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GRACIOUS COLLEGE OF NURSING
ABHANPUR RAIPUR
REVIEW OF CELLULAR DIVISION
MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS
PRESENTED BY
OM VERMA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
R3 G =
1. Repair
2. Replacement
2. Replacement
3. Reproduction
4. Growth
HOW CELLS DIVIDE TWO PROCESS
Vegetative cell division Reproductive cell division
( Mitosis) other name vegetative cell
division producing
daughter cells genetically identical to the
( Meiosis ) other name is
Reproductive cell division is the type
of cell division that creates egg and
(Somatic cells ) Mitosis Meiosis
( creates haploid cells) 23 cro
daughter cells genetically identical to the
parent cell,
of cell division that creates egg and
sperm cells. Mitosis is a fundamental
process for life.
( creates diploid cells) 46 chromosomes
MITOSIS
MITOSIS
1. Each daughter cells genetically identical to parent cell (
replica or each other )
2. Equitational division ( HUMAN BODY Total 46 chromosomes )
equal divided Parents cell and 46 -46 chromosomes
Daughter cells
Daughter cells
3. Have same number of chromosome as in parent cell.
4. Good for basic growth ,repair and maintenance.
5. Create Diploid daughter cells
MITOSIS
Cell division ,cell reproduction, cell multiplication is a process
of formation of new daughter cells from the pre- existing or
parent cells during the division of a cell DNA replication ( copy
) and growth also takes place
CELL CYCLE
 Journey of a cell from its origin to its division into daughter cells.
 One single cells divided two daughter cells
One cycle is divided mainly in two
phases :-
 INTERPHASE
 INTERPHASE
 M- PHASE
INTERPHASE
( preparatory phase 23 hours )
Inter phase is a series of changes that takes place
in a newly form cell and its nuclear before it
becomes capable of division again .
becomes capable of division again .
Period between CELL DIVISION where cell grows
and engages in various metabolic activities
Interphase refers to the phase of the cell cycle in
which a cell copies its DNA to prepare for mitosis.
INTERPHASE IS DIVIDED IN TO 3 PHASE : -
G1 - Phase ( Gap growth – 1 )
S - Phase ( Synthesis Interphase )
S - Phase ( Synthesis Interphase )
G2 - Phase ( Gap growth – 2 )
G1 - Phase – cell is metabolically active and grows
continuously protein synthesis occurs most of the cells
organelles increase in numbers ( duplicate ) . Usually last for
8 to 10 hrs.
S - Phase ( synthesis phase ) - synthesis of different
proteins and enzymes required for DNA replication and
proteins and enzymes required for DNA replication and
centrosome replication the amount of DNA per cell doubles
chromosomes duplication Duration 9 hours
G2 - Phase – proteins are synthesis cell grows continuous
and prepares for mitosis duration 4 hours .
Quiescent Stage (G0):
The cells that do not undergo further division exits the
G1 phase and enters an inactive stage. This stage is
known as the quiescent stage (G0) of the cell cycle.
known as the quiescent stage (G0) of the cell cycle.
M- PHASE ( Dividing phase 1 hour )
( mitosis )
Equitational final phase division Period of active CELL DIVISION
Mitosis is a type of cell division in which one cell (the
Mitosis is a type of cell division in which one cell (the
mother) divides to produce two new cells (the daughters)
that are genetically identical to itself. In the context of the
cell cycle, mitosis is the part of the division process in
which the DNA of the cell's nucleus is split into two equal
sets of chromosomes.
MITOSIS - 4 sub phase
KARYOKINESIS Is the step during cell division where
the nucleus divides to form two daughter nuclei.
1ST P- Prophase
CYTOKINESIS
Cell
1ST P- Prophase
2ND M- Metaphase
3RD A- Anaphase
4TH T- Telophase
Cell
cytoplasm
division
PROPHASE
Prophase is the first phase of mitosis,
1. Nuclear envelope disintegrates
2. Chromatin condenses to form
( change )chromosomes
3. Centrioles move towards the
Mitotic spindle fibers
2.Change
1.Nuclear envelope
disintegrates
3. Centrioles move
towards the
Mitotic spindle fibers Mitotic spindle fibers
Metaphase is a second stage during the
process of cell division (mitosis or meiosis).
Normally, individual chromosomes are spread
out in the cell nucleus. During metaphase, the
METAPHASE
out in the cell nucleus. During metaphase, the
nucleus dissolves and the cell's chromosomes
condense and move together, aligning in the
center of the dividing cell.
During
metaphase, the
nucleus
dissolves and
the cell's
chromosomes
condense and
condense and
move together,
aligning in the
center of the
dividing cell.
