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Chapter 2 3 greekart


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Chapter 2 3 greekart

  1. 1.
  2. 2. By contrast with the Minoans, the Mycenaeans were a militant and aggressive people . This maritime civilization flourished when it seems to have been absorbed or destroyed by the Mycenaeans. Mycenaean Civilization (ca. 1600-1200 B.C.E) Aegean Civilization (Minoans) (ca. 3000-1200 B.C.E.)
  3. 3. <ul><li>A minotaur – a monstrous half-man, half –bull hybrid born of the union on Minos’ queen and a sacred white bull. </li></ul><ul><li>Theseus, Ariadne </li></ul>What is a Myth?
  4. 4. <ul><li>Suggest the persistence of ancient fertility cults honoring gods associated with procreation. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Mycenae Lion Gate c. 1350-1200 B.C.E., constructed heavily fortified citadels and walls so Massive that later generations thought they had been built by a mythical race of giants known as the Cycops. I
  6. 7.
  7. 8. The &quot;Agamemnon&quot; Mask from Tomb V at Mycenae 16c. B.C.E.
  8. 9. The Heroic Age (ca. 1200-750 B.C.E) <ul><li>A more powerful, iron-bearing tribes of Dorians, a Greek-speaking people from the north, destroyed Mycenaean civilization. </li></ul>
  9. 10. It took three hundred years before they were written down. The Iliad and Odyssey became the “ national” poems of ancient Greece. Achilles bandages the arm of his friend Patroclus. (Homer gets credit) The adventures of the Mycenaeans and the Trojan War Iliad and Odyssey
  10. 11. Euphronios and Euxitheos, Death of Sarpedon , ca. 515 B. C. E. Greek Gods were envisioned as a family of immortals who intervened in the lives of human beings.
  11. 13. <ul><li>The Greek League was the alliance of the Greek city-states led by Athens, Corinth, and Sparta. </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>The Persian War played out </li></ul><ul><li>in three key battles after Marathon. </li></ul><ul><li>They were: </li></ul><ul><li>Thermopylae </li></ul><ul><li>Salamis </li></ul><ul><li>Plataea </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>The victory for the Greeks set their tone of superiority in the world, especially the Athenians. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>The Greek Golden Age was </li></ul><ul><li>one of the most creative in the </li></ul><ul><li>history of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Pericles was the leading proponent of Athenian democracy who dominated the Board of Ten generals for more than thirty years. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Epidarus Greek Drama <ul><li>Twice annually </li></ul><ul><li>Greek drama was a form of play that addressed the dynamic relationship between the individual, the community, and the gods. </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks were the first masters in the art of drama. </li></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><ul><li>Sophocles’ Antigone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The individual and the community </li></ul></ul>.
  17. 20. <ul><li>pottery depicting drama </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>Great Greek lyrists </li></ul><ul><li>One of a few known female poets of the ancient world. </li></ul><ul><li>Settled on The island of Lesbos, where she led a group of young women dedicated to the cult of Aphrodite. </li></ul>
  19. 23. He was sentenced to death by drinking hemlock, a poisonous herb. Jacques-Louis David’s , The Death of Socrates, 1787
  20. 24. He founded the first school of philosophy, the Academy. He wrote some two dozen treaties most of which were cast in the dialogue of Socrates.
