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The General Body Plans of AnimalsPrepared by:Group 1 Morning Joseph Martin PaetGladys Kim Remolacio Jesebel GarlanRuby CocalJeremy Nacido
INTRODUCTIONMost animals are bilaterally symmetric, including humans.It could be divided into matching halves by drawing a line down the center.It permits streamlining, favors the formation of a central nerve center, contributes to cephalization, and promotes actively moving organisms.
 Radially symmetric animals are symmetrical about an axis extending from the center of the oral surface.Radial SymmetryCoralJelly Fish
AsymmetricalDo not show definite symmetry.
REGIONSSegmentation the division of some animal body plans into a series of repetitive sections. “Advanced” animals have body segments, and specialization of tissue.Metamerism  segments are similar with each other.Tagmatization  segments are different and may become fused to fused to a functional groups/tagmata.
Terms to be Familiar WithAnterior head-endPosterior  tail-end Cephalic  toward the head Caudal  toward the tailDorsal back sideVentral belly side  Lateral  on or toward the side Medial  on or toward the middleProximal  toward the central partDistal  toward the extremities Peripheral  near the surface of the body
The Sea Star The sea star has a radial symmetry.
PARTS OF A STAR FISHFigure 7.1
The RoundwormAscarislumbricoides, a common intestinal roundworm having a bilateral symmetry. It lacks true segmentation and appendages. It is covered with a tough, elastic cuticle, bearing minute striations. Four whitish longitudinal lines extended along the body, one dorsal, one ventral, and two lateral. The mouth opens at the anterior end between three rounded lips. The anus is a transverse slit close to the posterior end of the ventral surface.Figure 7.2
The Earthworm The Pheretima has a bilaterally symmetrical body, long and cylindrical, bluntly tapered at each end, and somewhat depressed posteriorly. The body is organized in a linear series of similar segments (somites/metameres) which is called mesmerism. The mouth is in the first somite and the vertically oval anus, in the last somite. The clitelium is a conspicuous glandular swelling over the somites 32 to 37. Setae – minute, rod-like chitinous appendages. AnusSomitesMouthFigure 7.3Clitelium
It is divided into three segments. The segments are not similar and is referred to as tagmata.The Cockroach
1. The HeadCompound eyes (ommatidia)AntennaeGenaOcelliFigure 7.4
2. The ThoraxCervix The cervix (neck) connects the head to the thorax.
2. The ThoraxPretarsusPulvillusFigure 7.5
2. The ThoraxProthoracic plateFigure 7.6 The prothoracic plate  is a broad plate located anteriorly.
2. The ThoraxForewing/ElytromCercusHindwingFigure 7.6Forewing spread in the mesothorasic area while the hind wing is on the metathorasic area. The hindwing is the one used in flight.
2. The ThoraxFigure 7.7
 3. The Abdomen MaleFemaleSpiracles are apertures for gas exchange.
The ShrimpFigure 7.8The head and the thorax are fused at the cephalothorax.
 The Toad
 1. The HeadNictitating MembraneParotid Glands
2. The TrunkFemaleForearmHumpFingerForelegBellyAnusThighHindlegFootShank MaleAnkleWebs
Figure 7.9
Answers to Self Assessment Question1. Compare and contrast the following invertebrates based on the following:
2. Compare and contrast the tod with fish, other amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals based on the following:
What is the adaptive significance of segmentation in animals?Segmentation is the division of an animal into similar parts. It's main significance is that it provides a simple way of making a small animal into a larger one - basically by duplicating a segment two or more times an animal can be made bigger without complex alterations. This has particular significance in evolution where it is generally believed that larger animals evolved through a simple genetic mutation which generated multi-segmented forms from non-segmented forms.Segmentation is visible to one extent or another in virtually all larger fauna - from insects and earthworms to vertebrates (the spinal column is an example of segmentation - the repeated use of vertebral disks to create a larger creature than would easily be possible by simple enlarging one vertebra)
THE END

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The general body plans of animals. biology

  • 1. The General Body Plans of AnimalsPrepared by:Group 1 Morning Joseph Martin PaetGladys Kim Remolacio Jesebel GarlanRuby CocalJeremy Nacido
  • 2. INTRODUCTIONMost animals are bilaterally symmetric, including humans.It could be divided into matching halves by drawing a line down the center.It permits streamlining, favors the formation of a central nerve center, contributes to cephalization, and promotes actively moving organisms.