Anaphase is the third stage of mitosis
after the process of metaphase, when
replicated chromosomes are split and the
ANAPHASE
replicated chromosomes are split and the
newly-copied chromosomes are moved to
opposite poles of the cell
Anaphase is a
stage of cell
division that
occurs after
metaphase. It is
characterized by
characterized by
chromosomes
separating or
moving towards
opposite poles of
the cell.
TELOPHASE
Telophase is the fourth and final phase of
mitosis, the process that separates the
duplicated genetic material carried in the nucleus
of a parent cell into two identical daughter cells.
of a parent cell into two identical daughter cells.
Telophase begins once the replicated, paired
chromosomes have been separated and pulled to
opposite sides, or poles, of the cell.
Telophase begins
once the
replicated, paired
chromosomes
have been
have been
separated and
pulled to opposite
sides, or poles, of
the cell.
MEIOSIS
MEIOSIS
MEIOSIS
1.Parent cell divide into four daughter cells
2. All daughter cells have half number of chromosomes
( Four Daughter cells each chromosome divided
( Four Daughter cells each chromosome divided
half number of chromosomes e.g. 46 chromosome
half 23 chromosome it is called reductional
division )
3. Important for sexual reproduction
Germ cells differentiate to produce
male and female gametes, sperm
and unfertilized eggs (oocytes or
ova), and undergo meiosis to
ova), and undergo meiosis to
produce a haploid set of
chromosomes
The leptotene stage, also known as the
leptonema, is the first of five substages of
prophase I in meiosis. In the leptotene
LEPTOTENE
prophase I in meiosis. In the leptotene
stage, chromosomes become visible in
the form of thread-like structures
Zygotene comes under the second stage
Prophase-1 of meiosis. It is followed by
ZYGOTENE
Prophase-1 of meiosis. It is followed by
the stage of leptotene homologous
chromosomes (one from mother and one
from father) come together and pair.
During this phase
which homologous chr
omosomes begin to
omosomes begin to
pair.
PACHYTENE
Is the third stage of meiosis prophase-1
(a five-stage process). It is preceded by the
zygotene stage, where synapsis, i.e. pairing of
homologous chromosomes take place. ( he
homologous chromosomes take place. ( he
fusion of chromosome pairs ) In the pachytene
stage, the tetrad formed due to synapsis become
distinct ( separate )and four chromatids become
clearly visible.
In the pachytene stage,
the tetrad formed due
to synapsis become
distinct ( separate )and
four chromatids
four chromatids
(Chromosomes )
become clearly visible.
DIPLOTENE
The fourth stage of
the prophase of meiosis,
following pachytene, during which the
homologous paired chromosomes begin
homologous paired chromosomes begin
to separate and chiasmata into two pairs
of chromatids.
During which the
homologous
paired chromosomes
begin to separate
and chiasmata into
two pairs
of chromatids (
chromosomes ).
DIAKINESIS
The fifth and last stage of
the prophase of meiosis, following diplotene,
when the separation
of homologous chromosomes is complete and
of homologous chromosomes is complete and
crossing over has occurred. Separation (
chiasmata ) terminalization After diakinesis, the
dividing cell enters metaphase.
Separation (
chiasmata )
terminalization
After
After
diakinesis, the
dividing cell
enters
metaphase.
Anaphase -1
During telophase I, the chromosomes are
enclosed in nuclei. The cell now undergoes a
process called cytokinesis that divides the
cytoplasm of the original cell into two daughter
TELOPHASE- 1
cytoplasm of the original cell into two daughter
cells. Each daughter cell is haploid and has only
one set of chromosomes, or half the total number
of chromosomes of the original cell.
Cytokinesis is the physical process of
cell division, which divides the
cytoplasm of a parental cell into two
CYTOKINESIS
cytoplasm of a parental cell into two
daughter cells. It occurs concurrently
with two types of nuclear division called
mitosis and meiosis, which occur in
animal cells.
Meiosis - II
Meiosis II is the other part of the
meiotic process, divides each
haploid meiotic cell into two
different daughter cells.
Prophase II
The events of
prophase II are
prophase II are
similar to mitotic
prophase.
Metaphase II
The following are the events
occurring in Metaphase II
1. Chromosomes move to the
centre of the equatorial plate.
2. They get attached to spindle
fibers centromere.
3. The centromeres divide.
Anaphase II
The following are the events
occurring in Anaphase II
Telophase II
The following are the events occurring
in Telophase II
CYTOKINESIS
Cytokinesis of the daughter
cells cause the formation of
two cells, in other words
from the two daughter cells
from the two daughter cells
of the first meiotic division,
four cells are produced
each with haploid set of
chromosomes.
