Ancient Rome <ul><li>Roman Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Rome’s Beginnings </li></ul><ul><li>Patricians vs. Plebeians </li></ul><ul><li>The Punic Wars </li></ul><ul><li>Transition from Republic to Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Pax Romana </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Emperors </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Life in the Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>End of the Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Legacies of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Achievements </li></ul>
Timeline of Rome’s Beginning <ul><ul><li>Latin princess gives birth to them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fathered by Mars (war god) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twins abandoned and raised by female wolf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built city on Tiber River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fought over rule of city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romulus won and becomes king </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1200 BCE Latins settle on Palantine </li></ul><ul><li>800 BCE (Myth) Romulus and Remus </li></ul>
Timeline of Rome’s Beginning <ul><li>800 BCE Etruscans settle Eturia </li></ul><ul><li>776 BCE Palantine settlement grow to village of 1000 farmers </li></ul><ul><li>600 BCE Etruscans dominate all northern Italy, including Latin village on Palantine </li></ul><ul><li>509 BCE Roman farmer-soldiers overthrow Estruscan king, Tarquin, set up republic </li></ul><ul><li>275 BCE Rome rules entire Italian Peninsula </li></ul>
Etruscan Architecture The arch was one of the main features of Etruscan architecture. Etruscan arches were constructed of two pillar-like bases, called piers , which supported several voussiors , or wedge-shaped stones . These stones were arranged in a semicircle and held in place by a keystone in the center.
Etruscan Engineering The cuniculus was a long trench cut underground, with vertical shafts dug downward to meet it. It was used to irrigate land by diverting water from a stream. The Etruscans also used the cuniculus to drain water from very wet soil, and to carry water to their cities.
Etruscan Government Fasces were made of bundles of sticks with an ax protruding from the middle of the bundle. They were emblems of royal power . The sticks represented the king’s power to destroy and rebuild his city-state. The ax symbolized that the king could execute his subjects who broke the law.
Etruscan Metalworking Etruscans used copper, lead, iron , tin, silver, gold , and bronze to make their metal objects. They made household objects such as tools and drinking vessels. They made religious objects such as urns and devotional statues . They also made military objects, such as helmets, from bronze, with protective neck and throat guards .
Etruscan Mysticism The Etruscans believed that the Gods gave them signs in nature. They tried to interpret lightning before they went into battle, and thought they could predict good harvests by studying the migration of birds . Etruscan diviners used the stars to plan the layouts of their towns , and read the internal organs of animals before conducting burials.
Etruscan Sculpture Etruscan sculpture was considered realistic because Etruscan artists paid close attention to nature and did not glorify human subjects. Large life - size stone figures were created for the tombs of the wealthy.
Etruscan Social Organization Etruria was made up of city-states , each ruled by a king . Wealthy men and woman lived on large estates and made money by farming and owning mines . Slaves worked in the mines of the wealthy. Wealthy men and women had fairly equal rights . Both were literate , and they dressed alike in long togas . They also ate together at banquets .
Etruscan Sporting Events Spectator sports in Etruria developed from funeral practices and hunting large animals. Gladiator combat came from a funereal ritual during which mourners watched slaves fight to the death. Another popular sport was chariot racing , which the Etruscans first saw at the Olympics in Greece.
Greek Coinage Ancient Greeks borrowed the idea of using coins from Asia Minor Coins were made of silver, bronze, and electrum , a mixture of silver and gold. The Greeks thought coins would help their trade become more efficient. Scenes stamped on coins included Greek Gods and Goddesses and sporting events such as foot races and chariot races .
Greek Monumental Building Ancient Greeks built immense temples made of marble . These temples were designed to represent Mount Olympus , the dwelling place of the Greek Gods. The monumental size of the temples was also designed to fill the people inside with awe . The Parthenon, a temple honoring the Goddess Athena , embodies the classical Greek values of harmony and proportion .
Greek Mythology Myths about the Gods and Goddesses functioned as religion to the ancient Greeks. Greeks conducted elaborate rituals and sacrifices to ensure the favor of their Gods. Greek Gods and Goddesses controlled all aspects of life , including founding cities , healing the sick , and winning battles.
Greek Philosophy Philosophy means “love of wisdom.” Greek tutors and students would gather in outdoor symposia , or discussion groups, and talk about the natural world. Although it began as a branch of science , philosophy was developed into a system of logic by the famous Greek philosopher Aristotle.
Greek Pottery Greek pottery was valued in the ancient world for its beauty and usefulness . Greek artists created ceramic jars for storing foods, and drinking vessels for water and wine. Some early pottery had black figures on red backgrounds. Later styles had red figures on black backgrounds , which allowed for greater detail to be shown in the figures.
Greek Science Ancient Greek science included the study of stars, music, and math . Pythagoras, a religious scientist and mathematician , believed that numbers and mathematical formulas controlled the universe. His famous Pythagorean Theorem is a system used to measure triangles . He also discovered that musical notes have a mathematical progression.
Greek Theater Greek theater developed from religious rites honoring the Gods and asking for successful harvests . These rites evolved into festivals of song and dance each spring. Greek dramas were performed outdoors , in the center of the city. Actors wore expressive masks , and there was music on stage, as well as changes of costumes and scenery .
Greek Writing Ancient Greek writing was written in all capital letters . Important documents such as laws and treaties were carved into plaques made of bronze or stone. These plaques were then posted in the public squares Personal writings were written on papyrus , a plant-fiber paper from Egypt.
