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半導體製程

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半導體製程

  1. 1. 半導體原理及應用 (II)
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>ULSI 簡介與應用 </li></ul><ul><li>ULSI 製程簡介 </li></ul><ul><li>ULSI 之未來趨勢 </li></ul><ul><li>ULSI 製程影片觀賞 </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Semiconductor </li></ul><ul><li>Semiconductor devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MOSFET </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CMOS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrated circuits </li></ul><ul><li>Applications of IC </li></ul>ULSI 簡介與應用
  4. 4. Semiconductor <ul><li>Conductor, insulator </li></ul><ul><li>Semiconductor:  = 10 –2 ~ 10 9 ohm-cm at room T </li></ul><ul><ul><li>element: Si, Ge… (IV) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compound: GaAs… (III-V), ZnS… (II-VI), SiC… (IV-IV) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semiconductor devices: </li></ul>
  5. 5. Market Share in Semiconductor Devices <ul><li>Si-based (especially MOSFET) devices are dominant </li></ul>
  6. 6. MOSFET M: Metal (or n + -poly, p + -poly) O: Oxide (gate oxide) S: Semiconductor (p-Si or n-Si) FET: Field effect transistor (E y , E x )
  7. 7. CMOS <ul><li>Complementary MOS = NMOS & PMOS pair (CMOS = NMOS + PMOS) </li></ul>
  8. 8. IC <ul><li>Integrated Circuits: composed of many devices on a chip (die) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SSI: small scale IC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSI: medium scale IC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LSI: large scale IC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VLSI: very large scale IC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ULSI : ultra large scale IC </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Application of ULSI
  10. 11. ULSI 製程簡介 <ul><li>IC fabrication flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystal growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin film deposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ion implantation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lithography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metallization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planarization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CMOS process flow </li></ul>
  11. 12. IC Fabrication Flow <ul><li>電路設計  IC 製造  封裝  測試 </li></ul>
  12. 14. Crystal Growth
  13. 15. Wafer Size <ul><li>size  => number of chips  , cost  </li></ul>
  14. 16. 單晶體 vs. 多晶體
  15. 17. 多晶矽原料 SiO 2 + 2C  Si + 2CO ( 純度 98%) Si + 3HCl  SiHCl 3 + H 2 ( 蒸餾去除不純物 ) SiHCl 3 + H 2  Si + 3HCl ( 純度 99.999999999%) “11 個 9”
  16. 19. 長晶爐 ( 固定液面高度 ) ( 上升 : 0.3~10mm/min 旋轉 : 2~20rpm) ( 控制 : 晶棒直徑 上升速率 液面溫度 ) ( 避免 Si 在 高溫氧化 ) SiO 2  SiO + O ( 脫氧 ) ( 熱場 ) ( 液態表面溫度 )
  17. 20. 晶圓成形
  18. 36. RTP <ul><li>Rapid thermal processing </li></ul>
  19. 37. Diffusion
  20. 41. Ion Implantation
  21. 47. Etching
  22. 88. ULSI 之未來趨勢 <ul><li>Moore’s law </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced MOSFET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul>
  23. 90. Challenges in IC <ul><li>Moore’s law: number of transistors 2X/18~24 months => density  , performance  , functionality  (SOC) </li></ul>
  24. 91. Technology Roadmap <ul><li>Device dimension  <= physics + material + technology </li></ul>
  25. 92. Recent Trend of MOSFET <ul><li>Trend of advanced MOSFET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-k (C =  A/d) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-k </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cu (R =  l /A) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal gate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strain (  = q  /m*) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>浸潤式微影技術 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>

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