REVIEW OF CELLULAR DIVISION MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS 2023.pdf

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REVIEW OF CELLULAR DIVISION MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS 2023.pdf

  • 1.
  • 2. GRACIOUS COLLEGE OF NURSING ABHANPUR RAIPUR REVIEW OF CELLULAR DIVISION MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS PRESENTED BY OM VERMA ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6. R3 G = 1. Repair 2. Replacement 2. Replacement 3. Reproduction 4. Growth
  • 7. HOW CELLS DIVIDE TWO PROCESS Vegetative cell division Reproductive cell division ( Mitosis) other name vegetative cell division producing daughter cells genetically identical to the ( Meiosis ) other name is Reproductive cell division is the type of cell division that creates egg and (Somatic cells ) Mitosis Meiosis ( creates haploid cells) 23 cro daughter cells genetically identical to the parent cell, of cell division that creates egg and sperm cells. Mitosis is a fundamental process for life. ( creates diploid cells) 46 chromosomes
  • 9. 1. Each daughter cells genetically identical to parent cell ( replica or each other ) 2. Equitational division ( HUMAN BODY Total 46 chromosomes ) equal divided Parents cell and 46 -46 chromosomes Daughter cells Daughter cells 3. Have same number of chromosome as in parent cell. 4. Good for basic growth ,repair and maintenance. 5. Create Diploid daughter cells
  • 10. MITOSIS Cell division ,cell reproduction, cell multiplication is a process of formation of new daughter cells from the pre- existing or parent cells during the division of a cell DNA replication ( copy ) and growth also takes place CELL CYCLE  Journey of a cell from its origin to its division into daughter cells.  One single cells divided two daughter cells
  • 11.
  • 12. One cycle is divided mainly in two phases :-  INTERPHASE  INTERPHASE  M- PHASE
  • 13. INTERPHASE ( preparatory phase 23 hours ) Inter phase is a series of changes that takes place in a newly form cell and its nuclear before it becomes capable of division again . becomes capable of division again . Period between CELL DIVISION where cell grows and engages in various metabolic activities Interphase refers to the phase of the cell cycle in which a cell copies its DNA to prepare for mitosis.
  • 14. INTERPHASE IS DIVIDED IN TO 3 PHASE : - G1 - Phase ( Gap growth – 1 ) S - Phase ( Synthesis Interphase ) S - Phase ( Synthesis Interphase ) G2 - Phase ( Gap growth – 2 )
  • 15. G1 - Phase – cell is metabolically active and grows continuously protein synthesis occurs most of the cells organelles increase in numbers ( duplicate ) . Usually last for 8 to 10 hrs. S - Phase ( synthesis phase ) - synthesis of different proteins and enzymes required for DNA replication and proteins and enzymes required for DNA replication and centrosome replication the amount of DNA per cell doubles chromosomes duplication Duration 9 hours G2 - Phase – proteins are synthesis cell grows continuous and prepares for mitosis duration 4 hours .
  • 16. Quiescent Stage (G0): The cells that do not undergo further division exits the G1 phase and enters an inactive stage. This stage is known as the quiescent stage (G0) of the cell cycle. known as the quiescent stage (G0) of the cell cycle.
  • 17. M- PHASE ( Dividing phase 1 hour ) ( mitosis ) Equitational final phase division Period of active CELL DIVISION Mitosis is a type of cell division in which one cell (the Mitosis is a type of cell division in which one cell (the mother) divides to produce two new cells (the daughters) that are genetically identical to itself. In the context of the cell cycle, mitosis is the part of the division process in which the DNA of the cell's nucleus is split into two equal sets of chromosomes.
  • 18. MITOSIS - 4 sub phase KARYOKINESIS Is the step during cell division where the nucleus divides to form two daughter nuclei. 1ST P- Prophase CYTOKINESIS Cell 1ST P- Prophase 2ND M- Metaphase 3RD A- Anaphase 4TH T- Telophase Cell cytoplasm division
  • 19. PROPHASE Prophase is the first phase of mitosis, 1. Nuclear envelope disintegrates 2. Chromatin condenses to form ( change )chromosomes 3. Centrioles move towards the Mitotic spindle fibers
  • 20. 2.Change 1.Nuclear envelope disintegrates 3. Centrioles move towards the Mitotic spindle fibers Mitotic spindle fibers
  • 21. Metaphase is a second stage during the process of cell division (mitosis or meiosis). Normally, individual chromosomes are spread out in the cell nucleus. During metaphase, the METAPHASE out in the cell nucleus. During metaphase, the nucleus dissolves and the cell's chromosomes condense and move together, aligning in the center of the dividing cell.
