1.
Spread Sheet
Tools :
Formulas, Functions, Charts,
Graphs
Pre Ph.D. COURSE WORK: PAPER II
Created By: Jamal Qasim, Integral University, Lucknow
Mail id: jqasim2003@yahoo.com
2.
Return to Table of Contents
Excel is a computer program used to create electronic
spreadsheets. Within Excel, users can organize
data, create charts, and perform calculations. Excel is a
convenient program because it allows the user to create
large spreadsheets, reference information from other
spreadsheets, and it allows for better storage and
modification of information. Excel operates like other
Microsoft (MS) Office programs and has many of the
same functions and shortcuts of other MS programs.
Introduction to Excel
3.
Return to Table of Contents
Overview of the Excel
Screen
Before working with Excel, it is essential to first become familiar with the
Excel screen. The following will help you to recognize the various parts of an
Excel screen and their functions.
The Title bar is located at the very top of the screen. The Title bar displays
the name of the workbook you are currently using.
The Menu bar is located just below the Title bar. The Menu bar is used to
give instructions to the program.
4.
Return to Table of Contents
Overview of the Excel
Screen
Toolbars provide shortcuts to menu commands. There are many different toolbars and the
user can choose which toolbars are shown on the screen. To enable more toolbars go to
“View” on the Menu bar, select Toolbars, then select which toolbar you wish to add to the
screen.
The Standard Toolbar provides shortcuts to the File Menu, as well as mathematical
functions, chart creation, and sorting.
The Formatting Toolbar provides shortcuts to font formatting as well as mathematical
functions.
The Status Toolbar allows the user to view if the current worksheet is ready to enter data.
5.
Return to Table of Contents
Overview of the Excel
Screen
• Microsoft Excel consists of
workbooks. Within each
workbook, there is an infinite 256
number of worksheets.
• Each worksheet contains columns
and rows.
• Where a column and a row intersect
is called the cell. For example, cell B6
is located where column B and row 6
meet. You enter your data into the
cells on the worksheet.
• The tabs at the bottom of the screen
represent different worksheets within
a workbook. You can use the
scrolling buttons on the left to bring
other worksheets into view.
6.
Return to Table of Contents
Overview of the Excel
Screen
• The Name Box indicates
what cell you are in. This
cell is called the “active
cell.” This cell is
highlighted by a black
box.
• The “=” is used to edit
your formula on your
selected cell.
• The Formula Bar
indicates the contents of
the cell selected. If you
have created a
formula, then the formula
will appear in this space.
7.
Return to Table of Contents
Menu: Premium & Later
• Home
• Insert
• Page Layout
• Formulas
• Data
• Review
• View
•File
•Edit
•View
•Insert
•Format
•Tools
•Data
•Window
•Help
8.
Return to Table of Contents
Entering Formulas
When entering numerical data, you can command Excel to do any
mathematical function.
Start each formula with an equal sign (=). To enter the same
formulas for a range of cells, use the colon sign “:”
ADDITION FORMULAS
To add cells together use the “+”
sign.
To sum up a series of
cells, highlight the cells, then
click the auto sum button. The
answer will appear at the
bottom of the highlighted box.
9.
Return to Table of Contents
Entering Formulas
SUBTRACTION FORMULAS
• To subtract cells, use the “-”
sign.
DIVISION FORMULAS
• To divide cells, use the “/” sign.
MULTIPLICATION
FORMULAS
• To multiply cells, use the “*”
sign.
10.
Return to Table of Contents
Inserting Functions
A function is a predefined, or built-in, formula for a
commonly used calculations
You can easily calculate the sum of a large number of
cells by using a function.
Each Excel function has a name and syntax.
– The syntax specifies the order in which you must enter the
different parts of the function and the location in which
you must insert commas, parentheses, and other
punctuation
– Arguments are numbers, text, or cell references used by
the function to calculate a value
– Some arguments are optional
11.
Return to Table of Contents
Work with the Insert Function
button
Excel supplies more than 350 functions organized
into 10 categories:
– Database, Date and
Time, Engineering, Financial, Information, Log
ical, Lookup, Math, Text and Data, and
Statistical functions
You can use the Insert Function button on the
Formula bar to select from a list of functions.
A series of dialog boxes will assist you in filling in
the arguments of the function and this process also
enforces the use of proper syntax.
12.
Return to Table of Contents
Inserting a Function
Function
Argument
Insert
Function
button
Description
and
argument
format
Function Arguments dialog box
13.
Return to Table of Contents
Examine the Insert Function
dialog box
14.
Return to Table of Contents
Typing a Function: Example
MAX function in progress
15.
Return to Table of Contents
Define functions, and
functions within functions
The SUM function is a very commonly used math function
in Excel.
A basic formula example to add up a small number of cells
is =A1+A2+A3+A4, but that method would be
cumbersome if there were 100 cells to add up.
