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GRACIOUS COLLEGE OF NURSING
ABHANPUR RAIPUR C.G.
HUNTINGTON DISEASE
AND
MENTAL ILLNESS
MENTAL ILLNESS
PRESENTED BY
OM VERMA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
INTRODUCTION
Huntington disease is a progressive brain
disease / Huntington disease is an autosomal
dominant diseased that causes uncontrolled
movements, emotional problems, and loss of
thinking ability (cognition). Adult-onset
thinking ability (cognition). Adult-onset
Huntington disease, the most common form
of this disorder, An inherited condition in
which nerve cells in the brain break down over
time. usually appears in a person's 30yr age
or 40 yr age.
Definition
Huntington's disease is a rare, inherited
disease that causes the progressive
breakdown (degeneration) of nerve cells in
the brain. Huntington's disease has a wide
impact on a person's functional abilities and
impact on a person's functional abilities and
usually results in movement, thinking
(cognitive) and psychiatric disorders.
According to National Institute of
Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Huntington's disease is a condition that
damages nerve cells in the brain causing them
to stop working properly. It's passed on
(inherited) from a person's parents. The
damage to the brain gets worse over time. It
can affect movement, cognition (perception,
can affect movement, cognition (perception,
awareness, thinking, judgement) and mental
health.
According to AND
Genetics HTT mutation
(huntingtin)
The HTT mutation that causes Huntington
disease involves a DNA segment known as
a CAG trinucleotide repeat. This segment is
made up of a series of three DNA building
made up of a series of three DNA building
blocks (cytosine, adenine, and guanine) that
appear multiple times in a row. Normally, the
CAG segment is repeated 10 to 35 times within
the gene. In people with Huntington disease,
INFECTION
Huntington's disease is caused
by a faulty gene that results in
parts of the brain becoming
parts of the brain becoming
gradually damaged over time.
DAMAGE BRAIN SPINAL CORD
AND PERIPHERAL NERVE
Pressure on the spinal
cord and nerves may be associated with
herniation or disc
herniation or disc
displacement. Brain degeneration also
causes central nervous system diseases
and Huntington's disease
METABOLIC DISORDER
Huntington's disease patients have
a number of peripheral
manifestations suggestive of
manifestations suggestive of
metabolic and endocrine
abnormalities.
Lack of oxygen nutrient and blood
supply in brain and Small vessel
disease with small deep infarcts is
the most common sub-type of stroke
STROKE AND VASCULAR DISEASES
the most common sub-type of stroke
leading to abnormal movements, and
lead the Huntington's disease
Huntington disease arises from
a combinatory toxicity
of polyglutamine and copper
TOXINS
of polyglutamine and copper
binding. Abnormal function of
huntingtin (Htt) protein
Pathogenesis:
The HTT protein Huntingin interacts with several other
proteins and appears to have multiple biological functions.
The mutated HTT protein ( chromosome -4 ) is toxic to
certain types of cells, particularly in the brain.
Histological, it shows localized neuronal cell death. Basal
ganglia plays a key role in movement and behaviour control.
Repetition of nucleotide triplet CAG
(Cytosine, Adenine, Guanine)
Pathogenesis:
Abnormal polyglutamine acid sequence
Excessive mutation of glutamine protein
Lead Excitotoxicity refers to an excessive activation of
neuronal amino acid receptors.
The accumulating damage to basal ganglia causes the
characteristic involuntary and jerky movements
associated with Huntington disease
.
Sensory or motor impairments
Cognitive Disorders
Alzheimer's disease. slowly destroys memory and thinking
skills
Dementia -a serious mental problem caused by brain
disease or injury, that affects the ability to think, remember
and behave normally
Epilepsy-related cognitive dysfunction.
Epilepsy-related cognitive dysfunction.
Lack of awareness of one own ,s behavior and ability .
.
Mild cognitive impairment.
Slowness in processing thought or finding word
Difficulty in learning
POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY
NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TEST
Is a test to measure how well a
person's brain is working. The abilities
tested include reading, language
tested include reading, language
usage, attention, learning, processing
speed, reasoning, remembering,
problem-solving, mood and
personality
Positron emission tomography
(PET)
(PET) scan is an imaging test that can
help reveal the metabolic or
biochemical function of your tissues
biochemical function of your tissues
and organs. The PET scan uses a
radioactive drug (tracer) to show both
normal and abnormal metabolic
activity.
Haldol (haloperidol) and Thorazine (chlorpromazine) are the
best known typical antipsychotics. They continue to be useful
in the treatment of severe psychosis and behavioral problems
MENTAL ILLNESS
INTRODUCTION
Mental illness, also called mental health
disorders, refers to a wide range of
mental health conditions — disorders
that affect your mood, thinking and
that affect your mood, thinking and
behavior. Examples of mental illness
include depression, anxiety disorders,
schizophrenia, eating disorders and
addictive behaviors.