  21. 26. Plato’s student from Macedonian, whose contributions rivaled his teacher. Aristotle was the greatest scientist of the ancient world. He is considered the father of the natural sciences
  22. 27. <ul><li>Athenian high society </li></ul><ul><li>laws that banned women from studying. </li></ul><ul><li>she cut her hair and dressed like a man </li></ul><ul><li>attended classes of famous physician Herophilus. </li></ul>
  23. 28. <ul><li>The Analects is the original &quot;Confucius says:&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The Analects are required reading for Chinese school children. </li></ul><ul><li>The Analects is a small but transcendental work put together by the disciples of Confucius. </li></ul>
  24. 29. Myron Discobolus ca. 450 B.C.E. The Olympic Games ( 776 B.C.E .) <ul><li>All city-states of Greece participated </li></ul><ul><li>at Olympia </li></ul><ul><li>Honor Greek Gods </li></ul><ul><li>Midsummer every four years </li></ul><ul><li>Winners received garlands of </li></ul><ul><li>wild olive, or laurel leaves, olive oil </li></ul><ul><li>and the acclaim of Greek painters and poets </li></ul>
  25. 30. <ul><li>Where did the name Marathon </li></ul><ul><li>come from? </li></ul>
  26. 31. Greek Painting Archaic period <ul><li>Geometric painting </li></ul><ul><li>(ca. 1000-700 B.C.E.) </li></ul><ul><li>Flat, angular figures and complex patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Figures painted in black or brown </li></ul>Funerary Krater ca. 750 B.C.E., terra-cotta
  27. 32. Niobid Krater Greek Painting Classical period <ul><li>480-323 B.C.E </li></ul><ul><li>Artist replace the black-figured style with one in which the human body was left the color of the clay and the ground was painted black </li></ul>
  28. 33. Andokides Painter
  29. 34. Classical: Head of Blond Youth Archaic: 700 - 480 B.C.E. Classical: 480 - 323 B.C.E. Hellenistic: 323 - 30 B.C.E
  30. 35. Archaic: Kouros c. 650 B.C.E. The Archaic Period (700 B.C.E. - 480 B.C.E .) <ul><li>Egyptian and </li></ul><ul><li>Mesopotamian influence </li></ul><ul><li>Freestanding, rigid </li></ul><ul><li>and block like </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetual homage </li></ul><ul><li>to the gods </li></ul><ul><li>Kouros – male youth </li></ul><ul><li>Kore – female youth </li></ul>
  31. 36. Archaic Period Influence: Ancient Egypt c. 2600 B.C.E.
  32. 37. Archaic Period Influence:Mesopotamia c. 2700 B.C.E.
  33. 38. Archaic: Kore & Kouros
  34. 39. Archaic: Kouros
  35. 40. Archaic: Kore from Acropolis and Painted Kore
  36. 41. Archaic: Kore
  37. 43. Early Classical Kritios Boy , c. 480 B.C.E. and Blond Boy , c. 480 B.C.E.
  38. 44. Classical: Polycleitus, Doryphorus (spear-bearer) The Classical Period (480 B.C.E. - 323 B.C.E.) <ul><li>More natural positioning </li></ul><ul><li>opposition that is natural and graceful </li></ul><ul><li>Doryphorus is considered the canon of ideal proportions. </li></ul>
  39. 45. Praxiteles – Aphrodite of Knidos ac. 350 B.C.E. (Roman Copy) <ul><li>Established a model for the ideal female nude. </li></ul><ul><li>Regarded by the Romans as the finest statue in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think? </li></ul>
  40. 47. Classical: Zeus 440 B.C.E.
  41. 49. Phidias Man with Helmet
  42. 50. Parthenon replica - Nashville Greek Architecture: The Parthenon (448 to 432 B.C.E.) <ul><li>Landmark architectural achievement </li></ul><ul><li>of Golden Age Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Temple dedicated to Athena (the goddess of war and of wisdom, and the patron of the arts and crafts. </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by Pericles </li></ul>
  43. 51. Parthenon
  44. 52. Pheidas’ Athena Parthenos 2002 – Nashville Replica Pheidas’ Athena Parthenos
  45. 53. Sculpture of the Parthenon <ul><li>Phidias and his members </li></ul><ul><li>of his workshop </li></ul><ul><li>448 and 432 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Homage to the patron </li></ul><ul><li>deity of Athens: Athena </li></ul>
  46. 56. Greek influence
  47. 57. Ionic
  48. 58. Doric
  49. 59. Corinthian
  50. 60. Doric: Temple of Zeus at Olympia Architecture
  51. 61. Pheidas Zeus 5 th c. BC
  52. 62. Lincoln Memorial Greek influence
  53. 63. Lincoln Statue
  54. 64. The Hellenistic Age (323-30 B.C.E.) <ul><li>Philip of Macedonia defeated the Greeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinated 2 years later, his 20 yr old son Alexander-the-Great assumed the throne. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a student of Aristotle. </li></ul>
  55. 65. Alexander was a military genius, possibly the greatest warrior of all time.
