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Ancient greece life, society and culture

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Ancient greece life, society and culture

  1. 1. LIFE, SOCIETY & CULTURE IN ANCIENT GREECE (Circa 850 - 300 BC)
  2. 2. LIFE, SOCIETY & CULTURE IN ANCIENT GREECE SOCIAL PYRAMID GOVERNMENT (MALE CITIZENS - DEMOCRACY) MALE CITIZENS MALE CHILDREN WOMEN, FOREIGNERS & FEMALE CHILDREN SLAVES Native free men were the only citizens.
  3. 3. LIFE, SOCIETY & CULTURE IN ANCIENT GREECE Men could go to the theatre to see dramas performed in honor of the gods. Theatres were built outside, usually on a hillside. All of the actors were men - they even played the female roles. Each actor played several parts in the play by wearing a different mask for each part. Greeks invented theatre. Women couldn’t go to the theatre. They used to be at home. They learned spinning, weaving, sewing,… Women didn't participate in politics or public life. Serving as a priestess in one of the temples was one of the only public duties that a woman might perform. In the home, the women's rooms were in the back, far away from the entrance to the house. The front rooms were sometimes used by the men in the household for "symposia" (banquets). The only women who attended these parties were the entertainers who played music and danced for the guests.
  4. 4. Greek houses were made up of two or three rooms, built around an open air courtyard or patio, made of stone, wood or clay bricks. ANCIENT GREEK HOUSE Courtyard or patio Larger homes might also have a kitchen, a bathroom, a men's dining room (Andron), and perhaps a woman's sitting area (Gynaeceum). Symposium, social events with food and wine, were held in the andron. LIFE, SOCIETY & CULTURE IN ANCIENT GREECE
  5. 5. LIFE, SOCIETY & CULTURE IN ANCIENT GREECE CLOTHING Men and women used to wear simple tunics and warm cloaks, made of linen or wool, dyed a bright color, or bleached white; a belt and sandals. Only rich people could wear much jewelry: rings, earrings, bracelets, necklaces,… They used perfume, made by boiling flowers and herbs. The ancient Greeks could buy cloth and clothes in the agora, the marketplace, but that was expensive. The first real hat, called petasos, was invented by the ancient Greeks.
  6. 6. LIFE, SOCIETY & CULTURE IN ANCIENT GREECE FOOD •The soil was not very fertile along the coastline. But the ancient Greeks used systems of irrigation to help solve that problem. • People in the countryside worked in agriculture and were very poor. Many farms were very small. • All over Greece, the people grew olives, grapes, and figs. They kept goats, for milk and cheese. In the plains, where the soil was more fertile, they also grew wheat to make bread. Fish, seafood, and home-made wine were very popular food items. • In some of the larger Greek city-states, meat could be purchased in cook shops. But Greeks didn’t use to eat it.
  7. 7. LIFE, SOCIETY & CULTURE IN ANCIENT GREECE AGRICULTURE / FARMING GREEK ECONOMY STOCKBREEDING / RANCHING FISHING TRADE MINING / METALLURGY CRAFT WORK
  8. 8. ECONOMY IN ANCIENT GREECE AGRICULTURE / FARMING 1 • Plough the soil, water and fertilize it. 2 • Plant the seeds and spray for insects (exterminate them), so they can’t damage the plants. 3 • When the plants ripen, peasants harvest their fruits.
  9. 9. ECONOMY IN ANCIENT GREECE AGRICULTURE / FARMING TYPES OF FARMING DRY-LAND FARMING Plants just need the rainwater to grow. Ex. Olives, vine, wheat,… IRRIGATED-LAND FARMING Plants need lots of water to grow. They have to be watered using canals. Ex. Most vegetables, fruits, some cereals like rice or corn. Ancient Greeks didn’t have machines like tractors or combine harvesters to farm. So, it was harder for them to do it.
