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Teaching
methods
1R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
• Instructional strategies determine the
approach a teacher may take to achieve
learning objective.
• Instructional methods are used by teachers to
create learning environments.
2R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
Definition
• Teaching methods is the stimulation, guidance,
direction and encouragement for learning.
3R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
Teaching strategies classification
• Teacher controlled teaching( monologue,
autocratic teaching)
• Interactive procedure of teaching ( Democratic,
dialogue teaching)
• Learning controlled teaching ( self study,
lassies – fair teaching)
• Group controlled teaching ( Action oriented,
democratic teaching)
• Clinical teaching method
4R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
Teacher controlled teaching(
monologue, autocratic teaching)
• Lecture methods
• Demonstration methods
• Lecture demonstration
• Team teaching methods
• Individualized instruction
• Historical
5R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
Interactive procedure of teaching
(Democratic, dialogue teaching)
• Question answer method
• Interactive procedure
• Group discussion methods
• Tutorial methods
• Seminar methods
• Panel methods
• Symposium
6R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
Learning controlled teaching
( self study, lassies – fair teaching)
• Programmed instruction
• Self directed learning (SDL)
• Library methods
• Computer assisted instruction
• Laboratory methods
• Assignments
7R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
Group controlled teaching ( Action
oriented, democratic teaching)
• Project methods
• Simulation instruction
• Filed trip
• Field work, survey
• Workshop
• Problem- solving method
• Problem based learning
• Role play
• Narrative
• Conducting experience
• Story telling
• Field observation
• Model building
• Buzz sessions 8
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
Clinical teaching method
1. Client family centered methods
2. Observation
3. Conference
i. Clinical conference
ii. Individual conference
iii. Group conference
iv. Staff conference
v. Nursing care conference
vi. Team conference
9R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
Cont…Clinical teaching method
4. Bedside clinic
5. Nursing rounds and medical rounds
6. Demonstration and re-demonstration of
procedure
7. Ward teaching
8. Ward class
9. Ward clinic
10. Case study/ case presentation/ case history
methods
10R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
11. Group discussion
12. Brain storming methods
13. Process recording
14. Laboratory methods
15. Planned health talks
16. Nursing care study
17. Organizing exhibition
18. Incidental teaching
19. Problem solving methods
20. Research projects
Cont…Clinical teaching method
11R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 12
Lecture methods
• The lecture is a teaching procedure consisting of
the clarification or the explanation of facts,
principles or relationships.
• A lecture (from the French 'lecture', meaning
'reading' [process]) is an oral presentation
intended to present information or teach people
about a particular subject,
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 13
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 15
L- Lively
E- Educative
C- Creative
T- Thought provoking
U- Understanding
R- Relevant
E- Enjoyable.
PLANNING THE LECTURE
• Before starting to prepare a lecture, the
teacher must be able to answer four basic
questions:-
– Who is your audience?- Who
– What is the purpose of your lecture?- Why
– How much time is available- How long
– What is the subject matter?- What
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
16
Lecture delivery
• Speaker- audience
distance
• Body movement and
stand
• Facial expression
• Gesture
• Voice
• Strength
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 17
•Enunciation
•Pronunciation
•Rate of speech
•Variety
•Pauses
Advantage of lecture methods
• Factual information
• Useful for large gathering
• Cost effective
• Quick and straight forward way
• Useful methods for auditory learner
• Easier to create
• Familiar methods
• Time saving
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 18
Disadvantage of lecture methods
• Content centered
• One sided affair
• Need proficient oral skills- teacher need
special oral skill in delivering lecture. If they
don’t have this skill then lecture become
boring, and uninteresting.
• Passive audience
• Minimizes feedback from students.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 19
Cont… Disadvantage of lecture methods
• No place for any practical activity,
observation experimentation and
demonstration.
• Failure with the student of lower class. Not
appropriate for children below grade 4.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 20
How to improve lecture methods-
• Fit the lecture to the audience
• Focus your topic
• Prepare an outline that includes 5-9 major
points you want to cover in one lecture
• Organize your points for clarity
• Repeat point when necessary
• Be aware of your audience- notice their
feedback
• Be enthusiastic
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 21
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 22
A GOOD
LECTURE
Avoid
annoying
mannerisms
Tailor
speech &
writing
proper use
of body
language
Topic
based on
need &
interest
Clarify
concepts with
examples
Lecture with
respectivity of
students
Manage
lecture in
time
Discussion Methods
• Discussion involves two-way communication
between participants
• In the classroom situation an instructor and trainees
all participate in discussion.
• During discussion, the instructor spends some time
listening while the trainees spend sometimes talking
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 23
Cont…
• The discussion is, therefore, a more active learning
experience for the trainees than the lecture.
• A discussion is the means by which people share
experiences, ideas and attitudes.
• As it helps to foster trainee’s involvement in what
they are learning, it may contribute to desired
attitudinal changes.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 24
Definition
• The group discussions defined as the process
of reaching and counter reaction between two
or more than two person on a common
subject with the objective of achieving some
specific conclusion or result.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 25
Advantage of discussion methods
• Effective learning
• Emphasis on students experience
• Development of critical thinking
• Participation by everybody
• Self expression
• Peer learning is one of the most direct benefits
resulting from the discussion methods.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
26
Disadvantage
• May dominate with personal feeling
• Chances of deviation from topic
• Dominance by one person
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 27
Small Group
Discussion
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 28
introduction
• Small group have fewer than 5-20 or so members,
making it easier for people to actively participate.
• They meet as small gathering or as break- outs of
large meetings and offer may opportunities for-
– creative,
– flexible interchange of ideas.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 29
Important feature
• Actively participated and interaction
• There is time limit for given activity
• Specific task them or goal
• Participation is improved
• Group members are activated
• Enhance contribution from members
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 30
Specific small group technique
include
• Breakout groups
• Workshop
• Roundtable
• Study circle
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 31
Buzz Method
• The buzz group technique is a patent discussion
group with a high degree of student involvement
in which small group of 2-3 participants discuss a
specific question or issue in order to come-up
with many ideas in a short-time.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
32
Cont….
• Buzz groups is a cooperative learning technique
consisting in the formation of small discussion
groups with the objective of developing a specific
task (idea generation, problem solving and so on)
or facilitating that a group of people reach a
consensus on their ideas about a topic in a
specific period of time.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 33
Features of Buzz Group Method-
• Small group (2-3 participants)
• Method is informal
• No need to move for discussion/no need of
syndicate rooms
• Discussion on only one issue, question, or
point (no need of in depth analysis)
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 34
Cont….
• Less time consuming (5-15 Min.)
• Can be used as “Ice Breaker”
• Buzz group leader is not there.
• Can be used as a supplemented method of
other methods.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 35
Process of Buzz Group Method
• Decide the appropriateness of the method
• Prepare specific question/issues for discussion
• Prepare key learning points related to the issues
• Present question/issues.
• Ask individual participants to write down their views
• Form groups of 2 – 3 participants to write down their
views
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
36
Cont…
• Allocate 5 – 10 min. time for discussion
• Have them share and discuss on their points
within the group
• Supervise each group and encourage individuals
to participate
• Stop discussion after the allocated time has
expired
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
37
• Ask each group to share their points preferably
one points from each group at a time
• Record them on the board or chart sheet
• Discuss on the points and conclude
• Relate them with the key learning points
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 38
Cont…
Advantage
• Every person in group is involved in discussion
• Produce useful resulting in minimum time
• Wholesome effects on group members
• Creates informal atmosphere
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 39
Disadvantages
• Effectiveness of the group may be lowered by the
immature behavior of a few.
