Western Civilization - Lecture 01

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Ancient Near East …

Ancient Near East
Ancient Israel
The Greeks and Romans

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  • 1. Introduction to Western Civilization
    • IS-VNU
    • Mr. Mike Beard
    • Session 1
    • Foundations of Western Civilization – Part 1
  • 2. Introduction to Western Civilization
    • Foundations of Western Civilization
      • The Ancient Near East
      • Ancient Israel and Judaism
      • The Greeks and Romans
  • 3. The Ancient Near East
  • 4. The Ancient Near East The Fertile Crescent
  • 5. The Ancient Near East Mesopotamia
    • Greek meaning: “The Land Between 2 Rivers”
      • area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
    • Located in Modern-day Iraq and Turkey
    • Early Mesopotamian Cultures
      • Sumer
      • Akkad
      • Babylon
      • Assyria
  • 6. The Ancient Near East The Mediterranean Sea
    • Trade
    • Exchange of ideas, art and culture
  • 7. The Ancient Near East Göbekli Tepe
    • Discovered in 1994
    • Oldest known man-made structure
    • 10,000 B.C.
    • Ancient Temple
    • Changes current theories about civilization
  • 8. The Ancient Near East Göbekli Tepe
    • During the time of hunter-gatherers
    • Previous view: settlements then religion
    • New view: religion then settlements
  • 9. The Ancient Near East Sumerian Writing
    • Cuneiform: 1st Western Writing System
    • About 3300 B.C.E.
    • Written on clay tablets using a reed stylus
  • 10. The Ancient Near East Babylonian Written Law
    • Hammurabi - 6 th King of Babylon
    • First Written Code of Law
  • 11. The Ancient Near East Mesopotamian Architecture
    • Ziggurat
      • Ancient Temple complex
      • Built by Sumerians, Babylonians, Elamites, Akkadians, and Assyrians
  • 12. The Ancient Near East Mesopotamian Art
    • Carved Stone
    • Bronze
  • 13. The Ancient Near East Literature & Mythology
    • Creation Myths
    • Enûma Eliš
    • > Creation was the result of a battle between Marduk and Tiamat
    • > Humans created to serve the gods
  • 14. The Ancient Near East Literature & Mythology
    • The Epic of Gilgamesh
      • Story of a king who tried to find immortality
      • Flood account
    Epic of Gilgamesh - Tablet 11
  • 15. The Ancient Near East Sumerian Writing and Stories Video
  • 16. Ancient Israel and Judaism
    • Patriarch of Israel is Abraham
    • Abraham promised to become a Great Nation
    • Abraham's son Isaac receives this promise as well
    Abraham and the Angels, Rembrandt 1630
  • 17. Ancient Israel and Judaism
    • Isaac has a son – Jacob
    • Jacob's name is changed to Israel after he wrestles with God
    • Jacob's 12 sons form the 12 Tribes of Israel
    Jacob Wrestling with the Angel, Eugène Delacroix (1861)
  • 18. Ancient Israel and Judaism
    • Israel spends 400 years in Egypt as Slaves
  • 19. Ancient Israel and Judaism
    • Moses called to free Israel from Egypt
    • After 10 Plagues Pharaoh releases Israel
    • Israel crosses the Red Sea and wanders for 40 years
    Moses And The Burning Bush Byzantine Mosaic Catherine's Monastery
  • 20. Ancient Israel and Judaism
    • Under Joshua's leadership, Israel conquers Canaan
    • After Joshua, Israel is ruled by Judges
    • Saul becomes the 1 st king of Israel
    • David become king
    • Solomon builds the Temple in Jerusalem
  • 21. Ancient Israel and Judaism Literature – The Torah
    • Moses Traditionally ascribed to be the Author
    • First 5 Books of the Jewish Bible / Christian Old Testament
    • Genres include: Narrative History, Law, Poetry
    Moses , Michelangelo, 1513-1515
  • 22. Ancient Israel and Judaism The Torah – Creation Video of Genesis 1
  • 23. Ancient Israel and Judaism The Torah – The Exodus Video of Exodus Story
  • 24. Ancient Greece
    • Architecture
    • Stone Columns
    Doric Ionic Corinthian The Parthenon in Athens
  • 25. Ancient Greece Art: Statues
    • Realistic
    • Mythological subjects
    Laocoon and His Sons
  • 26. Ancient Greece Art: Statues
    • Religious
    • Statues of the gods used in temples
    Zeus or Poseidon
  • 27. Ancient Greece Art: Statues
    • Statues to celebrate important events like the Olympics
    Discus Thrower
  • 28. Ancient Greece Art: Statues
    • Statues to honor important people
    Homer Socrates
  • 29. Ancient Greece Literature: Homer Epic Poem Set in the Trojan War Tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles. The Iliad
  • 30. Ancient Greece Literature: Homer Epic poem Greek hero Odysseus' long journey home following the fall of Troy. It takes Odysseus ten years to reach Ithaca after the ten-year Trojan War. The Odyssey
  • 31. Ancient Greece Drama
    • Drama or the Theatre grew out of ritual practices celebrating the god Dionysos
    • Athens is believed to be the birthplace of the theatre
    • 600 BC, formal lyrics for the dithyramb were written.
    • Thespis of Attica added an actor who interacted with the chorus
  • 32. Ancient Greece Drama: Tragedy
    • Not just a sad ending
    • Meant to teach a moral lesson
    • Oedipus Rex by Sophocles
  • 33. Ancient Greece Drama: Comedy
    • Characters are exaggerated stereotypes
    • Laughable people - some kind of blunder or ugliness which does not cause pain or disaster
    • Aristophanes
  • 34. Ancient Greece Philosophy
  • 35. Ancient Greece Philosophy The Great Western Philosophers: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle Socrates Aristotle Plato
  • 36. Ancient Greece Philosophy Socrates
    • The Socratic Method
      • Teaching through a series of questions
    • Sentenced to death for Atheism and corrupting the youth of Athens
    The Death of Socrates , Jaques-Louis David (1787)
  • 37. Ancient Greece Philosophy Plato
    • Student of Socrates
    • Philosophical Dialogues
    • Founded The Academy in Athens
    • Believe that Reality exists in the realm of Ideas or Forms
  • 38. Ancient Greece Philosophy Plato's Cave
  • 39. Ancient Greece Philosophy Aristotle
    • Student of Plato
    • Multiple Disciplines
    • Practical Ethics – Better to do good than know good
    • Rejected Plato's theory of forms
    • Developed the 1 st formalized system of logic
  • 40. Ancient Greece Politics Alexander the Great
    • Student of Aristotle
    • Implemented Aristotle's Political Ideas
    • Conquered Persian Empire
    • After removing Persians from power in Egypt, he order the city of Alexandria to be built in Egypt.
    • Spread Greek culture around ANE
  • 41. The Romans
    • The Legend of Romulus and Remus
    Video
  • 42. The Romans Architecture
  • 43. The Romans Architecture
  • 44. The Romans Architecture
  • 45. The Romans Architecture: Apartments
  • 46. The Romans Architecture
  • 47. The Romans Architecture
  • 48. The Romans Architecture
  • 49. The Romans Architecture
  • 50. The Romans Architecture
  • 51. The Romans Architecture
  • 52. The Romans Architecture
  • 53. The Romans Engineering: Arches and Aqueducts
  • 54. The Romans Engineering: Concrete and Paved Roads
  • 55. The Romans Representative Government