  10. 10. ECONOMY IN ANCIENT GREECE STOCKBREEDING / RANCHING It consists of raising animals to get meat, milk, eggs or fur from them. Farmers feed the animals, control their health and obtain products from them. TYPES OF STOCKBREEDING INTENSIVE Animals are raised in farms and fed with feeds. EXTENSIVE Animals are raised outdoors and fed with natural grass.
  11. 11. ECONOMY IN ANCIENT GREECE FISHING It consists of capturing fish and seafood in rivers or seas. TYPES OF SEA FISHING NEAR THE COAST They go fishing by small boats. FAR FROM THE COAST They go fishing by big boats (ships). Fish and seafood can be also raised in fish farms, near the rivers or seas. It didn’t exist in ancient Greece. Sailors used to capture the fish and sold it at different harbours.
  12. 12. ECONOMY IN ANCIENT GREECE TRADE It consists of exchanging or buying products like fish, fruits, vegetables, vases, pots, jewellery, clothes,… LONG DISTANCE TRADE Rich merchants had ships and sailed across the Mediterranean Sea. Products from Greek poleis were sold and food, wood and copper were imported. They used silver coins (each polis had its own currency) LOCAL TRADE There were small shops in Greek poleis. Peasants went to the poleis to sell their products (crops). Craftsmen sold their products in their workshops. The place where they used to do this was a market called Agora.
  13. 13. ECONOMY IN ANCIENT GREECE CRAFTS It consists of making pottery (pots, vases… made of ceramics), clothes (made of fabric: leather, linen,…), furniture (made of wood),… by hand. Greeks made excellent pottery which they exported to other poleis (places) by boat or wagons. CHARIOTS (WARFARE & RACING COMPETITIONS) MEANS OF TRANSPORT FOOT (mainly) BOAT ANIMALS: HORSES, MULES AND DONKEYS. CARRIAGES, WAGONS AND CARTS (TO CARRY PEOPLE OR PRODUCTS). STENTOROPHONIC MEANS OF SIGNS (Ex. Raising the torch) COMMUNICATION HORN (TO DELIVER MESSAGES TO THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE) COMMUNICATING TO THE GODS SPEAKING WRITTEN MESSAGES (GREEK ALPHABET)
  14. 14. THE GREEK ALPHABET
  15. 15. ECONOMY IN ANCIENT GREECE MINING / METALLURGY Mining consists of removing minerals and stones from nature. Minerals can be on the surface or underground. Examples: gold, iron, bronze, silver, copper,… Metallurgy consists of extracting metals from minerals and alloy them (mix them).
  16. 16. ECONOMY FORESTRY OPERATION It consists of cutting down trees to get the wood and planting new ones. Ancient Greeks didn’t do this.
  17. 17. JOBS IN ANCIENT GREECE SOLDIER / WARRIOR SAILOR FISHERMAN ARCHITECT
  18. 18. JOBS IN ANCIENT GREECE SCULPTOR ACTOR CRAFTSMAN / ARTISAN DOCTOR
  19. 19. JOBS IN ANCIENT GREECE PHILOSOPHER MATHEMATICIAN / SCIENTIST ASTRONOMER SLAVE
  20. 20. JOBS IN ANCIENT GREECE MUSICIAN POLITICIAN / LEADER DANCER / PERFORMER PEASANT
  21. 21. JOBS IN ANCIENT GREECE WRITER (PLAYWRIGHT – THEATRE POET - POEM) MINER CARPENTER PRIEST / PRIESTESS
  22. 22. JOBS IN ANCIENT GREECE BAKER FARMER SMITH MERCHANT / TRADER
  23. 23. RELIGION IN ANCIENT GREECE POLYTHEISTIC It consists of believing in many gods. Ancient Greeks were polytheistic. In the past, people used to believe in different gods or goddesses to understand the life events. For instance, Egyptians were polytheistic too. Monotheistic means that people believe in the existence of one god. Nowadays, most religions are monotheistic, like ours.