According to M.J. Simmons
Mental illnesses are health
conditions involving changes in
emotion, thinking or behavior (or a
combination of these). Mental
illnesses can be associated with
distress and/or problems functioning
According to Adam Rutherford
distress and/or problems functioning
in social, work or family activities. it
is called mental illness .
Psychosocial” factors such
disease.
Psychosocial” factors such
as stress, hostility,
depression, hopelessness,
and job control seem
associated with physical
health—particularly heart
disease.
Social Factor -Urbanization affects mental health through the influence of
increased stressors and factors such as overcrowded and polluted environment,
high levels of violence, and reduced social support.
Psychosocial” factors such
disease.
Psychosocial” factors such
as stress, hostility,
depression, hopelessness,
and job control seem
associated with physical
health—particularly heart
disease.
Social Factor -Urbanization affects mental health through the influence of
increased stressors and factors such as overcrowded and polluted environment,
high levels of violence, and reduced social support.
TYPES OF MENTAL ILLNESS
There are many different types of mental illness. Some of the
main groups of mental disorders are:
Mood disorders (such as depression or bipolar disorder) A
disorder associated with episodes of mood swings ranging
from depressive lows to manic highs.
Anxiety disorders
personality disorders
personality disorders
psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia) involves delusions
(false beliefs), hallucinations )
Eating disorders
Trauma-related disorders (such as post-traumatic stress
disorder)
Substance abuse disorders
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS INCLUDE:
Feeling sad or down
Confused thinking or reduced ability to concentrate
Excessive fears or worries, or extreme feelings of guilt
Extreme mood changes of highs and lows
Withdrawal from friends
Withdrawal from friends
Significant tiredness, low energy or problems sleeping
Hallucinations
Inability to cope with daily problems or stress
Addicted alcohol or drug use
Increased Or Decreased Sleep
Increased Or Low Appetite
Lack Of Motivation
Major changes in eating habits
Sex drive changes
Excessive anger or violence
Excessive anger or violence
Suicidal thinking
Biology
Some mental illness may be due tp an abnormal
balance of chemical in the brain called
neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters help nerve cells in the
communicate with each other .
communicate with each other .
Abnormal balance of these chemical may disturb
the communication message
Leading to symptoms of mental illness
COMPLICATIONS
Mental illness is a leading cause of disability. Untreated
mental illness can cause severe emotional, behavioral
and physical health problems. Complications sometimes
linked to mental illness include:
Unhappiness and decreased enjoyment of life
Family conflicts
Family conflicts
Relationship difficulties
Social isolation
Self-harm and harm to others
Weakened immune system
Heart disease and other medical conditions
Huntington Disease and Mental illness.pdf

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Huntington Disease and Mental illness.pdf

  • 1. GRACIOUS COLLEGE OF NURSING ABHANPUR RAIPUR C.G. HUNTINGTON DISEASE AND MENTAL ILLNESS MENTAL ILLNESS PRESENTED BY OM VERMA ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Huntington disease is a progressive brain disease / Huntington disease is an autosomal dominant diseased that causes uncontrolled movements, emotional problems, and loss of thinking ability (cognition). Adult-onset thinking ability (cognition). Adult-onset Huntington disease, the most common form of this disorder, An inherited condition in which nerve cells in the brain break down over time. usually appears in a person's 30yr age or 40 yr age.
  • 3.
  • 4. Definition Huntington's disease is a rare, inherited disease that causes the progressive breakdown (degeneration) of nerve cells in the brain. Huntington's disease has a wide impact on a person's functional abilities and impact on a person's functional abilities and usually results in movement, thinking (cognitive) and psychiatric disorders. According to National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
  • 5. Huntington's disease is a condition that damages nerve cells in the brain causing them to stop working properly. It's passed on (inherited) from a person's parents. The damage to the brain gets worse over time. It can affect movement, cognition (perception, can affect movement, cognition (perception, awareness, thinking, judgement) and mental health. According to AND
  • 6.
  • 7. Genetics HTT mutation (huntingtin) The HTT mutation that causes Huntington disease involves a DNA segment known as a CAG trinucleotide repeat. This segment is made up of a series of three DNA building made up of a series of three DNA building blocks (cytosine, adenine, and guanine) that appear multiple times in a row. Normally, the CAG segment is repeated 10 to 35 times within the gene. In people with Huntington disease,
  • 8. INFECTION Huntington's disease is caused by a faulty gene that results in parts of the brain becoming parts of the brain becoming gradually damaged over time.
  • 9. DAMAGE BRAIN SPINAL CORD AND PERIPHERAL NERVE Pressure on the spinal cord and nerves may be associated with herniation or disc herniation or disc displacement. Brain degeneration also causes central nervous system diseases and Huntington's disease
  • 10. METABOLIC DISORDER Huntington's disease patients have a number of peripheral manifestations suggestive of manifestations suggestive of metabolic and endocrine abnormalities.