• It may not be effective for younger groups or
groups that know each other too well to take each
other's opinions seriously.
• It can be time-consuming when dealing with very
large groups.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 40
Limitation
• Depends on the leader.
• Cannot be used in all situations.
• It is useful in defining problem or questions,
developing a list of possible goals, refining
ideas.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 41
Fishbowls
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
42
• The fishbowl is a method to facilitate a group
discussion in an event.
• An inner circle, the fishbowl, is created, in which
members of the audience participate and in which
the discussion starts.
• This method is easy to organize and allows a good
involvement of the audience.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 43
• Fishbowl Discussions are designed to improve
communication skills.
• The fishbowl strategy involves seating students in
two concentric circles.
• Those in the inner circle do the talking, and those
in the outer circle listen, take notes, and evaluate
the communication skills and the content of the
discussion.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 44
• It is used for dynamic group involvement
• This activity required 60-90 minute
• Fish bowl discussion can be open and closed.
• In a fishbowl 4-5 chairs are arranged in an inner
circle. The remaining chairs are arranged in outer
circle of the fishbowl.
• The moderator introduces the topic and the
participants start discussing the topic. The audience
outside the fishbowl listens in on the discussion.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 45
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 46
The Layout
Student will
be arranged
in a circle
With the
small group
in the middle.
Type
Fishbowl
open
fishbowl
closed
fishbowl
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 48
Open fishbowl
• In an open fishbowl, any member of the audience
can, at any time, occupy the empty chair and join the
fishbowl.
• When this happens, an existing member of the
fishbowl must voluntarily leave the fishbowl and free
a chair.
• The discussion continues with participants frequently
entering and leaving the fishbowl.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
49
Cont… open fishbowl
• Depending on how large your audience is you can
have many audience members spend some time in
the fishbowl and take part in the discussion.
• When time runs out, the fishbowl is closed and the
moderator summarizes the discussion.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 50
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
51
Closed fishbowl
• In a closed fishbowl, the initial participants speak for
some time.
• When time runs out, they leave the fishbowl and a
new group from the audience enters the fishbowl.
• This continues until many audience members have
spent some time in the fishbowl.
• Once the final group has concluded, the moderator
closes the fishbowl and summarizes the discussion.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
52
Seminar
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 53
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 54
• Seminars are simply a group of people coming
together for the discussion and learning of
specific technique and topics.
• The word seminar is derived from Latin word
“Seminarium” meaning “seed plot”.
DEFINITION
• Seminar is an instructional technique of higher
learning which involves paper reading on a theme
and followed by the group discussion to clarify
the complex aspects of theme.
• Seminars are simply a group of people coming
together for the discussion and learning of specific
techniques and topics.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 55
Types of seminar
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 56
Sl. No Type Example
1 mini seminar class room level
2 main seminar dept / institutional level
3 national seminar national level
4. international
seminar
international level
CLASS ROOM SEMINAR
DEPARTMENTAL SEMINAR
NATIONAL SEMINAR
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
CHARATERISTICS
• Teacher is the leader.
• The group generally consists of 10 to
15 participants.
• An ideal seminar lasts for 1-2 hrs.
• The topic is initially presented by the
presenter followed by group discussion.
• The leader should keep the discussion within
limits so the focus of discussion can be
mentioned.
• care should be taken to avoid stereotypes.
• In student seminars, students present their data in
an informal way under the leadership of the
teacher, followed by a teacher monitored
discussion.
• All members take part in discussion in an
informal but orderly manner.
• The chairman should be skilled in encouraging
the timid participants.
• A student secretary may record the problems that
come up and the solutions given to them.
Requirement of seminar
• Teacher is a leader (student can also function
as leader).
• 10-15 members are participants.
• The topic is presented by the student taking
15-20minute- time.
• Duration is 1 to 2 hours.
• Leaders should keep the discussion within the
limits of the problem discussed.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 70
Cont….
• Students present their data in an informal way
under the leadership of the teacher.
• Care should be taken part in discussion in an
informal way but orderly in manner.
• The chairmen should be skilled in encouraging
the timid participants.
• A student secretary should record the problem
which arise and the solution given.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 71
Roles of Seminar Technique
• In organizing a seminar the following roles are
performed:-
• ORGANIZER
• CHAIRMEN
• PARTICIPANT
• OBSERVERS
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 72
Advantages of seminar method
• Stimulation of thinking.
• Tolerance of other views develops.
• Cooperation with others develops.
• Openness of ideas occurs.
• Represents the norms of behaviors.
• It has great instructional values.
• Natural way of learning
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 73
Limitation of seminar
• Seminar cannot be organized on all the content
of subject matter.
• Technique cannot be used in all levels of
education
• Seminar is a time consuming process.
• It cannot be applied to new students.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 74
Cont…..
• Timid students may initially feel nervous.
• If subject knowledge is poor, unnecessary
discussions arise.
• The approach to problem solving extends to
student's professional and personal activities.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 75
ASK YOUR DOUBTS
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 77
Panel Discussion
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 78
• It is designed to provide an opportunity to a
group to hear several people knowledgeable
about a specific issue or topic.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 79
Objective
• To provide information and new facts
• To analysis the current problem from different
angle.
• To identify the values
• To organize for mental reaction.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 80
Type panel
discussion
Public panel
discussion
Educational
panel
discussion
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 81
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
82
A U D I E N
C E
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 83
Identify the Goal and purpose of your panel
discussion.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
84
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 85
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 86
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 87
Determine the rules For the panel discussion.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 88
❖ Write questions for the panelists.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
89
Arrange For the panel discussion to be
recorded.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 90
Present and introduce the panelists at the
beginning of the panel discussion.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 91
Conduct the discussion as planned, following
the established rules.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 92
Conclude the panel discussion with a summary
and closing remarks.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
93
Send thank you notes to the panelists
and moderator For their participation
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 94
Workshop
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 95
• A workshop is similar to a seminar but with a
greater degree of attendance participation,
interaction, and hand-on experience, is usually a
full day where participants learn and practice the
knowledge and skills that is the workshop’s focus.
• An educational seminar or series of meeting
emphasizing interaction and exchange of
information among a usually small number of
participants.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 96
Characteristics of workshop
• Activity based
• Active engagement of participants during
the workshop
• High production values
• Information sharing meeting
• Limited number of participants
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 97
Cont…Characteristics of workshop
• Less formal, include more discussion
• Emphasizing practical applications
• Requiring some preparation in advance of the
workshop
• Thorough minute-by-minute planning of
workshop sessions.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 98
Strength
• Involves collaborative problem- solving
• The participants feel they are part of a learning
community
• Group building
• Useful for small group where there is a common
interest or concern
• Encourage communication and acceptance of
other viewpoints
• It is useful when the solutions to problem are not
clear.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 99
Weakness
• Dominance by member
• It can be difficult to keep focused and clear about
and desired outcome.
• Working session
• Limited numbers of participant.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 100
STEPS IN
PREARATION OF A
WORKSHOP
101
STEPS IN ORGANIZING A WORKSHOP
OPENING A
FILE
FORMULATION
OF AIMS &
OBJECTIVES
ARRANGEMENT
OF FUNDS
DATE & PLACE OF
WORKSHOP
SELECTION OF
EXPERTS
SELECTION OF
PARTICIPANTS
COMMITTEE OF
SPONSORS
WORKING
LANGUAGE
INVITATION TO
PARTICIPANTS
102
OPENING A FILE
• A file is opened which contains information
on –
• budget,
• sitting arrangements,
• selection of participants,
• documentation and equipment
• checklist,
• publicity press and
• Evaluation.