  • 3.  Radially symmetric animals are symmetrical about an axis extending from the center of the oral surface.Radial SymmetryCoralJelly Fish
  • 4. AsymmetricalDo not show definite symmetry.
  • 5. REGIONSSegmentation the division of some animal body plans into a series of repetitive sections. “Advanced” animals have body segments, and specialization of tissue.Metamerism  segments are similar with each other.Tagmatization  segments are different and may become fused to fused to a functional groups/tagmata.
  • 6. Terms to be Familiar WithAnterior head-endPosterior  tail-end Cephalic  toward the head Caudal  toward the tailDorsal back sideVentral belly side Lateral  on or toward the side Medial  on or toward the middleProximal  toward the central partDistal  toward the extremities Peripheral  near the surface of the body
  • 7. The Sea Star The sea star has a radial symmetry.
  • 8. PARTS OF A STAR FISHFigure 7.1
  • 9. The RoundwormAscarislumbricoides, a common intestinal roundworm having a bilateral symmetry. It lacks true segmentation and appendages. It is covered with a tough, elastic cuticle, bearing minute striations. Four whitish longitudinal lines extended along the body, one dorsal, one ventral, and two lateral. The mouth opens at the anterior end between three rounded lips. The anus is a transverse slit close to the posterior end of the ventral surface.Figure 7.2
  • 10. The Earthworm The Pheretima has a bilaterally symmetrical body, long and cylindrical, bluntly tapered at each end, and somewhat depressed posteriorly. The body is organized in a linear series of similar segments (somites/metameres) which is called mesmerism. The mouth is in the first somite and the vertically oval anus, in the last somite. The clitelium is a conspicuous glandular swelling over the somites 32 to 37. Setae – minute, rod-like chitinous appendages. AnusSomitesMouthFigure 7.3Clitelium
  • 11. It is divided into three segments. The segments are not similar and is referred to as tagmata.The Cockroach
  • 12. 1. The HeadCompound eyes (ommatidia)AntennaeGenaOcelliFigure 7.4
  • 13. 2. The ThoraxCervix The cervix (neck) connects the head to the thorax.
  • 15. 2. The ThoraxProthoracic plateFigure 7.6 The prothoracic plate is a broad plate located anteriorly.
  • 16. 2. The ThoraxForewing/ElytromCercusHindwingFigure 7.6Forewing spread in the mesothorasic area while the hind wing is on the metathorasic area. The hindwing is the one used in flight.
  • 18. 3. The Abdomen MaleFemaleSpiracles are apertures for gas exchange.
  • 19. The ShrimpFigure 7.8The head and the thorax are fused at the cephalothorax.
  • 21. 1. The HeadNictitating MembraneParotid Glands
  • 24. Answers to Self Assessment Question1. Compare and contrast the following invertebrates based on the following:
  • 25. 2. Compare and contrast the tod with fish, other amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals based on the following:
  • 26. What is the adaptive significance of segmentation in animals?Segmentation is the division of an animal into similar parts. It's main significance is that it provides a simple way of making a small animal into a larger one - basically by duplicating a segment two or more times an animal can be made bigger without complex alterations. This has particular significance in evolution where it is generally believed that larger animals evolved through a simple genetic mutation which generated multi-segmented forms from non-segmented forms.Segmentation is visible to one extent or another in virtually all larger fauna - from insects and earthworms to vertebrates (the spinal column is an example of segmentation - the repeated use of vertebral disks to create a larger creature than would easily be possible by simple enlarging one vertebra)