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A Brief History of Web Mapping

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A lecture that I gave on 17th March 2010 at the University of Nottingham on the History of Web Mapping.

Starts with some early history and then tracks the interplay of technology, business and usage in the development of web mapping over the last 2 decades.

Based on a series of interviews with key players in the UK and US, this is a work in progress. There is still quite a lot more needed to complete this.

Some useful resources are linked to in the penultimate slide. The mind map that I used to build this talk is at http://bit.ly/HistoryWebMap

Published in: Technology, Business
  • @Jaimie Mulligan see notes 90 & 91 below and http://bit.ly/HistoryWebMap
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  • Where are you getting your sources... I'd love to reference this but I don't know where the information is coming from
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  • Interesting view on the developments of web maps. One major GIS-company seems to be missing: Intergraph (I have no shares). Otherwise the focus might be solely on ESRI, which is a major player, but certainly not the only one. I also had a look at your mindmap, where the GIS-timeline easily will fit in, since this has both connections to technology and business.
    Excellent work, I will forward the link to students.
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  • @Carl Thanks for the comments. I have updated the mind map at https://www.mindmeister.com/maps/show/84442111 to reflect those thoughts. I will update slides when I have gathered enough changes etc for a full v2

    @lance Missing OGC standards was a perspective issue on my part which several picked up, I also have not covered mobile at all. The mind map has been updated with the key dates for OGC at https://www.mindmeister.com/maps/show/84442111
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  • Steven -

    Nice. However, a couple of items. The internet was actually 'born' in 1969 and not 1991. October 1969 is when the first data packets were exchanged between multiple computers. Specifically, The first ARPANET link was established between the University of California, Los Angeles and the Stanford Research Institute on 22:30 hours on October 29, 1969. Of course, quite a few years passed before a truly 'operational' internet infrastructure evolved. Anyway, 1991 appears to be the year the web was 'born'. Again specifically, on August 6, 1991, Berners-Lee posted a short summary of the World Wide Web project on the alt.hypertext newsgroup. This date also marked the debut of the Web as a publicly available service on the Internet. Finally, you might want to add a slide on the emergence of the browser. Without browsers, the web is pretty hard to use :-) From Wikipedia, 'The introduction of the NCSA Mosaic Web browser in 1993 – one of the first graphical Web browsers – led to an explosion in Web use.'

    Hope this helps!

    Carl Reed, CTO, OGC
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A Brief History of Web Mapping