103
FORMULATION OF AIMS & OBJECTIVES
• Aims & objectives are formulated both for the
organizers and the participants.
• At first stage of the workshop theoretical
aspects are discussed by experts.
104
ARRANGEMENT OF FUNDS
• The organizer has to arrange funds boarding &
lodging both for the experts and the
participants.
• The whole programme schedule is prepared by
the organizer.
105
CHOOSING THE DATE & PLACE
• A non working day is usually chosen for the first
day of workshop. ( Ensure that at least one
working day precedes the opening of the
workshop.)
• The place of workshop is selected keeping in
mind the feasibility of the participants to reach
the venue.
106
IDENTIFICATION OF RESOURCE
PERSONS
• The success of the workshop depends on the
quality of the resource persons chosen,
experience, qualification, knowledge & importance
should be given while selecting the resource
persons.
107
IDENTIFICATION OF SPONSORS
• Sponsoring agencies and individuals are to
be identified and contacted so as to aid in
the organization of the workshop and in
managing it's funds.
108
WORKING LANGUAGE
• The workshop is usually carried out in a
national language or preferred official
language.
109
INVITATION TO PARTICIPANTS
• A personal letters should be sent to the
participants selected with the following points.
1. Aims of the workshop.
2. What is implied by the workshop.
3. Working methods of the workshop.
4. Theme of the workshop.
110
ROLES IN WORKSHOP
• Role of Organizer of the Workshop Technique.
• Role of Convener in First Stage.
• Role of Experts or Resource persons.
• Role of Participants or Trainees
111
ROLE OF AN ORGANIZER
• The program and schedule is prepared by the
organizer.
• He has to arrange for boarding and lodging
facilities for participants as well as for the
experts.
112
ROLE OF A CONVENOR
• At first stage of the workshop, the theoretical
aspects are discussed by the experts on the
theme of the workshop.
• Therefore, a convener is nominated or invited
who is well known with theme.
113
ROLE OF EXPERTS
• In organizing a workshop, resources persons play
an important role in providing theoretical and
practical aspects of theme.
• They provide guidance to participants at every
stage and train them to perform the task effectively
114
ROLE OF A TRAINEE
• The participants should be keep interested in the
theme of the workshop.
• At the first stage, they have to acquire
understanding of the theme.
116
Cont….
• At the second stage, they have to practice and
perform the task with great interest and seek
proper guidance from the experts.
117
OUTCOMES OF THE WORKSHOP
• Workshop widens specified knowledge.
• Results in personal and professional growth.
• Results in friendship, team spirit and human
relations.
118
ADVANTAGES
119
• It is a technique which can be effective used for
developing understanding and proficiency for the
approaches and practices in education.
• It is used for developing and improving
professional efficiency, eg. Nursing, medical,
dental etc.
• Facilitates learning by doing
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 120
• It develops the feeling cooperation and group
work.
• The new practice and innovations are introduced
• It is a problem solving methods
• Active participation is possible
• Leadership quality can be develop and enhanced.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 121
Disadvantage of workshop
• Generally follow up are not organized in
workshop technique.
• It requires a lot of time for participant and staff
• A large number of staff members are needed to
handle participation.
• It demands special facilities or materials.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 122
• Participants do not take interest in practical work
or to do something in productive form.
• The workshop cannot be organized for large group
so large number of persons cannot be not trained.
• Time consuming
• Resource person should be available.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 123
Symposium
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 124
Symposium
• It is also one of the techniques of higher
learning.
• “Symposium consists of a set of program of
prepared speeches followed by audience
discussion”
• “Symposium is a technique in which two or
more person under the direction of a chairman
presents several speeches, which give several
aspect of one question”.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 125
• The word Symposium is also has several
dictionary meaning.-
• Firstly, Plato has used this term for “good
dialogue” to present the view towards GOD.
• Another meaning of the term is the intellectual
reaction or enjoyment.
• The recent meaning of the term is a meeting of
persons to discuss a problem.
• The main purpose of the symposiums to provide
the understanding to the students or listeners on
them or problem specification to develop certain
values and feelings.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 126
DEFINITION
• “Symposium consists of a set of program of prepared
speeches followed by audience discussion”
• “Symposium is a technique in which two or more
person under the direction of a chairman presents
several speeches, which give several aspect of one
question”.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 127
OBJECTIVES
• identify and understand two
various aspects of the theme.
• To develop the ability to decision
and judgment regard a problem.
• To develop the values and feeling
regarding a problem.
• To enable the listeners to form
policies regarding problem.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 128
Characteristics of Symposium
• It provides the broad understandings of a topic or
a problem.
• The opportunity is provided to the listeners to take
decision about the Problem.
• It is used for higher classes to specific theme and
problem.
• It develops the feeling of co-operation and
adjustment. The objectives as synthesis and
evaluation are achieved by employing the
symposium.
• It provides the different views on the topic of the
symposium.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 129
Scope for the use of symposium
• Scope for the distance education in our education.
• Use of essay and objective type of test.
• Semester system in education.
• Quality control of education research.
• Use of microteaching in teacher education
• Use of team teaching in school.
• Use of action research in classroom teaching.
• Scope of education technology in our education.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
130
Advantages
• It is suitable to a large group or classes.
• This method can be frequently used to present
broad topics for discussion at conventions and
organization meetings.
• Organization is good because of the set speeches
prepared beforehand.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 131
• Gives deeper insight into the topic.
• This method can be use in political
meetings.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 132
Disadvantages
• Inadequate opportunity for all the students to
participate actively.
• The speeches are limited to 15-20 minutes.
• Question and answer limited to 3 or 4 minutes.
• Possibility of overlapping the subjects.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 134
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 135
Micro -
Teaching
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 136
Introduction
• Micro-teaching is a teacher training and faculty
development technique whereby the teacher reviews a
recording of a teaching session, in order to get
constructive feedback from peers and/or students about
what has worked and what improvements can be made to
their teaching technique.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 137
• Micro-teaching was invented in the mid-1960s
at Stanford University by Dr. D. W. Allen, and
has subsequently been used to develop
educators in all forms of education.
• Microteaching is a technique aiming to prepare
teacher candidates to the real classroom
setting (Brent & Thomson, 1996).
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 138
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 139
Dr. Allen and his group evolved Microteaching in 1960
in America.
• Microteaching is a technique aiming to prepare
teacher candidates to the real classroom setting
(Brent & Thomson, 1996).
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 140
• Microteaching can be defined as a training
context in which a teacher’s situation has been
reduced in scope or simplified in some systematic
ways. There are three ways in which teaching may
be scaled down-
– The teacher’s task may be simplified and made very
specific.
– The length of the lesson may be shortened.
– The size of class may be reduced.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 141
DEFINITION
Cont… DEFINITION
• According BM shore “microteaching is real
teaching, reduced in time, number of students and
range of activities”.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 142
Characteristics of microteaching
• It is real teaching situation
• Scaled down teaching:- it is reduce the complexity of the
classroom teaching situation in term of the number of
student, the amount of time and the amount of learning
contents.