  56. 66. Belvedere Apollo (Roman copy) Vatican Museum- late fourth century B.C.E. Hellenistic Art <ul><li>Notable for its sensuous male/female </li></ul><ul><li>nudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo Belvedere, A landmark example of the new sensuousness. </li></ul>
  57. 67. Laocoon and his sons c. 175-150 B.C.E. Vatican Museum
  58. 68. Hellenistic: Venus of Melos (Milo) c. 100 B.C.E.
  59. 69. Empire: The Power and Glory of Rome (ca.500 B.C.E.-500 C.E.) <ul><li>The word “Empire” derives from the Latin imperium, the absolute authority held by the rulers of ancient Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>By sheer military force, Rome’s rulers created the West’s largest and long-lasting </li></ul><ul><li>empire. </li></ul>
  60. 72. Julius Caesar <ul><li>An army commander who in 46 B.C.E. Triumphantly entered the city of Rome and established a dictatorship. </li></ul><ul><li>Veni, vidi, vici </li></ul><ul><li>(“I came, I saw, I conquered”) </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinated by Brutus </li></ul>
  61. 73. <ul><li>Octavian (Augustus) </li></ul><ul><li>A struggle of power with Mark Anthony and Egyptian Queen Cleopatra. </li></ul><ul><li>Octavian gained approval of the Senate to rule for life. </li></ul>
  62. 74. Epic Poetry <ul><li>Rome enjoyed a Golden Age of Latin literature whose most notable representative was Virgil (70-19 B.C.E.) </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote the Aeneid a </li></ul><ul><li>semi legendary epic that </li></ul><ul><li>immortalized Rome's destiny </li></ul><ul><li>as world ruler . </li></ul>
  63. 75. <ul><li>On Duty (44b.c.e) essay evaluates the benefits of diplomacy versus war </li></ul><ul><li>Served Rome as consul, statesman and orator </li></ul>
  64. 76. Roman Architecture <ul><li>Roman Engineers built 50 thousand miles of paved roads. </li></ul><ul><li>Superb Engineers, they employed the structural advantages of the arch. </li></ul>Pont du Gard, near Nimes, France, ca. 20-10 b.c.e. - 25 mile long aqueduct that brought fresh water to the city. Built of 6-ton stones and assembled without mortar, the bottom row supporting a bridge and the top water ran by gravity.
  65. 78. Colosseum (70-82 B.C.E.) <ul><li>Covered 6 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodated 50 thousand </li></ul><ul><li>Spectators </li></ul><ul><li>Chariot races, mock sea </li></ul><ul><li>battles, gladiatorial contests, </li></ul><ul><li>and a variety of brutal </li></ul><ul><li>blood sports. </li></ul>
  66. 79. Romans innovated the use of cement , which made large-scale architectural constructions much cheaper to build.
  67. 80. The Pantheon Ca. 118-125B.C.E. <ul><li>Dedicated to the seven planetary deities. </li></ul><ul><li>Pantheon boasts a 19 foot-thick rotunda that is capped by a solid dome consisting of 5000 tons of concrete. </li></ul><ul><li>The interior of the dome, is pierced by a 30 ft wide oculus , or “eye,” that admits light and air. </li></ul>
  68. 81. Roman Influence
  69. 82. Trajan’s Victory Column Rome (113 C.E.) <ul><li>100 ft tall marble column erected by Emperor Trajan. </li></ul><ul><li>To celebrate his victory over the Dacians. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes 2500 figures </li></ul>
  70. 86. Roman Painting and Mosaic Mosaic portrait of a women, pompeii, 1 st cen C.E. <ul><li>Pompeii and Herculaneum remain the showcases of Roman suburban life. </li></ul><ul><li>Both cities were destroyed by volcanic eruption from Mt. Vesuvius. </li></ul>
  71. 87. Pompeii
  72. 90. What caused the fall of the Roman empire?