  24. 24. FAMOUS BUILDINGS IN ANCIENT GREECE THE ACROPOLIS The Acropolis is not a single building but a number of temples build on a hill overlooking Athens. Although there are many Acropolises (the word meaning high city) in Greece we tend to associate the name with the one in Athens. THE PARTHENON •The Parthenon is a former temple on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron. •It is Doric style. • Architects Iktinos and Kallikrates designed the temple. • Sculptor Phidias decorated it with sculptures.
  25. 25. FAMOUS BUILDINGS IN ANCIENT GREECE OLYMPIA Olympia was one of the most important sanctuaries of ancient Greece although we know it as the birthplace of the Olympic Games. THE TEMPLE OF HEPHAESTUS It is located about 500 metres notrh-west of the famous Acropolis. It is Doric style.
  26. 26. FAMOUS BUILDINGS IN ANCIENT GREECE THE TEMPLE OF APOLLO EPICURIUS It is located at Bassae, in the Peloponnese. Doric columns form the peristyle while Ionic columns support the porch and Corinthian columns feature in the interior. THE ERECHTHEUM The Erechtheum is an ancient Greek temple of Ionic style on the north side of the Acropolis of Athens.
  27. 27. FAMOUS BUILDINGS IN ANCIENT GREECE THE TEMPLE OF POSEIDON It is located at Sounion (Attica peninsula) in Greece and it is surrounded on three sides by the sea. It is Doric style. THE TEMPLE OF THE OLYMPIAN ZEUS Only a few columns remain of the Temple of Olympia Zeus in Athens, but it does not take much imagination to realize that this was one gigantic temple. It is Corinthian style.
  28. 28. FAMOUS BUILDINGS IN ANCIENT GREECE THEATRE OF DIONYSUS It was built around 500 BC on the south of Acropolis, the Theatre of Dionysus is the first theatre to have been constructed in the world and the oldest one in Greece.
  29. 29. CELEBRITIES IN ANCIENT GREECE PHILOSOPHERS They were men who looked for wisdom and wondered about the origin of the things. Socrates - First of the great Greek Philosophers. He is considered by many to be the founder of Western philosophy. Plato - Student of Socrates. He wrote many dialogues using Socrates as a major character. He also founded the Academy in Athens. Aristotle - Student of Plato. Aristotle was a philosopher and scientist. He was interested in the physical world. He was also teacher to Alexander the Great.
  30. 30. CELEBRITIES IN ANCIENT GREECE WRITERS PLAYWRIGHTS Sophocles - He was probably the most popular playwright during Greek times. He won many writing competitions and is thought to have written over 100 plays. Euripides - The last of the great Greek tragedy writers, Euripides was unique in that he used strong women characters and intelligent slaves. POET Aesop – He used to write tales and fables, which are books where characters are animals with human characteristics like speaking, as well as teaching a moral. Historians aren't 100% sure if Aesop really existed or was just a fable himself.
  31. 31. CELEBRITIES IN ANCIENT GREECE SCIENTISTS Archimedes - He is considered one of the great mathematicians and scientists in history. He made many discoveries both in math and physics including many inventions. Hippocrates - A scientist of medicine, Hippocrates is called the Father of Western Medicine. Doctors still take the Hippocratic Oath today. He’s considered the 1st doctor in History. Pythagoras - A scientist and philosopher, he came up with the Pythagorean Theorem still used today in much of geometry. Hypatia – She was a greek philosopher born in Egypt (Alexandria). She stood out as a philosopher and astronomer.
  32. 32. CELEBRITIES IN ANCIENT GREECE POLITICIAN – LEADER Pericles - A leader and statesman during the golden age of Greece. He helped democracy to flourish and led great building projects in Athens that still survive today. Alexander the Great - Often called the greatest military commander in history, Alexander expanded the Greek empire to its greatest size, never losing a battle. He conquered a great empire from the Mediterranean sea to India. He was the king of Macedon.

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