CHAPTER 4Section 5: Alexander and the Hellenistic Kingdoms
Section 5: Alexander and the Hellenistic KingdomsIn 359 BCE Philip II came to the throne in powerfulMacedonia. He longed to unite Greece and Macedonia.Fearful of Philips intentions, the Greeks formed adefensive alliance, but they were defeated.Philips son Alexander, who became known asAlexander the Great, defeated the Persian Empirewithin a few years and expanded his empire as far eastas modern Pakistan. Although Alexanders empire wasshort-lived, it was successful in spreading Greek culturein the region.During the Hellenistic Era, Greek colonies thrived inSouthwest Asia, and important works ofscience, philosophy, art, and architecture wereproduced throughout the Hellenistic world.
Section 5: Alexander and the Hellenistic KingdomsThe Threat of Macedonia: WhileGreece was dealing with thePeloponnesian War, Macedoniawas gaining military strengthunder Philip II. He attacked andovertook Greece, but wasassassinated before he couldaccomplish all that he wanted.In 338 BCE, the Athenians alliedwith other Greek states to fightthe Macedonians. They weredefeated at the Battle ofChaeronea, near Thebes.From there, Philip quickly gainedcontrol of all of Greece, bringingan end to their freedom. Heinsisted the Greeks states form aleague and cooperate with him in awar against Persia. He wasassassinated before this occurred,and his son Alexander took overthis ambitious plan.
Alexander the GreatOnly 20 when he became king of Macedonia. Hisfather prepared him to become king during his entirelife Alexander’s Conquests Beginning in 334 BCE, Alexander entered Asia Minor with an army of 37,000 made up of Macedonians and Greeks By 332 BCE, Alexander had freed the Ionian Greek cities in Asia Minor, and conquered Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. Alexandria, Egypt is named after him.
Alexander the GreatBy 331 BCE, Alexander defeated the Persians at Gaugamela (nearBabylon) After this battle, he took control of Persian EmpireBy 326 BCE, Alexander had reached India and the Indus river. He had many difficulties in India, and his soldiers refused to go further into India Alexander agreed to return home, but thousands died as a result of his choice to go through the desert (in current Iran) He returned to Babylon and planned more campaignsIn June of 323 BCE, Alexander died from exhaustion, wounds,fever, and alcohol. He was 32 years old.
Alexander’s LegacyMaster of strategy and tactics in battle, which made himsuccessful general. Brave and reckless, he inspired troops when he risked his own life in battle Alexander wanted to be like Achilles, the legendary fighter of the Trojan WarAlexander extended Greek and Macedonian rule over one of thelargest empires in history Greece and Macedonia got rich from the natural resources that were paid to them by the conquered nations (gold, silver) Leaders who followed Alexander tried to copy his example and create military monarchies, in which the military supported rulers
Hellenistic EmpiresAlexander spread Greek culture throughoutAsia, India, and Northern Africa Language Architecture ArtThe influence of Alexander and the spread of Greekculture led to the creation of Hellenistic Era Hellenistic means “to imitate Greeks”
Hellenistic Empires• After Alexander’s death, his empire fell apart and four kingdoms emerged: • Macedonia • Syria • Pergamum • Egypt• All four kingdoms would eventually be conquered by Rome
Hellenistic KingdomsRulers of the four new kingdoms used Greeks orMacedonians to form the new ruling class Natives were kept out of ruling classes Natives who wanted to become part of the ruling class were expected to learn Greek and Greek customsAlexander created military settlements throughout hisempire New Kingdoms used these settlements to help spread Greek culture Armies were kept in settlements for the protection of the kingdom
Alexandria started as a militarysettlement, but grew tobecome one of the mostimportant cities in Egypt.By the first centuryBCE, Alexandria was the largestcity in the Mediterranean
Hellenistic Culture Sculpture Hellenistic Kings wanted their cities to look Greek, so they commissioned (paid for) hundreds of sculptures Sculptors moved away from the ideal and began creating more realistic sculpture than was seen in the Classical age
Hellenistic Culture Greek architecture was prominent in the Hellenistic Kingdoms Greek architects were in high demand in the Hellenistic kingdoms Architects built temples, theaters, baths, and government buildings with a distinct Greek style
Hellenistic CultureLiterature Science The Hellenistic Age saw Alexandria had largest considerable advances in the library of ancient times sciences, especially math and astronomy Argonautica was written, it Aristarchus developed helio- was the story of Jason and centric theory that sun was the Argonauts and the center of universe search for the Golden Fleece Eratosthenes determined earth’s circumference (he Poetry, drama, and was off by only 185 miles) literature thrived in Euclid wrote Elements, the Hellenistic Kingdoms first textbook on geometry
ArchimedesOne of the most important scientists of the Hellenistic era wasArchimedes Studied geometry, especially spheres and cylinders, he established the value of the mathematical constant PI (π) Archimedes was an inventor, he invented the Archimedes Screw, which was used to pump water out of mines and for irrigation He built devices to repel attackers when the Romans laid siege to the city of Syracuse He’s famous for uttering “Eureka” upon discovering the theory of displacement while in his bath Also emphasized the importance of levers, which led to the invention of machines and weapons for the next several centuries
PhilosophyAthens remained the center of philosophy in the Hellenisticworld, men would come from throughout Asia, Africa, andGreece to study philosophy in Athens Epicurus established Epicureanism, a philosophy that said humans should follow their own self-interest, as their self- interest was a motivating force Another school of thought was Stoicism, established by Zeno, which was concerned with how people find happiness. Stoics believed happiness was gained through inner peace and harmony with the will of god. Stoics could bear whatever happened in life because they believed it was the will of god. These people were called Stoics.