 suicides per 100,000 adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Girls attempt; boys complete </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in suicides in the last 30 years </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: Depression is a major cause (social & family problems, perfectionism, anxiety over the future, & alcohol & drug abuse </li></ul>