• Development of specific teaching skill
• Controlled practice
• Immediate feedback
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
143
Skills of Micro teaching-
• Set Induction (Introduction Skill)
• Skill of questioning
• Skill of Explanation
• Skill of Stimulus Variation
• Skill of Black-board Writing
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 144
145
Cont… Skills of Micro teaching Techniques
The components of the skill of
Blackboard Writing Are:
i. Legibility ( Easy to read )
ii. Size and alignment ( In a straight line )
iii. Highlighting main points
iv. Utilization of the space
v. Blackboard summary
vi. Correctness
vii. Position of the teacher and
viii.Contact with the pupils.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 146
2. Skill of Probing
Questions
1. Introduction Skill
3. Skill of Explanation
4. Skill of Stimulus
Variation
5. Skill of Black-
board Writing
Skills of Micro Teaching
6. Skill of Achieving
Closure
Phase of microteaching
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 147
148
Microteaching Cycle (Procedure)
Step- I : Micro Lesson Plan ( may take 2 hours / a day)
Step-II : Teach 5 Min.
Step-III : Feedback Session 5 Min.
Step-IV : Re-plan 10 Min.
Step-V : Re-teach Another group 5 Min.
Step-VI : Re-feedback 5 Min.
---------------
Total 30 Min. (Appr.)
Teach → Feedback → Re-plan → Re-teach
→ Re-feedback
PLANRE-TEACHING
6 MINUTES
TEACHING
6 MINUTES
FEEDBACK
6 MINUTES
RE-PLAN
12 MINUTES
Advantage of microteaching
• Reduced complexity
• Individualized teaching
• It develops confident by having the practice of
skill in microteaching under simulated condition.
• Behavior modification technique.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 150
Cont…Advantage of microteaching
• More understanding of teaching
• Real teaching
• Self – evaluation is possible by analyzing one’s
teaching performed.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 151
Limitation of microteaching
• Costly- video recording
• Narrowing scope-
• For training in microteaching sufficient time is
required.
• Teacher needs training of this method which
generally they lack.
• Micro teaching is skill-oriented rather than
content-oriented
• Scope of micro teaching is narrow
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 152
Summary Microteaching
• Microteaching involves presentation of micro lesson
• Audience….small group of peers.
• Feedback given by peers role playing as students
• Participants learn about strengths & weakness in
themselves as teachers
• Plan strategies for improvement in performance.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 153
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 154
Simulation
• In general terms, simulation is a technique or
device that attempts to create characteristic of the
real world.
• Simulation allows the educator to control the
learning environment through scheduling of
practice, providing feedback, and minimizing or
introducing environmental distractions.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 155
What can be simulated?
Almost anything can
and
almost everything has...
Simulation
• In general terms, simulation is a technique or
device that attempts to create characteristic of the
real world.
• Simulation allows the educator to control the
learning environment through scheduling of
practice, providing feedback, and minimizing or
introducing environmental distractions.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 157
What can be simulated?
Almost anything can
and
almost everything has...
• In health care, simulation may refer to “a
device representing a simulated patient or part
of patient; such a device can respond to and
interact with the action of the learner.
• To simulate is to try to duplicate the
characteristics of a real system.
• Simulation is one of the most widely used
decision modeling techniques.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 159
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 160
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 161
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 162
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 163
Definition
• Simulations are defined “activities that mimic
the reality of a clinical environment and are
designed to demonstrate procedures, decision-
making and critical thinking through technique
such as role playing and the use of device such as
interactive videos or mannequins”.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 164
Principal of simulation
• Clear stated objective
• Actual patient care experience
• Proper orientation of proceedings/ scenario
• Use of problem- solving and critical reasoning
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 165
Characteristics of simulated
teaching
• Can be in research work
• It can be used for rehearsal before going to
classroom teaching
• Effective for practice of teaching skills by the
pupil teacher
• Effective feedback can be provided
• It is very convenient method
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 166
Cont…Principal of simulation
• Role of educator must be as a facilitator
• Simulation should be collaborative approach
between educator and simulator
• Feedback and evaluation of stimulator
session.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 167
The Process of
Simulation
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 168
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 169
Values of simulation Techniques
• Enable the learner to learn directly from
experience.
• Promotes high level of critical thinking
• Develops in the student an understanding of the
decision- making process.
• Enable the individual to empathies with the real-
life situation
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 170
Cont… Values of simulation Techniques
• Provides feedback to the learners on the
consequences of action and decision made.
• Motivates the students by making real life
situations exciting and interesting.
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 171
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 172
Programmed
instruction
174R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
• Programmed learning (or programmed
instruction) is a research-based system which
helps learners work successfully.
175R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
• It is a learning in which the student works
from the known to unknown, from the
familiar to unfamiliar.
• It is a self- testing technique for acquiring
factual learning.
• It is an integrated structional system which
may employ programmed books, teaching
machine, films in various forms of audio-
visual devices.
176R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
Definition
• It is a kind of learning in which a ‘program’
takes the place of a tutor for the student, and
leads him through a set of frames of specified
behaviors designed and sequenced to make it
more probable that he will behave in a give
desired way. (Kochhar, S.K.1992)
177R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
Type
• Linear programming
• Branching programming
• Mathetics programming
• Computer assisted instruction
179R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
180R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
181R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
Step for development
of
Programmed
Instruction
182R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
Selection of the topic to be programmed
Identifying the objectives.
Content analysis for developing the instruction procedure.
Writing objective in behavioral terms.
Construction of criterion test.
183R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
Cont…
Deciding appropriate strategy of programme.
Writing programme frames and individual try out.
Group try out, revising and editing the programmed
and preparing final dealt.
Master validation or evaluation of programmed in terms of
internal and external criteria.
184R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 185
Technique of programmed instruction
• Necessary information broken down into very
small steps.
• After understanding each step the student must
take a response, answer a question, work out a
problem or make a choice, usually by writing in a
space provided.
186R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
Cont… Technique of programmed instruction
• The student response is immediately checked with
the right answer.
• Programmed instructions an attempt to provide
effective instruction without requiring the
physical presence of human teacher.
187R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
Characteristic of programmed instruction
Individualized Instruction
Logical Sequence of material (Small Steps)
Interaction between the learner and the programmed
Immediate Knowledge of results
Organized nature of Knowledge
Learners Own Speed (Self Pacing)
Constant Evaluation
188R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
Principle
• Small steps
• Active responding
• Immediate confirmation
• Self- pacing
• Student- testing
189R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
Small steps
• The subject- matter is broken down
into a sequence of small step.
• A student can take a step at a time. He
has to read a small step by being active.
190R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
Active responding
• The student learns best if he is active
responds as he learns.
• The learner has to construct the response.
• It is an integral part of learning. Active
responding on the part of the learner means
learner involvement in the learning process
is active.
191R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
Immediate confirmation
• The student learns best if he confirms his
response immediately.
• The confirmation provides the
reinforcement to the learner.
192R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
Self- pacing
• In programmed instruction, the learner decides
the rate at which he progresses through the
programmed.
• He adjusts the pace of work to his own ability
and motivation level.
• He is not forced to work with the speed of
other student of the class.
193R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
Student- testing
• A student leaves the record of his student
because he has to write a response for each
step on a response sheet.
• This reminds the principle of student testing.
194R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
Advantage
• It helps to develop high efficiency.
• It facilitates self evaluation.
• It gives individual instruction.
• The student is actively involved.
• The student proceeds at his own pace.
• The student is provided with immediate knowledge
of result.
• It permits mass teaching.
• It can lead to high availability.
195R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
Disadvantage
• Require experts on programmed instruction.
• Preparation is difficult and time- consuming.
• Material is not available.
• Necessary special education competence.
• It cost high additional investment cost in
teacher’s time and money.
• There will be no group dynamics.
196R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
Conclusion
• Programme instruction is the procedure of guiding
the participants strategically through the information
in a way that facilitates the most effective and
efficient learning.
• It provides immediate feedback to trainee response.