  1. 1. The History of Web Mapping<br />Steven Feldman<br />http://flic.kr/p/6GMqs<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. “Why would anyone want a map on the internet?”<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/mmoorr/2440318125/<br />
  4. 4. http://www.flickr.com/photos/kubapinkwiner/3516259272/<br />
  5. 5. 6200 BCE CatalHyuk<br />
  6. 6. 2400 BCE, Babylonia<br />
  7. 7. 600-350 BCE, Pythagoras & Aristotle<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kapitolinischer_Pythagoras_adjusted.jpg<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aristotle_Altemps_Inv8575.jpg<br />
  8. 8. 140 BCE, Ptolemy - Geographia<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PtolemyWorldMap.jpg<br />
  9. 9. 730 CE, Mappae Mundi<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ebstorfer-stich2.jpg<br />
  10. 10. 1360 – 1st British Road Map<br />
  11. 11. 1440 - Gutenberg<br />
  12. 12. 1569 – Mercator publishes 1st world map<br />
  13. 13. Skip to 1980’s<br />
  14. 14. Heroes, visionaries and some missed opportunities<br />
  15. 15. My friends – the geek, the suit and the hippy<br />Technology<br />Business<br />Usage<br />
  16. 16. Mid to late 80’s<br />
  17. 17. 1989 - Global Positioning System<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:GPS_Satellite_NASA_art-iif.jpg<br />
  18. 18. 1991 – The Internet<br />
  19. 19. 1993 – 1st Web Map Server<br />26 June: final (24th) GPS satellite launched; GPS network becomes fully operational<br />
  20. 20. 1994/6 – Genasys Spatial Web Broker<br />
  21. 21. 1995 – Multimap formed<br />
  22. 22. 1995 – Vicinity formed<br />
  23. 23. 1996 MapQuest formed<br />
  24. 24. 1996 – the GI guys get into the game<br />10 sites using Mapserver<br />End of selective availability of GPS announced<br />
  25. 25. Geotechnology makes ugly small maps!<br />
  26. 26. 1997 – pace of innovation hots up<br />
  27. 27. 1997 – MapInfo launch store locator application<br />
  28. 28. 1997 PCI Geomatics acquire Tydac<br />
  29. 29. 1997 – ESRI MapObjects IMS<br />
  30. 30. Dec 1997 – MapInfo launch MapXtreme<br />
  31. 31. 1999 – The deals kick off <br />Microsoft sells Sidewalk to Ticketmaster and is out of web mapping<br />Feb ’99 – 76m maps14m routes<br />2.7m uniques<br />IPO = $69m<br />
  32. 32. AOL buys MapQuest for $1.1bn!!!!<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/aresauburnphotos/2678453389/sizes/z/in/photostream/<br />
  33. 33. Feb 2000 -Vicinity IPO $120m<br />
  34. 34. 2000 - Open Source starts to gather momentum<br />
  35. 35. May 2000 – End of “selective availability” of GPS<br />
  36. 36. Dec 2000 – Multimap launches WAP<br />
  37. 37. 2000 – ArcIMS<br />
  38. 38. 2002 Dot Com Madness<br />
  39. 39. April 2002 – Microsoft launch Web Services<br />
  40. 40. Oct 2002 – Microsoft acquires Vicinity for $96m<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/meddygarnet/2794608347/<br />
  41. 41. Oct 2002 – Arc Web Services<br />First mentions of Location Based Services<br />
  42. 42. 2003 - Multimap serve over 1bn maps<br />1stMapserver user meeting<br />
  43. 43. Mar 2004 – Yahoo Maps<br />
  44. 44. 2004 – Google Local<br />
  45. 45. 2004 – more people use maps online than e-mail<br />
  46. 46. Aug 2004 – OpenStreetMap conceived<br />
  47. 47. Oct 2004 – Mapsearch.ch<br />
  48. 48. Oct 2004 – Google acquires Where 2 Technologies<br />Data storage falls below $0.50 per GB<br />
  49. 49. Oct 2004 – Google acquires Keyhole<br />
  50. 50. 2004 – ESRI & MapInfo Service Oriented Architectures<br />
  51. 51. 2005 – the web mapping world changed<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/netzkobold/2029727221/<br />
  52. 52. 8th Feb 2005 – G Day<br />
  53. 53. April 2005 – In house Mashup<br />
  54. 54. June 2005 – 1stMashups<br />
  55. 55. A Pivotal Moment<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/venosdale/4538665373/<br />
  56. 56. Jun 2005 – Google release maps API<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/huxhombre/5321871461/<br />
  57. 57. Yahoo & Microsoft follow within weeks<br />
  58. 58. 2005 – Rapid Responses?<br />Multimap 7m upm<br />MapQuest 43m upm<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/danielmorris/3015737820/<br />
  59. 59. June 2005 - Interest in Open Source growing<br />Autodesk approach Open Source community<br />
  60. 60. Oct 2005 – 2nd Web 2.0 Conference<br />20% of worldwide web users use mapping online<br />
  61. 61. 2006 – A year of open?<br />
  62. 62. June 2006 OpenStreetMap Isle of Wight Workshop<br />
  63. 63. June 2006 – Google Maps Enterprise<br />24% of internet users worldwide use web mapping (45% in UK; 40% in US)<br />
  64. 64. 2006 Early mentions of GeoWeb<br />
  65. 65. Nov 2006 – Mashup workshop at Ordnance Survey<br />
  66. 66. Dec 2006 – Emergence of the term “Neogeography”<br />
  67. 67. May 2007 – Street View<br />
  68. 68. June 2007 - Google adds draggable routing<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/letsbook/2778790872/<br />
  69. 69. July 2007 – 1st OpenStreetMap Conference<br />
  70. 70. 2007 – 50,000 Google Mashups<br />Google Maps 71.5m Google Earth 22.7m<br />
  71. 71. 2008 – Playing catchup<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/b-tal/3419761761/<br />
  72. 72. 2008 - REST API,s<br />
  73. 73. 2008 – Google driving down costs<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/bitzcelt/4787422150/<br />
  74. 74. 2008- The pace speeds ups<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/peterhodge/4655579584/<br />
  75. 75. Oct 2009 – Google drops TeleAtlas in US<br />
  76. 76. 2009 – ArcGIS.com<br />
  77. 77. 2010 – Vectors back in fashion?<br />
  78. 78. July 2010 – MapQuest uses OpenStreetMap<br />
  79. 79. End 2010 – 350,000 sites use Google Maps API<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/niallkennedy/45491564/<br />
  80. 80. Putting it all together<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/drachmann/327122302/<br />
  81. 81.
  82. 82. Change<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/mugley/282080242/<br />
  83. 83. Clash of Business Models<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/alexmasters/268526879/<br />
  84. 84. http://www.flickr.com/photos/kryptyk/125245025/<br />Enablers<br />
  85. 85. Technological loops<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/meganpru/3854069714/<br />
  86. 86. New words for old<br />
  87. 87. Simplifying Complexity<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/ldrose/4609205635/<br />
  88. 88. Demand<br />
  89. 89. Beyond 2011<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/jleveque/5053722042/<br />
  90. 90. Thanks to<br />Tom Myers, Product Manager, PBBI<br />Dave McIlhagga, founder DM Solutions<br />Anthony Pegg, MapQuest<br />Ed Parsons, Geotechnologist, Google <br />Sean Phelan & Audrey Mandela, founders of MultiMap<br />Charles Kennelly, CTO ESRI UK<br />Web Mapping 2.0: The Neogeography of the GeoWeb, MukiHaklay, Alex Singleton & Chris Parker<br />Tyler Mitchell, Executive Director OSGeo Foundation<br />
  91. 91. Mindmap, Notes & Resources<br />http://bit.ly/HistoryWebMap<br />
  92. 92. Steven Feldman<br />steven@knowwhere.consulting.co.uk<br />www.knowwhereconsulting.co.uk<br />www.geo.me<br />@stevenfeldman<br />

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