  • 11. Lack of oxygen nutrient and blood supply in brain and Small vessel disease with small deep infarcts is the most common sub-type of stroke STROKE AND VASCULAR DISEASES the most common sub-type of stroke leading to abnormal movements, and lead the Huntington's disease
  • 12. Huntington disease arises from a combinatory toxicity of polyglutamine and copper TOXINS of polyglutamine and copper binding. Abnormal function of huntingtin (Htt) protein
  • 13. Pathogenesis: The HTT protein Huntingin interacts with several other proteins and appears to have multiple biological functions. The mutated HTT protein ( chromosome -4 ) is toxic to certain types of cells, particularly in the brain. Histological, it shows localized neuronal cell death. Basal ganglia plays a key role in movement and behaviour control. Repetition of nucleotide triplet CAG (Cytosine, Adenine, Guanine)
  • 14. Pathogenesis: Abnormal polyglutamine acid sequence Excessive mutation of glutamine protein Lead Excitotoxicity refers to an excessive activation of neuronal amino acid receptors. The accumulating damage to basal ganglia causes the characteristic involuntary and jerky movements associated with Huntington disease .
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17. Sensory or motor impairments
  • 18. Cognitive Disorders Alzheimer's disease. slowly destroys memory and thinking skills Dementia -a serious mental problem caused by brain disease or injury, that affects the ability to think, remember and behave normally Epilepsy-related cognitive dysfunction. Epilepsy-related cognitive dysfunction. Lack of awareness of one own ,s behavior and ability . . Mild cognitive impairment. Slowness in processing thought or finding word Difficulty in learning
  • 19.
  • 21. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TEST Is a test to measure how well a person's brain is working. The abilities tested include reading, language tested include reading, language usage, attention, learning, processing speed, reasoning, remembering, problem-solving, mood and personality
  • 22. Positron emission tomography (PET) (PET) scan is an imaging test that can help reveal the metabolic or biochemical function of your tissues biochemical function of your tissues and organs. The PET scan uses a radioactive drug (tracer) to show both normal and abnormal metabolic activity.
  • 23.
  • 24. Haldol (haloperidol) and Thorazine (chlorpromazine) are the best known typical antipsychotics. They continue to be useful in the treatment of severe psychosis and behavioral problems
  • 25.
  • 27.
  • 28. INTRODUCTION Mental illness, also called mental health disorders, refers to a wide range of mental health conditions — disorders that affect your mood, thinking and that affect your mood, thinking and behavior. Examples of mental illness include depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, eating disorders and addictive behaviors.
  • 29.
  • 30. According to M.J. Simmons
  • 31. Mental illnesses are health conditions involving changes in emotion, thinking or behavior (or a combination of these). Mental illnesses can be associated with distress and/or problems functioning According to Adam Rutherford distress and/or problems functioning in social, work or family activities. it is called mental illness .
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34. Psychosocial” factors such disease. Psychosocial” factors such as stress, hostility, depression, hopelessness, and job control seem associated with physical health—particularly heart disease. Social Factor -Urbanization affects mental health through the influence of increased stressors and factors such as overcrowded and polluted environment, high levels of violence, and reduced social support.
  • 35. Psychosocial” factors such disease. Psychosocial” factors such as stress, hostility, depression, hopelessness, and job control seem associated with physical health—particularly heart disease. Social Factor -Urbanization affects mental health through the influence of increased stressors and factors such as overcrowded and polluted environment, high levels of violence, and reduced social support.
  • 36. TYPES OF MENTAL ILLNESS There are many different types of mental illness. Some of the main groups of mental disorders are: Mood disorders (such as depression or bipolar disorder) A disorder associated with episodes of mood swings ranging from depressive lows to manic highs. Anxiety disorders personality disorders personality disorders psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia) involves delusions (false beliefs), hallucinations ) Eating disorders Trauma-related disorders (such as post-traumatic stress disorder) Substance abuse disorders
  • 37. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS INCLUDE: Feeling sad or down Confused thinking or reduced ability to concentrate Excessive fears or worries, or extreme feelings of guilt Extreme mood changes of highs and lows Withdrawal from friends Withdrawal from friends Significant tiredness, low energy or problems sleeping Hallucinations Inability to cope with daily problems or stress Addicted alcohol or drug use
  • 38. Increased Or Decreased Sleep Increased Or Low Appetite Lack Of Motivation Major changes in eating habits Sex drive changes Excessive anger or violence Excessive anger or violence Suicidal thinking
  • 39. Biology Some mental illness may be due tp an abnormal balance of chemical in the brain called neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters help nerve cells in the communicate with each other . communicate with each other . Abnormal balance of these chemical may disturb the communication message Leading to symptoms of mental illness
  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 42. COMPLICATIONS Mental illness is a leading cause of disability. Untreated mental illness can cause severe emotional, behavioral and physical health problems. Complications sometimes linked to mental illness include: Unhappiness and decreased enjoyment of life Family conflicts Family conflicts Relationship difficulties Social isolation Self-harm and harm to others Weakened immune system Heart disease and other medical conditions