197R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
Bibliography
• KP Neeraja, text book of Nursing education, 1st
edition 2003, Jaypee brothers medical
publishers (p) ltd, page no.267-272
• BT Basavanthappa, Nursing Education, Jaypee
brothers Medical publisher (p) ltd, page no.
413-416.
• Elsa santombi devi, Manipal manual of Nursing
education, CBS publisher and distributor New
Delhi,1st edition 2006, page no. - 155- 170.
198R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
199R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS

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Teaching method ....ppt

  • 2. • Instructional strategies determine the approach a teacher may take to achieve learning objective. • Instructional methods are used by teachers to create learning environments. 2R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  • 3. Definition • Teaching methods is the stimulation, guidance, direction and encouragement for learning. 3R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  • 4. Teaching strategies classification • Teacher controlled teaching( monologue, autocratic teaching) • Interactive procedure of teaching ( Democratic, dialogue teaching) • Learning controlled teaching ( self study, lassies – fair teaching) • Group controlled teaching ( Action oriented, democratic teaching) • Clinical teaching method 4R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  • 5. Teacher controlled teaching( monologue, autocratic teaching) • Lecture methods • Demonstration methods • Lecture demonstration • Team teaching methods • Individualized instruction • Historical 5R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  • 6. Interactive procedure of teaching (Democratic, dialogue teaching) • Question answer method • Interactive procedure • Group discussion methods • Tutorial methods • Seminar methods • Panel methods • Symposium 6R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  • 7. Learning controlled teaching ( self study, lassies – fair teaching) • Programmed instruction • Self directed learning (SDL) • Library methods • Computer assisted instruction • Laboratory methods • Assignments 7R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  • 8. Group controlled teaching ( Action oriented, democratic teaching) • Project methods • Simulation instruction • Filed trip • Field work, survey • Workshop • Problem- solving method • Problem based learning • Role play • Narrative • Conducting experience • Story telling • Field observation • Model building • Buzz sessions 8 R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  • 9. Clinical teaching method 1. Client family centered methods 2. Observation 3. Conference i. Clinical conference ii. Individual conference iii. Group conference iv. Staff conference v. Nursing care conference vi. Team conference 9R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  • 10. Cont…Clinical teaching method 4. Bedside clinic 5. Nursing rounds and medical rounds 6. Demonstration and re-demonstration of procedure 7. Ward teaching 8. Ward class 9. Ward clinic 10. Case study/ case presentation/ case history methods 10R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  • 11. 11. Group discussion 12. Brain storming methods 13. Process recording 14. Laboratory methods 15. Planned health talks 16. Nursing care study 17. Organizing exhibition 18. Incidental teaching 19. Problem solving methods 20. Research projects Cont…Clinical teaching method 11R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  • 13. Lecture methods • The lecture is a teaching procedure consisting of the clarification or the explanation of facts, principles or relationships. • A lecture (from the French 'lecture', meaning 'reading' [process]) is an oral presentation intended to present information or teach people about a particular subject, R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 13
  • 14. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 15 L- Lively E- Educative C- Creative T- Thought provoking U- Understanding R- Relevant E- Enjoyable.
  • 15. PLANNING THE LECTURE • Before starting to prepare a lecture, the teacher must be able to answer four basic questions:- – Who is your audience?- Who – What is the purpose of your lecture?- Why – How much time is available- How long – What is the subject matter?- What R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 16
  • 16. Lecture delivery • Speaker- audience distance • Body movement and stand • Facial expression • Gesture • Voice • Strength R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 17 •Enunciation •Pronunciation •Rate of speech •Variety •Pauses
  • 17. Advantage of lecture methods • Factual information • Useful for large gathering • Cost effective • Quick and straight forward way • Useful methods for auditory learner • Easier to create • Familiar methods • Time saving R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 18
  • 18. Disadvantage of lecture methods • Content centered • One sided affair • Need proficient oral skills- teacher need special oral skill in delivering lecture. If they don’t have this skill then lecture become boring, and uninteresting. • Passive audience • Minimizes feedback from students. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 19
  • 19. Cont… Disadvantage of lecture methods • No place for any practical activity, observation experimentation and demonstration. • Failure with the student of lower class. Not appropriate for children below grade 4. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 20
  • 20. How to improve lecture methods- • Fit the lecture to the audience • Focus your topic • Prepare an outline that includes 5-9 major points you want to cover in one lecture • Organize your points for clarity • Repeat point when necessary • Be aware of your audience- notice their feedback • Be enthusiastic R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 21
  • 21. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 22 A GOOD LECTURE Avoid annoying mannerisms Tailor speech & writing proper use of body language Topic based on need & interest Clarify concepts with examples Lecture with respectivity of students Manage lecture in time
  • 22. Discussion Methods • Discussion involves two-way communication between participants • In the classroom situation an instructor and trainees all participate in discussion. • During discussion, the instructor spends some time listening while the trainees spend sometimes talking R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 23
  • 23. Cont… • The discussion is, therefore, a more active learning experience for the trainees than the lecture. • A discussion is the means by which people share experiences, ideas and attitudes. • As it helps to foster trainee’s involvement in what they are learning, it may contribute to desired attitudinal changes. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 24
  • 24. Definition • The group discussions defined as the process of reaching and counter reaction between two or more than two person on a common subject with the objective of achieving some specific conclusion or result. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 25
  • 25. Advantage of discussion methods • Effective learning • Emphasis on students experience • Development of critical thinking • Participation by everybody • Self expression • Peer learning is one of the most direct benefits resulting from the discussion methods. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 26
  • 26. Disadvantage • May dominate with personal feeling • Chances of deviation from topic • Dominance by one person R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 27
  • 27. Small Group Discussion R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 28
  • 28. introduction • Small group have fewer than 5-20 or so members, making it easier for people to actively participate. • They meet as small gathering or as break- outs of large meetings and offer may opportunities for- – creative, – flexible interchange of ideas. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 29
  • 29. Important feature • Actively participated and interaction • There is time limit for given activity • Specific task them or goal • Participation is improved • Group members are activated • Enhance contribution from members R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 30
  • 30. Specific small group technique include • Breakout groups • Workshop • Roundtable • Study circle R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 31
  • 31. Buzz Method • The buzz group technique is a patent discussion group with a high degree of student involvement in which small group of 2-3 participants discuss a specific question or issue in order to come-up with many ideas in a short-time. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 32
  • 32. Cont…. • Buzz groups is a cooperative learning technique consisting in the formation of small discussion groups with the objective of developing a specific task (idea generation, problem solving and so on) or facilitating that a group of people reach a consensus on their ideas about a topic in a specific period of time. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 33
  • 33. Features of Buzz Group Method- • Small group (2-3 participants) • Method is informal • No need to move for discussion/no need of syndicate rooms • Discussion on only one issue, question, or point (no need of in depth analysis) R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 34
  • 34. Cont…. • Less time consuming (5-15 Min.) • Can be used as “Ice Breaker” • Buzz group leader is not there. • Can be used as a supplemented method of other methods. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 35
  • 35. Process of Buzz Group Method • Decide the appropriateness of the method • Prepare specific question/issues for discussion • Prepare key learning points related to the issues • Present question/issues. • Ask individual participants to write down their views • Form groups of 2 – 3 participants to write down their views R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 36
  • 36. Cont… • Allocate 5 – 10 min. time for discussion • Have them share and discuss on their points within the group • Supervise each group and encourage individuals to participate • Stop discussion after the allocated time has expired R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 37
  • 37. • Ask each group to share their points preferably one points from each group at a time • Record them on the board or chart sheet • Discuss on the points and conclude • Relate them with the key learning points R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 38 Cont…
  • 38. Advantage • Every person in group is involved in discussion • Produce useful resulting in minimum time • Wholesome effects on group members • Creates informal atmosphere R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 39
  • 39. Disadvantages • Effectiveness of the group may be lowered by the immature behavior of a few. • It may not be effective for younger groups or groups that know each other too well to take each other's opinions seriously. • It can be time-consuming when dealing with very large groups. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 40
  • 40. Limitation • Depends on the leader. • Cannot be used in all situations. • It is useful in defining problem or questions, developing a list of possible goals, refining ideas. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 41
  • 42. • The fishbowl is a method to facilitate a group discussion in an event. • An inner circle, the fishbowl, is created, in which members of the audience participate and in which the discussion starts. • This method is easy to organize and allows a good involvement of the audience. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 43
  • 43. • Fishbowl Discussions are designed to improve communication skills. • The fishbowl strategy involves seating students in two concentric circles. • Those in the inner circle do the talking, and those in the outer circle listen, take notes, and evaluate the communication skills and the content of the discussion. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 44
  • 44. • It is used for dynamic group involvement • This activity required 60-90 minute • Fish bowl discussion can be open and closed. • In a fishbowl 4-5 chairs are arranged in an inner circle. The remaining chairs are arranged in outer circle of the fishbowl. • The moderator introduces the topic and the participants start discussing the topic. The audience outside the fishbowl listens in on the discussion. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 45
  • 46. The Layout Student will be arranged in a circle With the small group in the middle.
