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GRACIOUS COLLEGE OF NURSING
RAIPUR
THE EUGENICS MOVEMENT
THE EUGENICS MOVEMENT
PRESENTED BY
OM VERMA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
INTRODUCTION
Eugenics is the use of genetic measures to alter the
genetic characteristics of a population there by remove
"bad gene" from human populations. The word eugenics
derives from the Greek word eu (good/well) and the
derives from the Greek word eu (good/well) and the
suffix genes (born). The term eugenics was coined by Sir
Francis Galton in 1883 who defined it as "The study of
improvement of humans by genetic means".
Eugenics is defined as the science
with the aim of improving a
species through selective
breeding.
species through selective
breeding.
According to AND
genetics disorders
It is aimed at lowering fertility
among the genetically
disadvantages this includes
abortion ,sterilization and
other method of family
It is aimed at encouraging
Reproduction among the
genetically advantage individuals.
other method of family
planning
METHOD
OF
OF
IMPLEMENTATION
(i) Mandatory eugenics: Authorized eugenics, in which
the government mandates a eugenics programme.
(ii) Promotional voluntary eugenics: In which
eugenics in voluntary practiced and promoted to the general
eugenics in voluntary practiced and promoted to the general
population, but not officially mandated.
(iii) Private eugenics: which is practiced voluntarily by
individuals and groups, but not promoted to the general
population.
GENETIC COUNSELLING
AND
LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES
LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES
AND
ROLE OF NURSE
GENETICS : - Is the study of genes, genetic
variation, and heredity in organisms. It is an
important branch in biology because heredity
is vital to organisms'
is vital to organisms'
COUNSELLING : - Professional advice and help
given to people with problems
According to AND
6. Increase the family’s understanding about a
genetic disease(s), the risks and benefits of
genetic testing and disease management, and
genetic testing and disease management, and
available options and management.
7. Reduce the family’s anxiety.
STEPS OF GENETIC COUNSELLING
STEPS OF GENETIC COUNSELLING
INITIAL-INTERVIEW:
It is conducted by a nurse. During genetic
counseling great sensibility is needed in
communication. Just a few words should be
communication. Just a few words should be
spoken and careless words should be
avoided to make light of a serious situation
can damage communication.
Obtaining history and preparing a pedigree:
It is time consuming process. It is helpful to have both
members of a couple to be present during obtaining
history. Family history and the medical history must be
results in the preparation of a family pedigree which
help in determining the mode of transmission
help in determining the mode of transmission
operating in a given family. A full and accurate family
history is very important in the whole genetic
assessment and counseling process.
Establishing an accurate diagnosis:
Accurately diagnosing a genetic
disorder is the most important step in
genetic counselling. It involves taking a
genetic counselling. It involves taking a
history, carrying out a clinical
examination and undertaking
appropriate investigation.
Role of genetic testing:
When undertaking genetic testing, consultee
should be made aware of the indications,
process, risks, benefits and limitations of the
various genetic testing options. Consultation
various genetic testing options. Consultation
with specialists in other fields, such as
neurology and optithalmology may be
necessary for the final diagnosis.
Compiling of information and risk
assessment:
Next step is to provide information about the nature of
the genetic disorder. The information should be
the genetic disorder. The information should be
provided not only to the individuals but also other
members of their family. The counsellor should provide
all the information necessary including the course of
the disorder and prognosis in simple terms.
Psychological issues:
The diagnosis of any significant genetic
condition in a child or adult usually has
psychological, financial and social implications.
psychological, financial and social implications.
Genetic counselling should provide
psychological support to families having
increased genetic risk.
Discussion of options:
Having provided all information to the
consulter, also provide with all the choices
open to them. Counselling should be done in
open to them. Counselling should be done in
such a way that individual are able to make
their own fully informed decision without
under pressure or stress.
Long term contact and support:
When a new diagnosis of a rare genetic disorder is
made, many families feel very isolated.
They should be given contact information so that they
have the option of communicating with other affected
have the option of communicating with other affected
families who have had similar experiences. After the
completion of counselling follow up letter should be sent
to the counselee and referring professionals. This letter
contains all the essential information and summarizes
the topics during genetic counselling.
Evaluation:
Conducting an evaluation of genetic
counselling is difficult. One need to know
whether the knowledge of the disorder has
whether the knowledge of the disorder has
increased, psychological stress is relieved.
LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES
AND
AND
ROLE OF NURSE
Legal and Ethical issues arise in all branches of medicine.