  73. 91. The Fall of the Roman Empire Alexander-the-Great, Pompeii <ul><li>The difficulties of governing so huge an empire, the decline of the slave trade, and an increasing gap between the rich and the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 to 1/2 of the population of Rome received some form of public welfare. </li></ul><ul><li>And repeated barbarian attacks on Rome’s borders. </li></ul>
  74. 92. The Qin Dynasty (221-210 B.C.E.) <ul><li>Rome and China traded overland, by way of Asian intermediaries, but neither reflects the direct influence of the other. </li></ul>
  75. 94. “ First Emperor” Shih Huang Di tomb <ul><li>It took 700,000 workers to build. </li></ul><ul><li>8,000 life-size terra-cotta armed soldiers, with horse drawn chariots. </li></ul>
  76. 95. “ First Emperor” Shih Huang Di (259-210 B.C.E.)
  77. 97. The Great Wall of China <ul><li>Began 3 rd cen. B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>1500 miles long </li></ul><ul><li>Could not stop foot soldiers, but slowed down horse drawn wagons and men on horse back. </li></ul>
  78. 99. The Heroic Age (ca. 1200-750 B.C.E) A more powerful, iron-bearing tribes of Dorians, a Greek-speaking people from the north, destroyed Mycenaean civilization. Storytellers kept alive the history of early Greece, the adventures of the Mycenaeans, and the Trojan War, passing them orally from generation to generation. It took three hundred years before they were written down. The Iliad and Odyssey became the “ national” poems of ancient Greece.
  79. 100. Early Classical Aristodikos Kouros, c. 500-490 B.C.E. Periods
  80. 101. Myron Athena
  81. 102. Hellenistic: Aphrodite and Satyr
  82. 103. Hellenistic: Poseidon of Melos
  83. 104. Hellenistic: Boy Jockey and Horse
  84. 105. Hellenistic: Sleeping Hermaphrodite (Roman Copy c.150 BCE original)
  85. 106. Niobid Painter II
  86. 108. Achilles Painter Apulian Painter
  87. 109. Berlin Painter Choephoroi Painter
  88. 110. Melian Painter Sophilos Painter
  89. 111. Temple of Zeus Ruins
  90. 112. Status of Zeus
  91. 113. Phidias Workshop
  92. 114. Erechtheum on Acropolis in Athens c. 421 B.C.E. Architecture
  93. 115. Ionic: Temple of Athena Nike – Acropolis Athens c. 427 BC Architecture
  94. 116. Doric: Parthenon - temple of Athena Parthenos Architecture
  95. 117. Parthenon Architecture
  96. 118. Doric: Temple of Athena Architecture
  97. 119. Doric: Temple of Hera Architecture
  98. 120. Corinthian: The temple of Zeus at Athens 2 nd c. BC Architecture
  99. 121. The temple of Zeus at Athens Detail Architecture
  100. 122. Corinthian: Choragic monument of Lysicrates - Athens ( 335 B.C.). Architecture
  101. 123. Early Classical: Warrior from the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina
  102. 124. Early Classical Fallen Warrior from the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina
  103. 125. Early Classical Archers from the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina.
  104. 126. Classical - The Charioteer of Delphi , Delphi c. 470 B.C.E.
  105. 127. Classical: Polyclitus and Praxiteles Hermes bearing the infant Dionysus
  106. 128. <ul><li>Civilizations </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Painting </li></ul>
  107. 129. Classicism describes a style of creative expression marked by clarity, simplicity, balance, and harmonious proportion – features associated with moderation, rationalism, and dignity.
  108. 130. <ul><li>Sappho’s He is more than a hero </li></ul><ul><li>  He is more than a hero he is a god in my eyes-- the man who is allowed to sit beside you -- he who listens intimately to the sweet murmur of your voice, the enticing laughter that makes my own heart beat fast. If I meet you suddenly, I can' </li></ul>speak -- my tongue is broken; a thin flame runs under my skin; seeing nothing, hearing only my own ears drumming, I drip with sweat; trembling shakes my body and I turn paler than dry grass. At such times death isn't far from me