  • 48. Open fishbowl • In an open fishbowl, any member of the audience can, at any time, occupy the empty chair and join the fishbowl. • When this happens, an existing member of the fishbowl must voluntarily leave the fishbowl and free a chair. • The discussion continues with participants frequently entering and leaving the fishbowl. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 49
  • 49. Cont… open fishbowl • Depending on how large your audience is you can have many audience members spend some time in the fishbowl and take part in the discussion. • When time runs out, the fishbowl is closed and the moderator summarizes the discussion. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 50
  • 51. Closed fishbowl • In a closed fishbowl, the initial participants speak for some time. • When time runs out, they leave the fishbowl and a new group from the audience enters the fishbowl. • This continues until many audience members have spent some time in the fishbowl. • Once the final group has concluded, the moderator closes the fishbowl and summarizes the discussion. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 52
  • 53. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 54 • Seminars are simply a group of people coming together for the discussion and learning of specific technique and topics. • The word seminar is derived from Latin word “Seminarium” meaning “seed plot”.
  • 54. DEFINITION • Seminar is an instructional technique of higher learning which involves paper reading on a theme and followed by the group discussion to clarify the complex aspects of theme. • Seminars are simply a group of people coming together for the discussion and learning of specific techniques and topics. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 55
  • 55. Types of seminar R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 56 Sl. No Type Example 1 mini seminar class room level 2 main seminar dept / institutional level 3 national seminar national level 4. international seminar international level
  • 60. CHARATERISTICS • Teacher is the leader. • The group generally consists of 10 to 15 participants. • An ideal seminar lasts for 1-2 hrs.
  • 61. • The topic is initially presented by the presenter followed by group discussion. • The leader should keep the discussion within limits so the focus of discussion can be mentioned. • care should be taken to avoid stereotypes.
  • 62. • In student seminars, students present their data in an informal way under the leadership of the teacher, followed by a teacher monitored discussion. • All members take part in discussion in an informal but orderly manner.
  • 63. • The chairman should be skilled in encouraging the timid participants. • A student secretary may record the problems that come up and the solutions given to them.
  • 64. Requirement of seminar • Teacher is a leader (student can also function as leader). • 10-15 members are participants. • The topic is presented by the student taking 15-20minute- time. • Duration is 1 to 2 hours. • Leaders should keep the discussion within the limits of the problem discussed. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 70
  • 65. Cont…. • Students present their data in an informal way under the leadership of the teacher. • Care should be taken part in discussion in an informal way but orderly in manner. • The chairmen should be skilled in encouraging the timid participants. • A student secretary should record the problem which arise and the solution given. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 71
  • 66. Roles of Seminar Technique • In organizing a seminar the following roles are performed:- • ORGANIZER • CHAIRMEN • PARTICIPANT • OBSERVERS R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 72
  • 67. Advantages of seminar method • Stimulation of thinking. • Tolerance of other views develops. • Cooperation with others develops. • Openness of ideas occurs. • Represents the norms of behaviors. • It has great instructional values. • Natural way of learning R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 73
  • 68. Limitation of seminar • Seminar cannot be organized on all the content of subject matter. • Technique cannot be used in all levels of education • Seminar is a time consuming process. • It cannot be applied to new students. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 74
  • 69. Cont….. • Timid students may initially feel nervous. • If subject knowledge is poor, unnecessary discussions arise. • The approach to problem solving extends to student's professional and personal activities. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 75
  • 72. Panel Discussion R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 78
  • 73. • It is designed to provide an opportunity to a group to hear several people knowledgeable about a specific issue or topic. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 79
  • 74. Objective • To provide information and new facts • To analysis the current problem from different angle. • To identify the values • To organize for mental reaction. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 80
  • 76. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 82 A U D I E N C E
  • 78. Identify the Goal and purpose of your panel discussion. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 84
  • 81. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 87 Determine the rules For the panel discussion.
  • 82. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 88 ❖ Write questions for the panelists.
  • 83. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 89 Arrange For the panel discussion to be recorded.
  • 84. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 90 Present and introduce the panelists at the beginning of the panel discussion.
  • 85. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 91 Conduct the discussion as planned, following the established rules.
  • 86. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 92 Conclude the panel discussion with a summary and closing remarks.