  • 22. During metaphase, the nucleus dissolves and the cell's chromosomes condense and condense and move together, aligning in the center of the dividing cell.
  • 23. Anaphase is the third stage of mitosis after the process of metaphase, when replicated chromosomes are split and the ANAPHASE replicated chromosomes are split and the newly-copied chromosomes are moved to opposite poles of the cell
  • 24. Anaphase is a stage of cell division that occurs after metaphase. It is characterized by characterized by chromosomes separating or moving towards opposite poles of the cell.
  • 25. TELOPHASE Telophase is the fourth and final phase of mitosis, the process that separates the duplicated genetic material carried in the nucleus of a parent cell into two identical daughter cells. of a parent cell into two identical daughter cells. Telophase begins once the replicated, paired chromosomes have been separated and pulled to opposite sides, or poles, of the cell.
  • 26. Telophase begins once the replicated, paired chromosomes have been have been separated and pulled to opposite sides, or poles, of the cell.
  • 28. MEIOSIS 1.Parent cell divide into four daughter cells 2. All daughter cells have half number of chromosomes ( Four Daughter cells each chromosome divided ( Four Daughter cells each chromosome divided half number of chromosomes e.g. 46 chromosome half 23 chromosome it is called reductional division ) 3. Important for sexual reproduction
  • 29.
  • 30. Germ cells differentiate to produce male and female gametes, sperm and unfertilized eggs (oocytes or ova), and undergo meiosis to ova), and undergo meiosis to produce a haploid set of chromosomes
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33. The leptotene stage, also known as the leptonema, is the first of five substages of prophase I in meiosis. In the leptotene LEPTOTENE prophase I in meiosis. In the leptotene stage, chromosomes become visible in the form of thread-like structures
  • 34.
  • 35. Zygotene comes under the second stage Prophase-1 of meiosis. It is followed by ZYGOTENE Prophase-1 of meiosis. It is followed by the stage of leptotene homologous chromosomes (one from mother and one from father) come together and pair.
  • 36. During this phase which homologous chr omosomes begin to omosomes begin to pair.
  • 37. PACHYTENE Is the third stage of meiosis prophase-1 (a five-stage process). It is preceded by the zygotene stage, where synapsis, i.e. pairing of homologous chromosomes take place. ( he homologous chromosomes take place. ( he fusion of chromosome pairs ) In the pachytene stage, the tetrad formed due to synapsis become distinct ( separate )and four chromatids become clearly visible.
  • 38. In the pachytene stage, the tetrad formed due to synapsis become distinct ( separate )and four chromatids four chromatids (Chromosomes ) become clearly visible.
  • 39. DIPLOTENE The fourth stage of the prophase of meiosis, following pachytene, during which the homologous paired chromosomes begin homologous paired chromosomes begin to separate and chiasmata into two pairs of chromatids.
  • 40. During which the homologous paired chromosomes begin to separate and chiasmata into two pairs of chromatids ( chromosomes ).
  • 41. DIAKINESIS The fifth and last stage of the prophase of meiosis, following diplotene, when the separation of homologous chromosomes is complete and of homologous chromosomes is complete and crossing over has occurred. Separation ( chiasmata ) terminalization After diakinesis, the dividing cell enters metaphase.
  • 43.
  • 45. During telophase I, the chromosomes are enclosed in nuclei. The cell now undergoes a process called cytokinesis that divides the cytoplasm of the original cell into two daughter TELOPHASE- 1 cytoplasm of the original cell into two daughter cells. Each daughter cell is haploid and has only one set of chromosomes, or half the total number of chromosomes of the original cell.
  • 46.
  • 47.
  • 48. Cytokinesis is the physical process of cell division, which divides the cytoplasm of a parental cell into two CYTOKINESIS cytoplasm of a parental cell into two daughter cells. It occurs concurrently with two types of nuclear division called mitosis and meiosis, which occur in animal cells.
  • 49.
  • 51. Meiosis II is the other part of the meiotic process, divides each haploid meiotic cell into two different daughter cells.
  • 52. Prophase II The events of prophase II are prophase II are similar to mitotic prophase.
  • 53. Metaphase II The following are the events occurring in Metaphase II 1. Chromosomes move to the centre of the equatorial plate. 2. They get attached to spindle fibers centromere. 3. The centromeres divide.
  • 54. Anaphase II The following are the events occurring in Anaphase II
  • 55. Telophase II The following are the events occurring in Telophase II
  • 56. CYTOKINESIS Cytokinesis of the daughter cells cause the formation of two cells, in other words from the two daughter cells from the two daughter cells of the first meiotic division, four cells are produced each with haploid set of chromosomes.