Patricians vs. Plebeians The struggle for power in ancient Rome
Patricians vs. Plebeians <ul><li>In-class experience </li></ul><ul><li>A small group of students Patricians were selected at random by Mr. Kelly </li></ul><ul><li>Historical reality </li></ul><ul><li>Patricians were members of a small number of wealthy families and inherited their political power and wealth. </li></ul>
Patricians vs. Plebeians <ul><li>In-class experience </li></ul><ul><li>Patricians voted on the way Plebeians would create mosaic tiles. </li></ul><ul><li>Historical reality </li></ul><ul><li>Patricians made most of the political decisions </li></ul>
Patricians vs. Plebeians <ul><li>In-class experience </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of the class were Plebeians preparing mosaic tiles. </li></ul><ul><li>Historical reality </li></ul><ul><li>Plebeians made up the bulk of Roman society-working as peasants, laborers, artisans, and shopkeepers. </li></ul>
Patricians vs. Plebeians <ul><li>In-class experience </li></ul><ul><li>Plebeians were not allowed to make decisions on how to prepare the mosaic tiles, or to relax with the Patricians in the Forum. </li></ul><ul><li>Historical reality </li></ul><ul><li>Plebeians had fewer privileges than the Patricians and could not serve in government. </li></ul>
Patricians vs. Plebeians <ul><li>In-class experience </li></ul><ul><li>Some Plebeians stopped preparing mosaic tiles and moved to a corner of the room. </li></ul><ul><li>Historical reality </li></ul><ul><li>Plebeians withdrew from Rome when their political demands were not met. </li></ul>
Patricians vs. Plebeians <ul><li>In-class experience </li></ul><ul><li>Plebeians elected two representatives to negotiate with the Patricians. </li></ul><ul><li>Historical reality </li></ul><ul><li>Plebeians elected Tribunes of the Plebs to protect their political rights. </li></ul>
Timeline of the Punic Wars <ul><li>264 BCE - Romans conquer Greek city-states in southern Italy </li></ul><ul><li>241 BCE - Rome defeats Carthage and the Carthaginians agree to make peace and leave Sicily. </li></ul>Rome uses corvus to defeat Carthage
Timeline of the Punic Wars <ul><li>218 BCE - The Carthaginians, led by General Hannibal Barca, attack the Romans by land from the north, starting the Second Punic War. </li></ul><ul><li>218-203 BCE -Hannibal roams the countryside of southern Italy inflicting damage. </li></ul><ul><li>201 BCE - Hannibal loses the Battle of Zama and loses the Second Punic War. </li></ul>
Timeline of the Punic Wars <ul><li>201-149 BCE - Peace between Rome and Carthage. </li></ul><ul><li>149 BCE - Rome, fearing that the Carthaginians were regaining power, attacks Carthage. </li></ul><ul><li>146 BCE - Rome wipes out Carthage and wins the Third Punic War. </li></ul><ul><li>146 BCE - Rome attacks and destroys Corinth and adds Greece to the areas under its rule. </li></ul>
A. Caesar <ul><li>1. Dictator for 10-year period </li></ul><ul><li>2. Instituted reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. distributed land to soldier and the poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. reduced the use of slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. earned him support of common people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Senate feared losing to him </li></ul><ul><li>4. Murdered by group of senators </li></ul>
B. Triumvirate- Rule by Three <ul><li>1. Divided Roman Republic among themselves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Octavian- western half </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Mark Antony-eastern half </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Marcus Lepidius- was pushed aside </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>2. Octavian vs. Mark Antony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Octavian won at the Battle of Actium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Octavian returned to Rome in triumph </li></ul></ul>
C. Octavian <ul><li>1. Named Augustus (highly respected) by Senate. </li></ul><ul><li>New powers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. head of state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B supreme military commander </li></ul></ul>
I. Pax Romana- Peace of Rome <ul><li>A. Started under Augustus’ reign </li></ul><ul><li>B. Lasted 200 years </li></ul><ul><li>C. period of government and social stability </li></ul><ul><li>D. Empire expanded and flourished </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Increase in trade brought great wealth and funded massive building projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E. Poor made up majority of population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Lived in squalid conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Most children died before age of 10. </li></ul></ul>
Augustus- Accomplishments <ul><li>Hard working and honest father figure </li></ul><ul><li>Prevented civil war from occurring again </li></ul><ul><li>Instituted a program to make Rome safer and more beautiful </li></ul><ul><li>Placed an increased emphasis on learning and the arts </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled the Empire with organization and efficiency </li></ul>
Augustus- Failures <ul><li>Pursued a strict moral crusade that was largely unpopular </li></ul><ul><li>Failed to maintain empire’s security along northern border </li></ul>
Nero- Accomplishments <ul><li>Reduced taxes, banned capital punishment, and forbade contests involving bloodshed </li></ul><ul><li>Passion for arts led him to promote them and enhance Roman society </li></ul><ul><li>Managed to maintain a certain level of stability throughout Roman Empire </li></ul>
Nero- Failures <ul><li>Eliminated family members and advisors whom he thought either threatened or interfered with his rule </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of self-importance led him to pursue personal interests </li></ul><ul><li>Began building project for himself that cost an enormous amount of money and ruined Roman treasury </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to protect himself from blame for a devastating fire in Rome by persecuting Christians </li></ul>
Trajan- Accomplishments <ul><li>Reduced taxes, increased free distribution of food, and took steps to maintain constant supply of grain </li></ul><ul><li>Undertook a major building program in Rome to improve quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Very efficient at administering provinces of empire </li></ul><ul><li>Waged 3 successful military campaigns that enlarged empire </li></ul>
Trajan- Failures <ul><li>Encouraged bloodsport events placing little value on human life </li></ul><ul><li>Failed to prevent serious unrest among empire’s Jewish population </li></ul>
Hadrian- Accomplishments <ul><li>Had passion for Greek philosophy and learning and encouraged spread of Greek culture throughout empire </li></ul><ul><li>Helped reform Roman legal system </li></ul><ul><li>Managed provinces of empire more directly </li></ul><ul><li>Avoided war and strengthened empire’s borders with physical defenses </li></ul>
Hadrian Failures <ul><li>Unable to tolerate open criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Caused a serious Jewish rebellion in province of Judea </li></ul><ul><li>Murdered political rivals in effort to ensure choice of successor as emperor </li></ul>Hadrian’s Wall
Roman Education Children in ancient Rome were not required by law to go to school. Many poor children probably wanted to go, but were sent to work at the age of 5 or 6 instead. They learned trades such as leatherworking and metal working to help earn money for their families. Before the age of 7, wealthy Roman boys and girls were tutored at home by their fathers. At the age of 7, they went off to school, which they attended from day to day until graduation at the age of 16. They learned Latin, Greek, math, science, literature, and public speaking. Schools were in the basements of temples or the houses of tutors. Tutors were often educated male Greek slaves.