  • 87. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 93 Send thank you notes to the panelists and moderator For their participation
  • 90. • A workshop is similar to a seminar but with a greater degree of attendance participation, interaction, and hand-on experience, is usually a full day where participants learn and practice the knowledge and skills that is the workshop’s focus. • An educational seminar or series of meeting emphasizing interaction and exchange of information among a usually small number of participants. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 96
  • 91. Characteristics of workshop • Activity based • Active engagement of participants during the workshop • High production values • Information sharing meeting • Limited number of participants R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 97
  • 92. Cont…Characteristics of workshop • Less formal, include more discussion • Emphasizing practical applications • Requiring some preparation in advance of the workshop • Thorough minute-by-minute planning of workshop sessions. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 98
  • 93. Strength • Involves collaborative problem- solving • The participants feel they are part of a learning community • Group building • Useful for small group where there is a common interest or concern • Encourage communication and acceptance of other viewpoints • It is useful when the solutions to problem are not clear. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 99
  • 94. Weakness • Dominance by member • It can be difficult to keep focused and clear about and desired outcome. • Working session • Limited numbers of participant. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 100
  • 95. STEPS IN PREARATION OF A WORKSHOP 101
  • 96. STEPS IN ORGANIZING A WORKSHOP OPENING A FILE FORMULATION OF AIMS & OBJECTIVES ARRANGEMENT OF FUNDS DATE & PLACE OF WORKSHOP SELECTION OF EXPERTS SELECTION OF PARTICIPANTS COMMITTEE OF SPONSORS WORKING LANGUAGE INVITATION TO PARTICIPANTS 102
  • 97. OPENING A FILE • A file is opened which contains information on – • budget, • sitting arrangements, • selection of participants, • documentation and equipment • checklist, • publicity press and • Evaluation. 103
  • 98. FORMULATION OF AIMS & OBJECTIVES • Aims & objectives are formulated both for the organizers and the participants. • At first stage of the workshop theoretical aspects are discussed by experts. 104
  • 99. ARRANGEMENT OF FUNDS • The organizer has to arrange funds boarding & lodging both for the experts and the participants. • The whole programme schedule is prepared by the organizer. 105
  • 100. CHOOSING THE DATE & PLACE • A non working day is usually chosen for the first day of workshop. ( Ensure that at least one working day precedes the opening of the workshop.) • The place of workshop is selected keeping in mind the feasibility of the participants to reach the venue. 106
  • 101. IDENTIFICATION OF RESOURCE PERSONS • The success of the workshop depends on the quality of the resource persons chosen, experience, qualification, knowledge & importance should be given while selecting the resource persons. 107
  • 102. IDENTIFICATION OF SPONSORS • Sponsoring agencies and individuals are to be identified and contacted so as to aid in the organization of the workshop and in managing it's funds. 108
  • 103. WORKING LANGUAGE • The workshop is usually carried out in a national language or preferred official language. 109
  • 104. INVITATION TO PARTICIPANTS • A personal letters should be sent to the participants selected with the following points. 1. Aims of the workshop. 2. What is implied by the workshop. 3. Working methods of the workshop. 4. Theme of the workshop. 110
  • 105. ROLES IN WORKSHOP • Role of Organizer of the Workshop Technique. • Role of Convener in First Stage. • Role of Experts or Resource persons. • Role of Participants or Trainees 111
  • 106. ROLE OF AN ORGANIZER • The program and schedule is prepared by the organizer. • He has to arrange for boarding and lodging facilities for participants as well as for the experts. 112
  • 107. ROLE OF A CONVENOR • At first stage of the workshop, the theoretical aspects are discussed by the experts on the theme of the workshop. • Therefore, a convener is nominated or invited who is well known with theme. 113
  • 108. ROLE OF EXPERTS • In organizing a workshop, resources persons play an important role in providing theoretical and practical aspects of theme. • They provide guidance to participants at every stage and train them to perform the task effectively 114
  • 109. ROLE OF A TRAINEE • The participants should be keep interested in the theme of the workshop. • At the first stage, they have to acquire understanding of the theme. 116
  • 110. Cont…. • At the second stage, they have to practice and perform the task with great interest and seek proper guidance from the experts. 117
  • 111. OUTCOMES OF THE WORKSHOP • Workshop widens specified knowledge. • Results in personal and professional growth. • Results in friendship, team spirit and human relations. 118
  • 113. • It is a technique which can be effective used for developing understanding and proficiency for the approaches and practices in education. • It is used for developing and improving professional efficiency, eg. Nursing, medical, dental etc. • Facilitates learning by doing R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 120
  • 114. • It develops the feeling cooperation and group work. • The new practice and innovations are introduced • It is a problem solving methods • Active participation is possible • Leadership quality can be develop and enhanced. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 121
  • 115. Disadvantage of workshop • Generally follow up are not organized in workshop technique. • It requires a lot of time for participant and staff • A large number of staff members are needed to handle participation. • It demands special facilities or materials. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 122
  • 116. • Participants do not take interest in practical work or to do something in productive form. • The workshop cannot be organized for large group so large number of persons cannot be not trained. • Time consuming • Resource person should be available. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 123
  • 118. Symposium • It is also one of the techniques of higher learning. • “Symposium consists of a set of program of prepared speeches followed by audience discussion” • “Symposium is a technique in which two or more person under the direction of a chairman presents several speeches, which give several aspect of one question”. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 125
  • 119. • The word Symposium is also has several dictionary meaning.- • Firstly, Plato has used this term for “good dialogue” to present the view towards GOD. • Another meaning of the term is the intellectual reaction or enjoyment. • The recent meaning of the term is a meeting of persons to discuss a problem. • The main purpose of the symposiums to provide the understanding to the students or listeners on them or problem specification to develop certain values and feelings. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 126
  • 120. DEFINITION • “Symposium consists of a set of program of prepared speeches followed by audience discussion” • “Symposium is a technique in which two or more person under the direction of a chairman presents several speeches, which give several aspect of one question”. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 127
  • 121. OBJECTIVES • identify and understand two various aspects of the theme. • To develop the ability to decision and judgment regard a problem. • To develop the values and feeling regarding a problem. • To enable the listeners to form policies regarding problem. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 128
  • 122. Characteristics of Symposium • It provides the broad understandings of a topic or a problem. • The opportunity is provided to the listeners to take decision about the Problem. • It is used for higher classes to specific theme and problem. • It develops the feeling of co-operation and adjustment. The objectives as synthesis and evaluation are achieved by employing the symposium. • It provides the different views on the topic of the symposium. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 129
  • 123. Scope for the use of symposium • Scope for the distance education in our education. • Use of essay and objective type of test. • Semester system in education. • Quality control of education research. • Use of microteaching in teacher education • Use of team teaching in school. • Use of action research in classroom teaching. • Scope of education technology in our education. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 130
  • 124. Advantages • It is suitable to a large group or classes. • This method can be frequently used to present broad topics for discussion at conventions and organization meetings. • Organization is good because of the set speeches prepared beforehand. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 131
  • 125. • Gives deeper insight into the topic. • This method can be use in political meetings. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 132
  • 126. Disadvantages • Inadequate opportunity for all the students to participate actively. • The speeches are limited to 15-20 minutes. • Question and answer limited to 3 or 4 minutes. • Possibility of overlapping the subjects. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 134
  • 127. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 135
  • 128. Micro - Teaching R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 136
  • 129. Introduction • Micro-teaching is a teacher training and faculty development technique whereby the teacher reviews a recording of a teaching session, in order to get constructive feedback from peers and/or students about what has worked and what improvements can be made to their teaching technique. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 137
  • 130. • Micro-teaching was invented in the mid-1960s at Stanford University by Dr. D. W. Allen, and has subsequently been used to develop educators in all forms of education. • Microteaching is a technique aiming to prepare teacher candidates to the real classroom setting (Brent & Thomson, 1996). R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 138
  • 131. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 139 Dr. Allen and his group evolved Microteaching in 1960 in America.
  • 132. • Microteaching is a technique aiming to prepare teacher candidates to the real classroom setting (Brent & Thomson, 1996). R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 140
  • 133. • Microteaching can be defined as a training context in which a teacher’s situation has been reduced in scope or simplified in some systematic ways. There are three ways in which teaching may be scaled down- – The teacher’s task may be simplified and made very specific. – The length of the lesson may be shortened. – The size of class may be reduced. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 141 DEFINITION
  • 134. Cont… DEFINITION • According BM shore “microteaching is real teaching, reduced in time, number of students and range of activities”. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 142
  • 135. Characteristics of microteaching • It is real teaching situation • Scaled down teaching:- it is reduce the complexity of the classroom teaching situation in term of the number of student, the amount of time and the amount of learning contents. • Development of specific teaching skill • Controlled practice • Immediate feedback R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 143
  • 136. Skills of Micro teaching- • Set Induction (Introduction Skill) • Skill of questioning • Skill of Explanation • Skill of Stimulus Variation • Skill of Black-board Writing R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 144
  • 137. 145 Cont… Skills of Micro teaching Techniques The components of the skill of Blackboard Writing Are: i. Legibility ( Easy to read ) ii. Size and alignment ( In a straight line ) iii. Highlighting main points iv. Utilization of the space v. Blackboard summary vi. Correctness vii. Position of the teacher and viii.Contact with the pupils.