Use Excel's SUM function to total the values in a range of
cells like this: SUM(A1:A100).
You can also use functions within functions. Consider the
expression =ROUND(AVERAGE(A1:A100),1).
– This expression would first compute the average of all the values
from cell A1 through A100 and then round that result to 1 digit to
the right of the decimal point
16.
Return to Table of Contents
The Average Function
The average function is necessary to
calculate the average of a range of cells.
Like any other formula, the average
function may be copied across cells.
17.
Return to Table of Contents
Use the Insert Function dialog
box to enter function
arguments
18.
Return to Table of Contents
Create logical functions
A function that determines whether a condition is true or false is called
a logical function.
Excel supports several logical functions such as
AND, FALSE, IF, NOT, OR and TRUE.
A very common function is the IF function, which uses a logical test to
determine whether an expression is true or false, and then returns one
value if true or another value if false.
The logical test is constructed using a comparison operator that
compares two expressions to determine if they are equal, not equal, if
one is greater than the other, and so forth.
– The comparison operators are =, >, >=, <, <=, and <>
You can also make comparisons with text strings. You must enclose
text strings within quotation marks.
19.
Return to Table of Contents
Using the If function
The arguments for the IF function are:
– IF(logical_test,value_if_true,value_if_false)
– For example, the function =IF(A1=10,20,30) tests whether
the value in cell A1 is equal to 10
– If it is, the function returns the value 20, otherwise the
function returns the value 30
– Cell A1 could be empty or contain anything else besides the
value 10 and the logical test would be false; therefore, the
function returns the value 30
To insert an IF function, click the Insert Function button and
search for the IF function, then click OK.
When the Function Arguments dialog box appears, simply fill in
the arguments.
20.
Return to Table of Contents
Research Oriented Functions
AVERAGE: Returns the average of its
arguments
GEOMEAN: Returns the geometric mean
HARMEAN: Returns the harmonic mean
MEDIAN: Returns the median of the given
numbers
MODE: Returns the most common value in
a data set
21.
Return to Table of Contents
STDEV: Estimates standard deviation based
on a sample
QUARTILE: Returns the quartile of a data set
KURT: Returns the kurtosis of a data set
BINOMDIST: Returns the individual term
binomial distribution probability
CORREL: Returns the correlation coefficient
between two data sets
22.
Return to Table of Contents
PROB: Returns the probability that values
in a range are between two limits
SKEW: Returns the Skewness of a
distribution
VAR: Estimates variance based on a sample
CHIDIST: Returns the one-tailed
probability of the chi-squared distribution
Others
23.
Return to Table of Contents
Excel Mean (AVERAGE)
Function
The AVERAGE function can be used to find the
average or arithmetic mean of a list of numbers.
The syntax for the AVERAGE function is:
= AVERAGE ( argument1, argument2, ... argument255 )
Argument1, argument 2, ... argument 255 can be
numbers, named ranges, arrays, or cell references..
Up to 255 arguments can be entered.
24.
Return to Table of Contents
Example Using Excel's AVERAGE Function:
Enter the following data into cells C1 to C6:
11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16.
Click on cell C7 - the location where the results will be
displayed.
Click on the Formulas tab.
Choose More Functions > Statistical from the ribbon to
open the function drop down list.
Click on AVERAGE in the list to bring up the function's
dialog box.
25.
Return to Table of Contents
Drag select cells C1 to C6 in the spreadsheet to enter
the range into the dialog box.
Click OK.
The answer 13.5, which is the average value for the data in
cells C1 to C6, should appear in cell C7.
When you click on cell C7 the complete function =
AVERAGE ( C1 : C6 ) appears in the formula bar above
the worksheet.
26.
Return to Table of Contents
MEDIAN Function
The MEDIAN function can be used to find the middle
value in a list of numbers.
Middle, in this case, refers to arithmetic size rather than the
location of the numbers in a list.
If there is an even set of numbers, the median is the
average of the middle two values.
The syntax for the MEDIAN function is:
= MEDIAN ( number1, number2, ... number255 )
Note : Up to 255 numbers can be entered into the function.
27.
Return to Table of Contents
Example: Using Excel's MEDIAN Function
Enter the following data into cells D1 to D5:4,12,49,24,65.
Click on cell E1 - the location where the results will be displayed.
Click on the Formulas tab
Choose More Functions > Statistical from the ribbon to open the
function drop down list
Click on MEDIAN in the list to bring up the function's dialog box
Drag select cells D1 to D5 in the spreadsheet to enter the range into the
dialog box
Click OK
The answer 24 should appear in cell E1 since there are two numbers
larger (49 and 65) and two numbers smaller (4 and 12) than it in the
list
The complete function = MEDIAN (D1 : D5) appears in the formula
bar above the worksheet when you click on cell F1
28.
Return to Table of Contents
Excel MODE.SNGL Function
In Excel 2010, the MODE.SNGL function, was introduced to replace
the MODE function found in previous versions of Excel.
Despite its new name, MODE.SNGL still does the same job which is
to show you the most frequently occurring value in a list of numbers.
The syntax for the MODE.SNGL function is:
= MODE.SNGL ( number1, number2, ... number255 )
29.
Return to Table of Contents
Excel's MODE.SNGL Function Example
Enter the following data into cells D1 to D6: 98, 135, 147, 135, 98, 135.
Click on cell E1 - the location where the results will be displayed.
Click on the Formulas tab.
Choose More Functions > Statistical from theribbon to open the function drop down
list.
Click on MODE.SNGL in the list to bring up the function's dialog box.
Drag select cells D1 to D6 in the spreadsheet to enter the range into the dialog box.
Click OK.
The answer 135 should appear in cell E1 since this number appears the most (three
times) in the list of data.
When you click on cell E1 the complete function = MODE.SNGL ( D1 : D6 ) appears
in the formula bar above the worksheet.
Note: If the selected data range contains no duplicate data, the MODE.SNGL function
will return a #N/A error.
31.
Return to Table of Contents
Standard Deviation Function
The standard deviation is a statistical tool that tells you roughly how far, on
average, each number in your list of data varies from the average value of the
list itself.
The syntax for the Standard Deviation function is:
= STDEV ( Number1, Number2, ... Number255)
Number1, Number2, ... Number255 can be numbers or cell references to a list
of data. Up to 255 arguments can be entered.
32.
Return to Table of Contents
Calculating the Standard Deviation
Enter the following data into cells E1 to E6: 11, 12, 13, 14,
15, 16.
In cell D7 enter the heading Average: and in cell D8 Std
Dev:
Click on cell E8 - the location where the STDEV function
(standard deviation) will be entered.
Click on the Formulas tab.
Choose More Functions > Statistical from the ribbon to
open the function drop down list.
33.
Return to Table of Contents
Click on STDEV in the list to bring up the function's dialog
box.
Drag select cells E1 to E6 in the spreadsheet to enter the
range into the dialog box.
Click OK.
The answer 1.870828693 should appear in cell E7.
This number (approximately 1.87) represents the standard
deviation of each number in the list from the average value
of 13.5.
When you click on cell E8 the complete function =
STDEV ( E1:E6 ) appears in the formula bar above
the worksheet.
34.
Return to Table of Contents
Describing Data with Charts
and Graphs
Charts and graphs can be used to pictorially
represent data.
Graphical representation of data is far more
effective in conveying information than are tables
of data
They are used to make facts clearer and more
understandable.
Excel has nine basic type of charts and graphs
with many sub-classifications within each of the
nine types
35.
Return to Table of Contents
Describing Data with Charts
and Graphs
Column
Bar
Area
Line
High-low
• Radar
• Scatter-plot
• Pie & donut
• 3D surface plot
36.
Return to Table of Contents
Example:
pie chart is used when
– the total of something is known
– to show the pieces that make it up.
A Pie Chart Showing the
Percentage Distribution of
Deaths from all Causes
37.
Return to Table of Contents
Example 2:
Line chart can be extended with no arbitrary ending points
Such chart enables us to answer questions such as
– How many students graduated in 1992?
– In what year did we have the greatest number of graduates?
– What is the fewest number of graduates we have had?
– Were there more graduates in 1989 or in 1998?
What can
we see?
47.
Return to Table of Contents
Describing Data with Charts and
Graphs
Purpose of the Chart Appropriate Chart Type
Compare categorical data Column Chart; Bar Chart, Radar Chart
Compare series of data
over time
Area Chart, Line Chart, Column Chart
(stacked), High-Low Chart
Percentage of total
comparisons
Pie Chart, Donut Chart, Stacked Bar or
Column chart
Relationship between two
variables
Scatter Plot
Relationship between three
variables
3-Dimension Surface Plot
48.
Return to Table of Contents
Creating a chart in Excel
1. Enter data to be plotted on worksheet
2. Highlight data to be plotted
3. Begin Chart Wizard
select Chart from the Insert Menu, or
by pressing the F11 key, or
by selecting the ChartWizard Icon from the Toolbar
4. Follow instructions to create/change graph in
ChartWizard
49.
Return to Table of Contents
Creating Charts
With the Excel
program you can
create charts with the
“Chart Wizard.”
Step 1: Highlight the
data that you wish to
be included in the
chart.
Step 2: Choose a
chart type.
50.
Return to Table of Contents
Creating Charts
Step 3: Change
chart options. Here
you can name the
chart and the
axes, change the
legend, label the
data points, and
many other
options.
Step 4: Choose a
location for the
chart.
Be the first to comment