Roman Education A typical school day in Rome began very early in the morning. Students would walk to school through the streets, carrying their school supplies in a leather shoulderbag. They would stop at local breakfast bars where they would buy freshly baked breads, beans, or nuts, and eat on the way to class. Once inside the schoolroom, students sat on small stools around their tutor. Chalkboards did not exist, so tutors wrote lessons on long, rolled papers called scrolls . Students copied the lessons on small wooden boards covered with wax. They made markings in the wax with a pointy pen called a stylus . When the lesson was over, they “erased” their writings by rubbing them away with the flat end of the stylus so they could reuse their wax boards. At noontime, students ate lunches they brought from home in small leather “lunchboxes.” After lunch, lessons began again and lasted until 2 or 3 o’clock in the afternoon. Students often had short essays and math problems for homework. They looked forward to their three-month summer vacations.
Roman Education Boys used their education to become soldiers, physicians, politicians, or lawyers. Roman girls were trained to become real estate agents, midwives, dentists, or tutors. Some young slave girls were even trained to be gladiators and, when they grew up, become famous fighters in large public arenas like the Colosseum
Family Life On the day of a Roman wedding, family and friends gathered in a Roman temple to see the ceremony. The Roman bride wore a white robe, or toga (pronounced TOH-gah), with a long veil made of orange fabric. She held fresh flowers, or herbs in a bouquet. The Roman groom also wore a white toga, and rubbed his leather shoes with animal fat to make them shine. The couple exchanged gold wedding rings and wore them on the ring fingers of their left hands. They also exchanged marriage vows before a temple priest or Roman senator, who read the marriage contract aloud to the guests.
Family Life Roman men were expected to provide for their new wives and future children. Many poor Romans found this difficult, and they and their wives often had several jobs, including construction work and selling goods in markets. Wealthy Roman men often held high political positions that earned them good incomes. Wealthy Roman women ran households: hiring and training slaves, supervising the cooking and cleaning, and caring for their children. Many of these women had jobs too, because they were interested in business and did not want to depend on their husbands for money.
Family Life Roman couples were expected to have two or more children. Roman babies were usually born at home. Poor women had neighbors or relatives help them through childbirth, while wealthy women hired professional nurses. After a baby was born, it was placed in the father’s arms to be inspected. If the baby was weak or unhealthy, the father’s arms to be inspected. If the baby was weak or unhealthy, the child was left outside to die. If it was healthy, the father rocked the baby in his arms to show that he accepted it into his family. Nine days after birth, a ceremony was held to name the child. A special good luck charm, or bulla (pronounced BULL-ah), was placed on a chain around the child’s neck and worn throughout childhood.
Family Life Roman children enjoyed many of the toys that children enjoy today. Roman girls and boys played with animals, dolls, and soldiers made of wood or clay. They enjoyed “board games” that looked like checkers or chess and rode on rocking horses. At the age of 13 or 14, children offered their bullas and all their toys to the Gods in a ceremony celebrating the beginning of adulthood.
Food and Drink Bread, beans, spices, olives, a few vegetables, and meats were the main foods in ancient Rome. Daytime meals were quick and did not require lavish cooking. Breakfast usually included a piece of bread and a bowlful of beans or a small bowl of an oatmeal-like substance, called porridge (pronounced POR-ij), made from grains like barley or wheat. For lunch, Romans had a small bit of cheese and bread, or perhaps olives or celery. Ancient Romans grabbed their daytime snacks at “takeout” places called thermopolia (pronounced ther-moh-POH-lee-ah). These places served hot and cold foods that were ready to go. Poor Romans depended on the thermopolia for most of their meals, because they did not have kitchens in their homes. Wealthy Romans also bought their daytime meals at the thermopolia, because it was fast and convenient. Favorite Roman drinks included plain water, very watered-down wine, and hot water with herbs and honey, like tea.
Food and Drink Dinner was more elaborate and was considered the most important meal of the day. Poor Romans, who usually bought their dinners at the thermopolia, ate chunks of fish or meats served with asparagus and a fig for dessert. Wealthy Roman women, or their slaves, visited the markets in search of the perfect ingredients for their elaborate dinner parties. Food merchants often had playful monkeys or colorful birds on display at their stalls, to entice the customers to come and see their wares. Shelves were packed with bowls of ripe fruits, live rabbits, chickens, geese in wooden cages, cuts of meat and poultry hanging from wooden beams, baskets of live snails, and large clay jars filled with garum a salty, smelly fish sauce the Romans poured over many of their entrees. The markets also sold desserts: edible roses, and sweat treats like dates and honey. Old Roman documents list recipes for fancy appetizers like mice cooked in honey and poppyseeds, roasted flamingoes and parrots stuffed with dates, snails dipped in milk, and salted jellyfish stuffed with sea urchins.
Roman Healthcare Even though many Romans thought that the supernatural powers of the Gods, demons, and magicians were responsible for illness, they took very practical measures to cure themselves. Roman doctors, or physicians , practiced what modern people call “natural medicine.” They used all kinds of herbs, spices, and relaxing therapies to cure their patients’ ills. Mustard was a popular cure for bad digestion. Garlic was considered a necessary part of good health, and was taken daily, like a vitamin. There was even a Roman law demanding that a daily ration of garlic was to be fed to all Roman soldiers, throughout the empire. Walnuts were considered “smart food’ because they look like little human brains. Doctors prescribed walnuts to politicians and lawyers to cure their sore throats and boost their public-speaking skills.
Roman Healthcare Roman physicians also had a variety of familiar instruments-such as tongue depressors and linen bandages-to help cure ailments if the other methods failed. They performed operations on some of their patients, using sharp scalpels, knives, saws, axes, pointy probes, and hooks. Remember that painkillers, or anesthetics (pronounced AN-ahs-THEH-tix), had not yet been invented! Patients would appeal to the Gods to help along a cure, and leave little offerings at nearby temples. These offerings, called votives (pronounced VOH-tivz), were made of metal or clay, and were sculpted in the shape of whatever body part ailed the patient: ears, legs, fingers, and so on. Many Roman physicians made most of their money treating soldiers harmed in battle, gladiators wounded in the arena, or chariot drivers hurt in the fast-paced races at the Circus Maximus
Housing Picture a large, airy home filled with beautiful artwork and elegant furniture inlaid with jewels. Look into the grand hall with its indoor pool, and beyond to the garden room, filled with flowers and fruit trees in clay pots. Now picture a cramped and dark building, filled with smoke from small cooking grills, with small rooms overcrowded with people and often visited by rats carrying diseases. These two types of housing existed side by side in ancient Rome.
Housing Wealthy Romans lived in splendid houses built of stone and marble. Their walls were thick to keep out the noise of the city. These homes had many rooms for the family and visiting guests. The fanciest room in a wealthy house was the dining room, or triclinium . Each wall in the triclinium was covered in elaborate painted murals and designs made from pieces of tiles, called mosaics. Graceful statues were placed in the corners. Sometimes, an impressive fountain bubbled in the center of the room, to provide guests with refreshingly cool water. During dinner parties, guests reclined on couches and ate delicious meals prepared by slaves. Most of the foods were “finger foods”-eaten with one’s hands-and it was considered proper behavior for guests to throw the bones, stems, and pits onto the floor when finished eating. While they dined, guests listened to beautiful music played by slaves on flutes and stringed instruments, like the lyre and lute . Music was played from the moment the guests arrived, throughout the entire meal, ands as guests left to go home.
Housing Poor Romans, on the other hand, usually lived in tall apartment buildings with as many as 10 floors. Others lived in one- or two-room apartments above shops where they worked. Illness and fires were constant threats in the apartment buildings of Rome, because unclean disposal of waste, rickety wooden construction, portable cooking grills that caught fire easily, and the lack of proper water pipes. Noises, fumes, and refuse from shops on the ground floors added to the general unpleasantness. Poor Romans also lived ion the country, upon the extensive farming estates owned by the wealthy. The poor tended to perform back-breaking labors each day like plowing extensive fields, and lived in poorly constructed wooden shacks with few comforts.
Law and Order Rome was unfortunately the scene of many crimes and wrongdoings. According to surviving documents, murder, assault, theft, mistreatment of slaves, and defacing of private property were the most common crimes. Crimes usually happened at night because of a lack of adequate outdoor lighting. Since the early days of the empire, patrols of Roman guards kept an eye on the wealthier neighborhoods, but rarely ventured into the poorer sections of the city. Certain streets were “closed” at night, meaning that there were curfews in place, and traveling on some streets was dangerous. Wealthy men usually wore old, dirty robes or togas (pronounced TOH-gahz)if they traveled at night, to disguise themselves and prevent muggings. Wealthy women and children were urged never to venture outdoors alone, and were forbidden to do so at night.
Law and Order People accused of crimes were summoned to court along with those accusing them. Witnesses were called to supply information. Roman law allowed anyone-including the poor and slaves-to accuse others of criminal behavior. Court was held amid the buildings and public square in the center of Rome, called the Forum . Political speeches, addresses, pleas, and accusations were delivered daily in the middle of its broad plaza. Lawyers acted on behalf of both the accuser and the accused, and the verdict of guilty or not guilty was decided by an unbiased jury, usually made up of senators.
Law and Order The Roman Senate was the most powerful branch of government after the emperor, and made the Roman laws. Laws were decided by votes of the senators, and were then posted around the city for citizens to read and follow. Senators and other members of government had their own styles of dress: Special rings, pins, robes, togas, and accessories helped define a person’s political or legal status on sight. Important Roman senators actually had bodyguards, or lictors (pronounced LIK-turs), to accompany them everywhere. The burly lictors carried axes of long knives bundled in sticks, called fasces (pronounced FASS-eez), which they used to punish or even execute anyone who offended the senators.
Recreation Wealthy Romans enjoyed watching the latest plays in public theaters, and musical performances in one another’s homes. Relaxing trips to the baths were also considered essential. There, the Romans enjoyed bathing, swimming, athletic “workouts,” massages, saunas, light meals, and an occasional lecture on the benefits of staying in shape. Romans also enjoyed watching the bloody spectacle of the gladiator games in the Colosseum, where men and women-usually slaves or prisoners of war-fought each other and wild animals to the death. But the favorite gathering place of the Romans was the Circus Maximus, where they watched chariot races.