  • 138. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 146 2. Skill of Probing Questions 1. Introduction Skill 3. Skill of Explanation 4. Skill of Stimulus Variation 5. Skill of Black- board Writing Skills of Micro Teaching 6. Skill of Achieving Closure
  • 139. Phase of microteaching R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 147
  • 140. 148 Microteaching Cycle (Procedure) Step- I : Micro Lesson Plan ( may take 2 hours / a day) Step-II : Teach 5 Min. Step-III : Feedback Session 5 Min. Step-IV : Re-plan 10 Min. Step-V : Re-teach Another group 5 Min. Step-VI : Re-feedback 5 Min. --------------- Total 30 Min. (Appr.) Teach → Feedback → Re-plan → Re-teach → Re-feedback
  • 142. Advantage of microteaching • Reduced complexity • Individualized teaching • It develops confident by having the practice of skill in microteaching under simulated condition. • Behavior modification technique. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 150
  • 143. Cont…Advantage of microteaching • More understanding of teaching • Real teaching • Self – evaluation is possible by analyzing one’s teaching performed. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 151
  • 144. Limitation of microteaching • Costly- video recording • Narrowing scope- • For training in microteaching sufficient time is required. • Teacher needs training of this method which generally they lack. • Micro teaching is skill-oriented rather than content-oriented • Scope of micro teaching is narrow R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 152
  • 145. Summary Microteaching • Microteaching involves presentation of micro lesson • Audience….small group of peers. • Feedback given by peers role playing as students • Participants learn about strengths & weakness in themselves as teachers • Plan strategies for improvement in performance. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 153
  • 146. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 154
  • 147. Simulation • In general terms, simulation is a technique or device that attempts to create characteristic of the real world. • Simulation allows the educator to control the learning environment through scheduling of practice, providing feedback, and minimizing or introducing environmental distractions. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 155
  • 148. What can be simulated? Almost anything can and almost everything has...
  • 149. Simulation • In general terms, simulation is a technique or device that attempts to create characteristic of the real world. • Simulation allows the educator to control the learning environment through scheduling of practice, providing feedback, and minimizing or introducing environmental distractions. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 157
  • 150. What can be simulated? Almost anything can and almost everything has...
  • 151. • In health care, simulation may refer to “a device representing a simulated patient or part of patient; such a device can respond to and interact with the action of the learner. • To simulate is to try to duplicate the characteristics of a real system. • Simulation is one of the most widely used decision modeling techniques. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 159
  • 152. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 160
  • 153. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 161
  • 154. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 162
  • 155. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 163
  • 156. Definition • Simulations are defined “activities that mimic the reality of a clinical environment and are designed to demonstrate procedures, decision- making and critical thinking through technique such as role playing and the use of device such as interactive videos or mannequins”. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 164
  • 157. Principal of simulation • Clear stated objective • Actual patient care experience • Proper orientation of proceedings/ scenario • Use of problem- solving and critical reasoning R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 165
  • 158. Characteristics of simulated teaching • Can be in research work • It can be used for rehearsal before going to classroom teaching • Effective for practice of teaching skills by the pupil teacher • Effective feedback can be provided • It is very convenient method R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 166
  • 159. Cont…Principal of simulation • Role of educator must be as a facilitator • Simulation should be collaborative approach between educator and simulator • Feedback and evaluation of stimulator session. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 167
  • 160. The Process of Simulation R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 168
  • 161. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 169
  • 162. Values of simulation Techniques • Enable the learner to learn directly from experience. • Promotes high level of critical thinking • Develops in the student an understanding of the decision- making process. • Enable the individual to empathies with the real- life situation R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 170
  • 163. Cont… Values of simulation Techniques • Provides feedback to the learners on the consequences of action and decision made. • Motivates the students by making real life situations exciting and interesting. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 171
  • 164. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 172
  • 166. 174R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 167. • Programmed learning (or programmed instruction) is a research-based system which helps learners work successfully. 175R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 168. • It is a learning in which the student works from the known to unknown, from the familiar to unfamiliar. • It is a self- testing technique for acquiring factual learning. • It is an integrated structional system which may employ programmed books, teaching machine, films in various forms of audio- visual devices. 176R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 169. Definition • It is a kind of learning in which a ‘program’ takes the place of a tutor for the student, and leads him through a set of frames of specified behaviors designed and sequenced to make it more probable that he will behave in a give desired way. (Kochhar, S.K.1992) 177R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 170. Type • Linear programming • Branching programming • Mathetics programming • Computer assisted instruction 179R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 171. 180R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 172. 181R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 173. Step for development of Programmed Instruction 182R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 174. Selection of the topic to be programmed Identifying the objectives. Content analysis for developing the instruction procedure. Writing objective in behavioral terms. Construction of criterion test. 183R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 175. Cont… Deciding appropriate strategy of programme. Writing programme frames and individual try out. Group try out, revising and editing the programmed and preparing final dealt. Master validation or evaluation of programmed in terms of internal and external criteria. 184R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 176. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 185
  • 177. Technique of programmed instruction • Necessary information broken down into very small steps. • After understanding each step the student must take a response, answer a question, work out a problem or make a choice, usually by writing in a space provided. 186R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 178. Cont… Technique of programmed instruction • The student response is immediately checked with the right answer. • Programmed instructions an attempt to provide effective instruction without requiring the physical presence of human teacher. 187R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 179. Characteristic of programmed instruction Individualized Instruction Logical Sequence of material (Small Steps) Interaction between the learner and the programmed Immediate Knowledge of results Organized nature of Knowledge Learners Own Speed (Self Pacing) Constant Evaluation 188R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 180. Principle • Small steps • Active responding • Immediate confirmation • Self- pacing • Student- testing 189R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 181. Small steps • The subject- matter is broken down into a sequence of small step. • A student can take a step at a time. He has to read a small step by being active. 190R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 182. Active responding • The student learns best if he is active responds as he learns. • The learner has to construct the response. • It is an integral part of learning. Active responding on the part of the learner means learner involvement in the learning process is active. 191R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 183. Immediate confirmation • The student learns best if he confirms his response immediately. • The confirmation provides the reinforcement to the learner. 192R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 184. Self- pacing • In programmed instruction, the learner decides the rate at which he progresses through the programmed. • He adjusts the pace of work to his own ability and motivation level. • He is not forced to work with the speed of other student of the class. 193R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 185. Student- testing • A student leaves the record of his student because he has to write a response for each step on a response sheet. • This reminds the principle of student testing. 194R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 186. Advantage • It helps to develop high efficiency. • It facilitates self evaluation. • It gives individual instruction. • The student is actively involved. • The student proceeds at his own pace. • The student is provided with immediate knowledge of result. • It permits mass teaching. • It can lead to high availability. 195R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 187. Disadvantage • Require experts on programmed instruction. • Preparation is difficult and time- consuming. • Material is not available. • Necessary special education competence. • It cost high additional investment cost in teacher’s time and money. • There will be no group dynamics. 196R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 188. Conclusion • Programme instruction is the procedure of guiding the participants strategically through the information in a way that facilitates the most effective and efficient learning. • It provides immediate feedback to trainee response. 197R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 189. Bibliography • KP Neeraja, text book of Nursing education, 1st edition 2003, Jaypee brothers medical publishers (p) ltd, page no.267-272 • BT Basavanthappa, Nursing Education, Jaypee brothers Medical publisher (p) ltd, page no. 413-416. • Elsa santombi devi, Manipal manual of Nursing education, CBS publisher and distributor New Delhi,1st edition 2006, page no. - 155- 170. 198R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  • 190. 199R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS