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Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
Chapter 8 : SALTS
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Chapter 8 : SALTS

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Online learning to understand the concept and application of chemicals on the topic of salt. These slides were uploaded to help students understand the basic concepts of chemistry. Independent study …

Online learning to understand the concept and application of chemicals on the topic of salt. These slides were uploaded to help students understand the basic concepts of chemistry. Independent study in Freestyle.com

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  • 1. CHAPTER 8: SALTS
  • 2. WHO IS SALT ?
  • 3. WHAT IS SALT ?
    WHO IS SALT ?
    Ionic compound – formed when the hydrogen ion, H+ from an acid is replaced by a metal ion or an ammonium ion, NH4+
    REFER TEXT BOOK : PAGE 138
  • 4. EXAMPLE :
    replace
    Na+
    Na+
    Cl-
    Metal ions
    Sodium chloride
    H
    Cl
    replace
    NH4+
    NH4+
    Cl-
    Ammonium ion
    Ammonium chloride
  • 5. SALTS CONSIST ANION PART COMES FROM THE ACID WHILE CATION PART COMES FROM BASES
    Common anions (parent acids)
    Common cations
    HCl
    Na+
    Ca2+
    Mg2+
    Fe2+
    HNO3
    K+
    Cu2+
    Al3+
    Zn2+
    H2CO3
    NH4+
    Fe3+
    Pb2+
    H2SO4
  • 6. METAL ION DISPLACE H+ ION IN ACIDS
  • 7.
  • 8. All nitrate salts ; soluble salts
    ALL
    NO3-
    SOLUBLE SALT
  • 9. All Na+, K+, NH4+ salts ; soluble salts
    ALL
    Na+, K+, NH4+
    SOLUBLE SALT
  • 10. All carbonate salts ; insoluble salts
    EXCEPT
    CO32-
    ALL
    INSOLUBLE SALT
    EXCEPT
    Na+, K+, NH4+
  • 11. All SO42-, Cl- salts ; soluble salts
    EXCEPT
    EXCEPT
    EXCEPT
    ALL
    ALL
    Pb2+
    Ag+ Hg2+
    Pb2+
    Ca 2+
    Ba2+
    Cl-
    SO42-
    SOLUBLE SALT
    SOLUBLE SALT
  • 12.
  • 13. INSOLUBLE SALT
    SOLUBLE SALT
    PbSO4
    ALL
    SO42-
    CaSO4
    ALL
    BaSO4
    ALL
    NO3-
    CO32-
    ALL
    Cl-
    AgCl
    ALL
    PbCl2
    Na+, K+, NH4+
    CLASSIFICATION OF SALTS
  • 14. PREPARATION OF SALTS
    SOLUBLE SALTS
    INSOLUBLE SALTS
    NEUTRALISATION
    OTHER METHOD
    PRECIPITATION
    ACID + METAL
    ACID + ALKALI
    SOLUBLE SALT +
    SOLUBLE SALT
    ACID + METAL OXIDE
    [SPA]
    Sodium ,Na+ salts
    Potassium, K+ salts
    Ammonium, NH4+ salts
    INSOLUBLE SALT
    & SOLUBLE SALT
    ACID + METAL CARBONATE
    OTHER SOLUBLE SALTS
  • 15. PREPARATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS
    [ SODIUM SALTS / POTASSIUM SALTS / AMMONIUM SALTS ]
    NEUTRALISATION REACTION
    EXAMPLE
    PREPARATION OF POTASSIUM CHLORIDE
    K
    OH
    H
    Cl
    Cl
    K
    H2O
    ALKALI
    ACID
    SALTS
    TITRATION METHOD – FIND OUT THE EXACTLY VOLUME OF ACID REQUIRED TO NEUTRALISE ALKALI.
    END POINT – POINT WHEN INDICATOR CHANGES COLOUR DURING TITRATION
    NOTE : CONCENTRATION AND VOLUME OF ALKALI ARE KNOWN.
  • 16. LET DO THIS:
    PREPARATION OF POTASSIUM CHLORIDE
    APPARATUS : Pipette 25mL, Burette 50mL, Conical Flask 250 mL
    MATERIALS : Potassium hydroxide 1.0 M, Hydrochloric acid 1.0 M, Phenolphthalein
    Use a pipette to transfer 25.0 cm3 of potassium hydroxide solution to a conical flask.
    Add 2 to 3 drops of phenolphthalein
    Fill a burette with hydrochloric acid and record the initial burette reading.
    Slowly adding the acid into the conical flask and swirls- until the indicator turns from pink to colourless. Record the volume of acid used. (V cm3)
    Record the final burette reading in 2d.p
    Colourless KOH turn to pink.
    Record the burette reading in 2d.p
  • 17. PREPARATION OF POTASSIUM CHLORIDE
    START OVER AGAIN BUT WITHOUT INDICATOR :
    To get the pure and neutral salt solution
    Pipette 25.0 cm3 of the same potassium hydroxide solution into a conical flask.
    Do not add any indicator.
    From the burette, add exactly V cm3 of hydrochloric acid to the alkali and swirls and shake well.
    RECRYSTALLISATION PROCESS
    [PURIFIED SOLUBLE SALTS]
    HEATING/EVAPORATE
    COOLING
    FILTRATION
    DRY
    Solution salt contains impurities continuous with recrystallisation process
    CRYSTAL SALT
  • 18. PREPARATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS
    [ OTHER SALTS EXCEPT Na+, K+, NH4+]
    OTHER METHOD : DISSOLVE METAL IN ACID
    Pour 50 cm3of sulphuric acid into a beaker. Warm the acid
    Use a spatula to add copper(II) oxide powder bit by bit into the acid. Stir the mixture well. Continue adding copper(II) oxide until some of it no longer dissolves(excess unreacted metal
    Metal/ metal oxide/ metal carbonate
    Excess unreactedmetal (residue)
    Glass rod
    Acid
    Evaporating basin with salt solution (filtrate)
    Solution salt contains impurities continuous with recrystallisation process
    See the change of metal solid colour and dissolve
  • 19. RECRYSTALLISATION PROCESS [PURIFIED SOLUBLE SALTS]
    HEATING/EVAPORATE
    COOLING
    Salt solution
    Evaporating basin
    Crystal salt
  • 20. RECRYSTALLISATION PROCESS [PURIFIED SOLUBLE SALTS]
    FILTRATION
    DRY
    CRYSTAL SALT
    These physical characteristics:
    • Regulars geometry shapes, such as cubic or hexagonal.
    • 21. Flat faces, straight edges and sharp angles.
    • 22. Same angle between adjacent faces.
    Glass rod
    Rinse with distilled water
    Filter Paper
    Salt Cystals
    The crystals are filtered and rinsed with a little cold distilled water.
  • 23. DISSOLVE SOLUTE IN ACID
    PREPARATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS
    NEUTRALISATION REACTION
    1ST TITRATION WITH INDICATOR
    FIND VOLUME OF ACID
    HEATING
    DISSOLVE METAL IN ACID
    TRANSFER TO EVAPORATING BASIN
    EXCESS METAL NOT DISSOLVE
    COMPLETE REACT
    2ND TITRATION NO INDICATOR
    GET PURE SALT
    recrystalisation
    HEATING/EVAPORATE
    COOLING
    FILTRATION
    DRY
    CRYSTAL SALT
  • 24. PREPARATION OF INSOLUBLE SALTS
    [ ALL CARBONATE SALTS except Na+/K+/NH4+ ]
    PbSO4 / CaSO4/ BaSO4/PbCl2/ AgCl]
    PRECIPITATION REACTION
    PREPARATION OF LEAD(II) CHLORIDE
    EXAMPLE
    Pb
    NO3
    Na
    Cl
    Cl2
    Pb
    NO3
    Na
    SOLUBLE SALTS
    SOLUBLE SALTS
    INSOLUBLE
    SALTS
    DOUBLE DECOMPOSITION METHOD – TWO AQUOUES SOLUTIONS/SOLUBLE SALTS WERE MIX TOGETHER INTERCHANGE TO PRODUCE TWO NEW COMPOUND WHICH IS INSOLUBLESALT OR PRECIPITATE, AND AQUEOUS SOLUTION/SOLUBLE SALTS
  • 25. PRECIPITATION REACTION
    two aquoues solutions/soluble salts were mix together
    [one of the solutions contains the cations of the insoluble salt]
    [one of the solutions contains the anions of the insoluble salt]
    the ions of the two aqueous solutions above interchange to produce two new compound which is insoluble salt or precipitate, and aqueous solution
  • 26. PRECIPITATION REACTION
    Glass rod
    Glass rod
    Distilled water
    Mixture solutions
    Filter paper
    Precipitate (residue)
    Precipitate (residue)
    Filter funnel
    Retort stand
    Aqueous Solution (filterate)
    Rinse : remove other ions from precipitate
    Filtration : Remove solution from precipitate
    FILTRATION
    RINSE
  • 27. PRECIPITATION REACTION
    FLOW CHART : PREPARATION OF INSOLUBLE SALTS
    Precipitate/Soluble salts
    Filter paper
    MIX - STIR
    TWO SOLUBLE SALTS
    Dry : Dried by pressing between two pieces of filter paper.
    FILTRATION
    REMOVE FILTRATE
    RINSE
    REMOVE OTHER IONS
    DRY
    PRESS BETWEEN FILTER PAPER
  • 28. PREPARATION OF SALTS
    REMEMBER : METAL ION DISPLACE
    HYDROGEN ION IN ACID TO FORMED SALTS
    HCl [H+/Cl-]
    Hydrochloric acid
    METAL / AMMONIUM ION
    Na+
    Ca2+
    Zn2+
    HNO3 [H+/NO3-]
    Nitric Acid
    K+
    Al3+
    Pb2+
    H2SO4 [2H+/SO42-]
    Nitric Acid
    NH4+
    Mg2+
    Cu2+
    H2CO3 [2H+/CO32-]
    Nitric Acid
    Fe2+
    Fe3+
  • 29. SUMMARIES OF REACTION
  • 30. EXTRA INFO : REMEMBER
    Reactive metal is magnesium, aluminium, and zinc. Unreactivemetal is iron, lead, silver
    Metal that is less reactive from hydrogen such as copper, lead and silver did not react with dilute acid.
    Soluble salts of sodium, potassium and ammonium can be prepared by the reaction between an acid and alkali.
  • 31. EXTRA INFO : REMEMBER
    Metal, metal oxide and metal carbonate is a solid that cannot dissolves in water, hence during reaction that solid must be added excessively to make sure all hydrogen ions in acid is completely reacted. Excess solid can be expelling through filtration.
    Unreactive metal such as lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and silver (Ag) cannot react with dilute acid. So to prepare salt contains lead ions (Pb2+), copper ions (Cu2+) or silver ions (Ag+), we must use either oxide powder or carbonate powder only.
    Impure soluble salt can be purified through crystallization process
  • 32. Copyright © 2010 AlchemistFreestyle.blogspot.com

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