Recreation Races at the Circus Maximus were exciting social events. Snacks and drinkes were sold there at “fast food” stalls called thermopolia (pronounced ther-moh-POH-lee-ah). Although both rich and poor Romans were allowed to attend chariot races, they had to sit in separate sections. Emperors and wealthy Roman citizens sat in comfortable “box seats” close to the track, with plush cushions and linen shades set up to protect them from the sun. The poor sat on wooden benches in tiers far above the track. Unlike the Colosseum, where men and women sat in separate sections, the Circus Maximus allowed both sexes to be seated together. The Roman poet Ovid said that the Circus Maximus was the best place to meet a boyfriend or girlfriend because you never knew who you who would sit next to you!
Recreation At the Circus, the crowds cheered their favorite racers, and often broke out in riots if their favorite lost. The chariots raced one another around a circular track for seven laps, moving at breakneck speed around the turns. Skilled chariot drivers handled one, two, three, or four charging horses at a time, and tried to keep their balance in small two-wheeled wooden carts. The chariot races were extremely dangerous, and many drivers and horses were killed during the sport. Those who crossed the finish line first at the end of the seventh lap won money and prizes. Many winners who were slaves were able to use their prize money to but their freedom.
Trade and Travel The excellent network of Roman roads allowed for great numbers of traders, tourists, soldiers, and religious pilgrims to travel within the Roman Empire. Traders traveled from city to city selling the wares of local markets. They usually stored their goods their goods in clay vessels or metal boxes or urns, and transported them by donkey carts or oxcarts. They used huge wagons to transport large goods like furnishings, wild animals for gladiator games, and building materials like logs from forests and marble from quarries. Merchant ships powered by dozens of men rowing with oars also carried trade items from across the seas. The most important was grain for food production, which was shipped from Rome to Egypt, North Africa, and Sicily. Luxurious exotic goods-such as bronze statues, unusual bottles and jars, board games, musical instruments, chairs, linens, and artwork-were also shipped to Rome.
Trade and Travel Wealthy Romans were great consumers and materialists. Even though their homes were sparsely furnished, they loved to add unusual accessories to their homes. There was always a great demand for cases of fragile or delicate luxury items-such as spices, herbs, exotic plants for medicinal use, and perfumes. These goods were paid for in coins made of metals such as silver and bronze that were stamped with images of Roman Gods and Goddesses.
Trade and Travel Only the wealthy Romans were able to afford to travel for pleasure. The most important thing that traveling Romans did before they left home was to consult a fortune-teller, or soothsayer , was asked if it was the right time to take a journey, and if the traveler was journeying to the right place. If the soothsayer said it was all right, the traveler set off. If not, the traveler stayed home and tried again in a few weeks. Greece, Spain, and Gaul (modern-day France) were popular places to visit, and trips to Britannia (modern-day Great Britain) were popular in the summer. Tourists would load their wagons with linen and pillows and food for the long haul, and have their slaves and attendants do the driving. Although ship journeys were not very pleasant in ancient times, people put up with the discomfort of cramped quarters and long journeys in order to visit Africa, Egypt, Greece, Syria, and other splendid places.
End of the Roman Empire <ul><li>A. Augustus’ successors accepted his defensive foreign policy </li></ul><ul><li>B. Trajan, Rome’s last great conqueror, established new provinces in Dacia, Armenia, Assyria, and Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><li>C. Empire reached greatest height under Trajan in AD 117 </li></ul><ul><li>D. Five Good Emperors ruled Rome between AD 96 and AD 186 </li></ul>
End of the Roman Empire <ul><li>E. After AD 186, civil wars broke out in Empire and emperors lost control </li></ul><ul><li>F. Rome’s size difficult to manage; Diocletian divided it in two </li></ul><ul><li>G. Barbarians attack Rome from many sides </li></ul><ul><li>H. Internally, gladiator games one sign of Rome’s decline </li></ul>
Roman Engineering Achievements in the Modern World Aqueducts Monumental Architecture Bridges Roads
Aqueducts 1. Read the following information about aqueducts and take notes. Carefully read and discuss the information below. Then, list three important facts about Roman aqueducts in your notes. One of the Romans’ greatest and most practical engineering feats was the channeling of water to their towns and cities. Roman engineers built channels, called aqueducts (pronounced AH-kweh-dukts), to transport water from springs in the hills surrounding Rome to the city. Eventually, some 250 miles of aqueducts delivered cold, clear water to Rome and to other cities and towns throughout the empire.
Before they began to build an aqueduct, Roman engineers first examined, or surveyed , the proposed route. As they worked, they drew a map showing the hills and valleys the water would cross on its journey. They then determined where the aqueduct would rest on the ground, or cut through the ground,or rise above the ground.
Once an aqueduct’s route and design were laid out, the Romans constructed a bed for the channel. Aqueducts were always built with a gradual downward slope so the water would flow from a higher level to a lower one. If the aqueduct was to be on the ground, the workers dug a simple trench. If it had to cross a hillside that was to big to build around, they burrowed a tunnel, cutting straight through rock if necessary. If an aqueduct was to rise above ground, the Romans built a bridge-supported by a series of stone arches and piers-on which to place the channel. Such a bridge was called a viaduct (pronounced VY-ah-dukt).
To complete the aqueduct, the builders constructed the channel itself. The part of the aqueduct that actually carried the water was the specus (pronounced SPEH-kuss). The specus was like a rectangular pipe. Made of stone, it was about 4 feet wide and 6 feet high. The stone slab cover, or roof, on the specus helped to keep the water pure by protecting it from pollution.
Roman aqueducts were so well constructed that they outlasted the empire. Even today, the aqueduct in Segovia, Spain, is used as part of the city’s water system. The magnificent two-tier aquedcut stands 95 feet above the road and is 2,388 feet long. Originally, it was the final portion of a 60-mile system the Romans built to bring water to Segovia.
2. Complete the following tasks and respond to the prompts. Carefully read the directions for each task below and complete them in the order listed. After you complete each task, record your answers in your notes. <ul><li>Examine the covered canal. Carefully examine the picture of the covered canal posted on the next slide. What has been used to cover the canal? Why do you think the canal is covered with this material? </li></ul>
Discover how grade affects water flow. Place the empty cup in front of one end of the cylinder. Raise the opposite end of the cylinder approximately 3 inches off the top of the desk. Let the marble roll through the cylinder, and note the force with which it strikes the cup. Repeat the process with the cylinder at lower heights, to create different slopes, or grades. What do you notice about the force with which the marble strikes the cup as you lower the grade? Why do you think the ancient Romans were concerned about grade when they built aqueducts? Create an aqueduct. Arrange the pieces of the aqueduct-trench, tunnel, and viaduct- to show how you would direct water from Point A to Point B on the cross-section map. After you have arranged the pieces, quickly sketch a diagram of your aqueduct and label its parts.
3. Check your answers. Check your answers and return the station material to how you found them.
Bridges 1. Read the following information about bridges and take notes. Carefully read and discuss the information below. Then, list three important facts about Roman bridges in your notes. The Romans were not the first people to build bridges, but the number, size, and quality of their bridges was outstanding. For instance, Roman engineers perfected the stone arch bridge, the strongest bridge of the ancient world. While the Romans first built their bridges to transport troops over rivers or valleys, they eventually became an important part of the empire’s system of roads and aqueducts.
Builders took great care when choosing a suitable bridge site. Experts who measured and testes the land surface-called surveyors (pronounced sur-VAY-erz)-helped select the location. A surveyor would measure the width of the river in several spots, and have workers dig holes to examine the softness of the soil.
Once engineers chose a site for the bridge, bases had to be built for each of the bridge’s piers -stone towers that would stand in the river. To create a dry site in which to build, Romans built cofferdams (pronounced KOFF-ur-damz). A cofferdam was a watertight enclosure made of wooden piles -pointed tree trunks stripped of their bark. The piles were rammed into the riverbed in a circle, and workers put clay between gaps in the piles.
They then pumped out any water that had seeped in.. To do so, they used buckets, or an Archimedean (pronounced ARK-ah-MEE-dee-an) screw , a device invented by the Greek scientist Archimedes. The Archimedean screw pulled water up a tube when a screw was rotated. In Roman times, builders operated the screw by walking on its planks, just as lumberjacks today walk on and spin a floating log. Finally, laborers built the base by filling the cofferdam with stones and mortar or concrete.
After the bases were built, workers constructed piers on top. These thick supporting columns were made of carefully cut stones on the outside, and smaller, uncut stones on the inside. Mortar was used between the stones. Piers were built to rise about 30 feet above the river. Once the piers were up, arches were constructed between them. Then, walls were built to fill in and support the space between the arches and the walkway of the bridge. Now, workers could finally go on top of the arches and complete the bridge by laying the surface for the walkway and adding other finishing touches.
2. Complete the following tasks and respond to the prompts. Carefully read the directions for each task below and complete them in the order listed. After you complete each task, record your answers in your notes. <ul><li>Test the strength of the arch bridge. Place the books 6 inches apart on the desk. Create a simple bridge by resting the ends of the walkway (the rectangular piece of cardboard) on the books. Stack pennies on the center of the walkway until it sags almost to the desktop. Remove the pennies. Now, create an arch bridge by placing the two arches under the walkway. Stack the pennies on the center of the walkway again. Which of the two bridges supported more pennies? Quickly sketch the arch bridge and label its parts. </li></ul>
Discover the need for an Archimedean Screw. Place the cup on the washcloth in the container so that it is surrounded by water. Then, using the spoon, try to remove as much water from the cup as you can in 1 minute. How difficult was it to remove water from the cup in the time allotted? The container filled with water represents a river where a pier is to be erected, and the washcloth represents mud on the river bottom. What Roman engineering achievement might the cup represent? What laborious task might removing the water with a spoon represent? Examine the cofferdam and Archimedean screw. Carefully examine the pictures of the cofferdam and Archimedean screw. What materials would be needed to construct a cofferdam? How do you think an Archimedean screw was constructed?
3. Check your answers. Check your answers and return the station material to how you found them.
Monumental Architecture <ul><li>The Romans were tremendous builders. Working with ideas they borrowed from the Greeks, Etruscans, and others, Roman architects reached new heights in design and function of buildings. Most remarkable was their use of arches, vaults, and concrete to build huge structures. </li></ul>1. Read the following information about monumental architecture and take notes. Carefully read and discuss the information below. Then, list three important facts about Roman monumental architecture in your notes.
The arch was a distinctive feature of Roman architecture. An arch is a curved structure-spanning an opening-that can support its own weight. The Greeks and the Egyptians used the arch in their architecture, but the Romans were the first to use it to create enormous buildings. The Romans built their arched by carefully cutting and fitting together wedge-shaped bricks or stones, called voussoirs (pronounced voo-SWARZ), to form a semicircle. Then they placed a final stone- called a keystone- at the center of the voussoirs that closed, or locked, the arch. The whole structure was supported by thick, column-like structures called piers.
The Romans developed the barrel vault from the arch. The barrel vault was simply an arch extended lengthwise to create a deep, tunnel-like structure. Roman builders used the barrel vault extensively to put roofs on rectangular spaces. However, they found the vault had two key limitations. First, the vault’s edges rested upon the building’s side walls. This meant that the walls had to be thick enough to support the arch, or that supporting structures called buttresses (pronounced BUH-treh-sez), had to be built on the outside of the well to help them up. In addition, barrel vaults allowed little light to enter the buildings.
Later Roman engineers devised the technique of crossing two barrel vaults to create a cross vault . The cross vault did not have the limitations of the barrel vault. The weight of the cross vault could be supported by columns or piers at its four corners. The cross vault also let in more light.
Along with the development of the arches and vaults, the use of a new material called concrete enabled the Romans to set new standards in building. The key material behind the discovery of concrete was pazzolana (pronounced poh-tzo-LAH-na), a type of volcanic ash that hardnes when mixed with water. The Romans mixed pazzolana with water and lime to make mortar . The substance-used to join stones-was also mixed with rubble to make concrete.
The Pantheon, a temple to all Roman Gods, is the best example of the way Romans used arches, vaults, and concrete to create enormous buildings. The Pantheon’s interior was 142 feet in diameter and 142 feet high. It was illuminated by an opening in the building’s majestic dome-the largest dome in the ancient world.
http://www. vrac . iastate . edu / ArchVR /images_roman.html
2. Complete the following tasks and respond to the prompts. Carefully read the directions for each task below and complete them in the order listed. After you complete each task, record your answer in the notes. Assemble the arch puzzle. Place the pieces of the puzzle together to form a picture of an arch. Quickly sketch the arch and label its three parts. Build a human arch. Study the diagram at right. Before you touch the ball, position your bodies like those in the drawing. Make sure the two of you are far enough apart so that you must lean in toward each other to hold the ball in place above your heads. Lean in, and place weight on the ball as shown in the picture. Hold the position for 20 seconds, and then carefully disassemble your arch. Why is the keystone-represented by the ball in your human arch-an important feature of the arch?
Compare the barrel and cross vault. Examine the models of the barrel vault and the cross vault. How many openings for light are there in each vault? Besides creating extra light, what other advantages do the extra openings in the cross vault provide?
3. Check your answers. Check your answers and return the station material to how you found them.
Roads <ul><li>1. Read the following information about roads and take notes. Carefully read and discuss the information below. Then, list three important facts about Roman roads in your notes. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans constructed the largest and longest-lasting network of roads in the ancient world. At the height of the empire, Roman roads stretched for 56,000 miles and included 29 major highways. At first, Roman roads were built so troops could move quickly if there was trouble in the empire, but eventually the routes served many people and purposes. </li></ul>
Roman roads are famous for their straightness over long distances. It is still a mystery exactly how Romans built such direct routes, especially across land that was very hilly or contained thick forests. It seems likely, however, that to lay out the route of a road on any kind of land, builders first set a straight line of fires at night. The line was marked off with stakes or stones. In places where the land was more difficult to cross-such as a wide part of a river-the proposed road would veer from a straight line.
When setting out a road, builders had help from experts who measured and tested the proposed route. These experts, called surveyors (pronounced sur-VAY-erz), made sure roads would be straight, or cross at right angles, by using an instrument called a groma (pronounced GROH-ma). A groma was a pole about 4 feet high, over which a crossbar was laid flat. The surveyor would plant the pole in the ground. When weighted strings hanging from each end of the crossbar were parallel to the pole, the surveyor knew the pole was perfectly upright. Then, by sighting along the arms of the crossbar, the surveyor could mark out straight horizontal lines or right angles. Roads were built along the marks.
Once the builders established a route, they began constructing the road. First, they dug a trench at least 3 feet deep and 20 feet wide so two formations of troops could pass each other easily. Next, they lined the sides of the trench with massive curbstones to create a foundation to support the road. They then built up the road by filling the trench with layers of stones, gravel, and sand. Finally, a smooth, hard surface was made of either hard-packed gravel or thick, flat stones, called paving stones , laid closely together. Since any accumulated rainwater on the road could easily cause damage, the Romans made the top layer rise slightly in the middle. This rise, called camber , along with two drainage ditches on the sides of the road, helped drain water off the road’s surface.
Over a 500-year period, Romans built thousands of miles of roads-enough to circle the world 10 times. They also built rest houses for government officials, taverns, and hostels along the roads to help ease travel over long distances. Eventually, Roman roads allowed people from all over the empire to reach Rome-creating a unique city filled with people of many cultures.
2. Complete the following tasks and respond to the prompts. Carefully read the directions for each task below and complete them in the order listed. After you complete each task, record your answer in the notes. Use the groma. Place the groma upright on a flat surface, such as a desk or the floor, and note the position of the weighted strings. Then, place the groma on the incline created by the binder, and note the position of the weighted strings. How does the weighted strings change as you move from a level surface to an incline? Why do you think ancient Roman engineers who constructed roads considered the groma a useful tool? Assemble the road puzzle . Place the pieces of the puzzle together to form a cross section of a Roman road. Quickly sketch the road and label its parts. Examine the map of the Roman road system. Carefully examine the map of the Roman road system at your station. Name the continents where the Romans built roads. The Roman amry could march approximately 26 miles each day. If the distance between Lutetia (modern-day Paris, France) and Rome is approximately 702 miles, how long would it take the Rome army to march from one city to the other?