In genetics they are particularly prominent because genetics have an
effect not only on an individual, but also on the ex- tended family and
on society in general.
Following general principles are to be followed while genetic
counselling:
counselling:
Consent: - A patient has right to obtain a fair and full
information/explanation before undergoing any procedure or genetic
tests. Information includes the reason for the test, its accuracy,
implications of the result and details of the risks, limitation, its uses
and possible outcome of each procedure. A signed consent for a
procedure/test should be obtained and achive .
Informed choice:
The patient has right to get full
information about all options available
in a given situations.
in a given situations.
The nurse/physician,/counsellor should
not have any vested interest in making
the procedure course of actions.
Autonomy: (Non directive):
Autonomy is the freedom/independence. The ultimate goal of
genetic counselling is to ensure that an individual can make
their own independent decision based on full information
about risks and options. This depends on the quality of
about risks and options. This depends on the quality of
information given to the patient by the counsellors.
Confidentiality : All matters regarding the patient
should be kept confidential. It may be breached ( break ) only
under extreme conditions, if there is a risk of serious harm to
others.
ROLE OF NURSE IN GENETIC
ROLE OF NURSE IN GENETIC
COUNSELLING
Nurses play a variety of roles in genetic counselling:
1. Knowing the technologies used in genetics.
2. Nurses should became familiar with terminology and concepts used in
genetics.
3. Public education and awareness.
4. Nurses may be involved in educating and increasing the awareness of public
about genetic disorders, their prevention and availability of genetic services.
Patients and their family:
Before genetic counselling:
1. Nurse may accompany join consultee to the genetic counselling session.
2. Inform the consultee about what can be expected from genetic counselling.
3. Nurses not involved in direct genetic services can help by diagnose genetic
disorder.
After genetic counselling:
1. Reinforce the information provided by geneticist.
2. If a genetic test is advised by geneticist, nurse should be able to explain
meaning of results of commonly used genetic test.
After the diagnosis of genetic disorder:
1. Explain the meaning of the genetic disorder to the consultee and their family.
2. Help in getting help and support from friends, external financial agencies and
2. Help in getting help and support from friends, external financial agencies and
others.
3. Refer family to further psychotherapy counselling, if required.
Follow up: 1. On the action taken after the genetic counselling.
2. Maintain contact and follow up.
The eugenics Movement.pdf

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The eugenics Movement.pdf

  • 1. GRACIOUS COLLEGE OF NURSING RAIPUR THE EUGENICS MOVEMENT THE EUGENICS MOVEMENT PRESENTED BY OM VERMA ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Eugenics is the use of genetic measures to alter the genetic characteristics of a population there by remove "bad gene" from human populations. The word eugenics derives from the Greek word eu (good/well) and the derives from the Greek word eu (good/well) and the suffix genes (born). The term eugenics was coined by Sir Francis Galton in 1883 who defined it as "The study of improvement of humans by genetic means".
  • 3.
  • 4. Eugenics is defined as the science with the aim of improving a species through selective breeding. species through selective breeding. According to AND
  • 6. It is aimed at lowering fertility among the genetically disadvantages this includes abortion ,sterilization and other method of family It is aimed at encouraging Reproduction among the genetically advantage individuals. other method of family planning
  • 8. (i) Mandatory eugenics: Authorized eugenics, in which the government mandates a eugenics programme. (ii) Promotional voluntary eugenics: In which eugenics in voluntary practiced and promoted to the general eugenics in voluntary practiced and promoted to the general population, but not officially mandated. (iii) Private eugenics: which is practiced voluntarily by individuals and groups, but not promoted to the general population.
  • 9. GENETIC COUNSELLING AND LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES AND ROLE OF NURSE
  • 10.
  • 11. GENETICS : - Is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms. It is an important branch in biology because heredity is vital to organisms' is vital to organisms' COUNSELLING : - Professional advice and help given to people with problems
  • 12.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. 6. Increase the family’s understanding about a genetic disease(s), the risks and benefits of genetic testing and disease management, and genetic testing and disease management, and available options and management. 7. Reduce the family’s anxiety.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19. STEPS OF GENETIC COUNSELLING STEPS OF GENETIC COUNSELLING
  • 20. INITIAL-INTERVIEW: It is conducted by a nurse. During genetic counseling great sensibility is needed in communication. Just a few words should be communication. Just a few words should be spoken and careless words should be avoided to make light of a serious situation can damage communication.