3. Check your answers. Check your answers and return the station material to how you found them.
Answer Key: Roman Aqueducts <ul><li>1. The canal is covered with slabs of stone to protect the water it carries from contamination. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The marble strikes the cup with less force as the grade is lowered. Without the ability to generate water pressure, the Romans relied on the use of downward slopes to direct water from high points to low points. </li></ul><ul><li>Return to the title slide </li></ul>
Answer Key for Roman Monumental Architecture <ul><li>2. The keystone “locks the pieces of the arch into place. </li></ul><ul><li>3. There are two openings in the barrel vault, and four openings in the cross vault. The additional openings allow air to circulate more freely within the structure covered by a cross vault. </li></ul><ul><li>Return to the title slide </li></ul>
Answer Key for Roman Bridges <ul><li>2. It was probably difficult for you to remove all the water in the allotted tome. The cup represents a cofferdam. Removing the water from the cup with a spoon represents the difficulty of removing water from a cofferdam by hand with buckets. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cofferdams were made with tree trunks and clay. An Archimedean screw was constructed by placing layers of flexible, pitch-covered wood strips around a long wooden beam. Over this spiral, or screw, tight-fitting, narrow wooden planks were fastened. </li></ul><ul><li>Return to the title slide </li></ul>
Answer Key for Roman Roads <ul><li>1. The weighted strings hand parallel to the pole when the groma is placed on a level surface. The strings are pulled to the side when the groma is placed on an incline. The groma provided Roman engineers with a portable tool that could quickly help them determine right angles. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans built roads on three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. It would take the Roman army approximately 27 days to march 702 miles. </li></ul><ul><li>Return to the title slide </li></ul>
Roman Achievements Their legacy to the modern world
Development of Aqueducts The need for a water supply in cities led Romans to build aqueducts. Aqueducts, canal-like concrete structures, brought water from springs, wells, and distant lakes to people in cities. In order to supply drinking water to the Roman people, aqueducts tunneled through mountains and crossed valleys. Here we see an illustration of interconnected systems of aqueducts in ancient Rome. Segovia Aqueduct
Development of the Dome Roman learned how to use columns and arches from both the Etruscans and the Greeks, two groups that settled in Italy before Roman civilization developed. The Romans improved on design of arches by inventing the dome, a roof formed by rounded arches. Once Romans learned to use concrete, they were able to mold the domes on the ground. After the walls and columns of a building were constructed, the dome was hoisted into position on the top of a building. This achievement allowed architects to build enormous structures using domes. Today domed buildings, like the Capitol building in Washington D.C. shown on this and the next two slides, appear in many parts of the world.
Greater Freedom for Women In early Roman times, women had few legal rights. As the Roman Empire expanded, new ideas were included in the law that provided some protection for women. Women were given the right to own property, which helped them gain other rights. For example, some Roman women owned businesses and some gained political influence in Rome. Above, we see a picture of a woman pharmacist. At home, many women shared in household decisions and managed the family accounts.
Latin Language Latin was the spoken and written language of Rome. Many forms of literature-poetry, histories, fictional stories, and dramas-were written in Latin. Here we see a picture of an educated Roman reading in his private library. Latin could be understood throughout the Empire, and it became the language of the Roman Catholic Church. Latin greatly influenced the vocabulary of many languages. The English word for “justice,” for instance, comes from the Latin word “jus”, meaning law. This same Latin root is also found in the French word “justice,” the Italian word “giusizia,” and the Spanish word, “justicia.”
Military Organization As the Roman Empire expanded, it needed extra military protection against invaders. To strengthen defenses, the Roman government required all citizens who owned land to serve in the army. The Roman army was divided into units called legions. These groups were made up of 6,000 heavily armed foot soldiers. Each legion was divided into smaller units called centuries, which could be moved around quickly. As a result, groups of Roman soldiers could easily split off from the main army and could attack the enemy from all sides. The Roman army-pictured when you click the mosue gathering in formation -was built on cooperation and discipline. A Roman legion had to be able to build a complete fortified camp in a night, and was trained to-at the sound of a trumpet, take apart the very same camp in a night.
To improve transportation and help unify distant parts of the Empire, Romans built highways. By the year AD 100, over 250,000 miles of roads connected the cities of the Roman Empire. These roads were made of heavy concrete blocks set in layers of crushed stones and pebbles. Like the Appian Way, the famous road pictured here, Roman roads were designed to last forever. The extensive Roman system of roads and bridges made travel faster in the days of ancient Rome than it ever was again until the development of the railroads in the 1800’s. Network of Concrete Roads
Republican Form of Government Rome’s form of government influenced other societies. In 509 BC, Rome set up a republic-a government in which citizens vote to choose their leaders. By about 275 BC, no single class of people dominated the government. Rather, the government was partly a monarchy (ruled by a king), partly an aristocracy (ruled by nobles, as was the Roman senate), and partly a democracy (government by the people). When you click, you will see a Roman leader speaking in the Senate. The Constitution of the United States is based on the Roman Republic’s system of balancing the legislative, judicial, and executive powers of government.
Spread of Christianity In early Roman times, Christianity, a new religion, was one of many religions. Christians were persecuted (legally punished) because they refused to worship the Roman gods and emperor. Many Christians were tortured and executed and became martyrs (people who suffered and died for their beliefs). Some were used as human torches, while others, as pictured here, were sent to the Circus Maximus arena to battle and be devoured by lions. The attempts by Roman authorities to eliminate Christianity backfired. People in the Roman Empire were so impressed by the faith of the martyrs that they converted to Christianity in large numbers. By AD 395, Christianity was declared the official religion of the Roman Empire and rapidly spread across the Roman world.
Spread of Greek Ideas Roman life was heavily influenced by Greek ideas and culture. Ancient Greece was an important civilization that existed before the rise of the Roman Empire. Educated Romans learned the Greek language and studied Greek art, literature, philosophy, and architecture. Romans developed Greek architectural features, such as columns and arches, and used them in their buildings. When you click you will see the Baths of Caracalla, which demonstrates the use of the arch in Roman bath-houses. Visitors came to Rome to see the city’s magnificent buildings, 37 monumental gates, 500 fountains, and 36 marble arches. Many visitors returned to their own lands and began to imitate Roman and Greek styles in their own buildings.
System of Laws Early Roman law was written down and carved on twelve tablets. Though these Twelve Tables of Law applied to only Roman citizens, the tablets, as the picture shows were hung in the Roman Forum for all to see. As the Empire expanded, these laws were combined with other laws and customs. The laws were written down as a code of justice that would apply to all people. According to Roman law, an accused person was considered innocent until proven guilty. The principles of Roman law became the basis for many codes of law developed in European countries and the places-like America-that were influenced by them.