  • 21. Obtaining history and preparing a pedigree: It is time consuming process. It is helpful to have both members of a couple to be present during obtaining history. Family history and the medical history must be results in the preparation of a family pedigree which help in determining the mode of transmission help in determining the mode of transmission operating in a given family. A full and accurate family history is very important in the whole genetic assessment and counseling process.
  • 22. Establishing an accurate diagnosis: Accurately diagnosing a genetic disorder is the most important step in genetic counselling. It involves taking a genetic counselling. It involves taking a history, carrying out a clinical examination and undertaking appropriate investigation.
  • 23. Role of genetic testing: When undertaking genetic testing, consultee should be made aware of the indications, process, risks, benefits and limitations of the various genetic testing options. Consultation various genetic testing options. Consultation with specialists in other fields, such as neurology and optithalmology may be necessary for the final diagnosis.
  • 24. Compiling of information and risk assessment: Next step is to provide information about the nature of the genetic disorder. The information should be the genetic disorder. The information should be provided not only to the individuals but also other members of their family. The counsellor should provide all the information necessary including the course of the disorder and prognosis in simple terms.
  • 25. Psychological issues: The diagnosis of any significant genetic condition in a child or adult usually has psychological, financial and social implications. psychological, financial and social implications. Genetic counselling should provide psychological support to families having increased genetic risk.
  • 26. Discussion of options: Having provided all information to the consulter, also provide with all the choices open to them. Counselling should be done in open to them. Counselling should be done in such a way that individual are able to make their own fully informed decision without under pressure or stress.
  • 27. Long term contact and support: When a new diagnosis of a rare genetic disorder is made, many families feel very isolated. They should be given contact information so that they have the option of communicating with other affected have the option of communicating with other affected families who have had similar experiences. After the completion of counselling follow up letter should be sent to the counselee and referring professionals. This letter contains all the essential information and summarizes the topics during genetic counselling.
  • 28. Evaluation: Conducting an evaluation of genetic counselling is difficult. One need to know whether the knowledge of the disorder has whether the knowledge of the disorder has increased, psychological stress is relieved.
  • 29. LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES AND AND ROLE OF NURSE
  • 30. Legal and Ethical issues arise in all branches of medicine. In genetics they are particularly prominent because genetics have an effect not only on an individual, but also on the ex- tended family and on society in general. Following general principles are to be followed while genetic counselling: counselling: Consent: - A patient has right to obtain a fair and full information/explanation before undergoing any procedure or genetic tests. Information includes the reason for the test, its accuracy, implications of the result and details of the risks, limitation, its uses and possible outcome of each procedure. A signed consent for a procedure/test should be obtained and achive .
  • 31. Informed choice: The patient has right to get full information about all options available in a given situations. in a given situations. The nurse/physician,/counsellor should not have any vested interest in making the procedure course of actions.
  • 32. Autonomy: (Non directive): Autonomy is the freedom/independence. The ultimate goal of genetic counselling is to ensure that an individual can make their own independent decision based on full information about risks and options. This depends on the quality of about risks and options. This depends on the quality of information given to the patient by the counsellors. Confidentiality : All matters regarding the patient should be kept confidential. It may be breached ( break ) only under extreme conditions, if there is a risk of serious harm to others.
  • 33. ROLE OF NURSE IN GENETIC ROLE OF NURSE IN GENETIC COUNSELLING
  • 34. Nurses play a variety of roles in genetic counselling: 1. Knowing the technologies used in genetics. 2. Nurses should became familiar with terminology and concepts used in genetics. 3. Public education and awareness. 4. Nurses may be involved in educating and increasing the awareness of public about genetic disorders, their prevention and availability of genetic services. Patients and their family: Before genetic counselling: 1. Nurse may accompany join consultee to the genetic counselling session. 2. Inform the consultee about what can be expected from genetic counselling. 3. Nurses not involved in direct genetic services can help by diagnose genetic disorder.
  • 35. After genetic counselling: 1. Reinforce the information provided by geneticist. 2. If a genetic test is advised by geneticist, nurse should be able to explain meaning of results of commonly used genetic test. After the diagnosis of genetic disorder: 1. Explain the meaning of the genetic disorder to the consultee and their family. 2. Help in getting help and support from friends, external financial agencies and 2. Help in getting help and support from friends, external financial agencies and others. 3. Refer family to further psychotherapy counselling, if required. Follow up: 1. On the action taken after the genetic counselling. 2. Maintain contact and follow up.