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Spaulding Classification
DR.PRINCE C P
HOD & Associate Professor , Department of Microbiology,
Mother Theresa Post Graduate & Research Institute of Health Sciences
(Government of Puducherry Institution)
Introduction
• Disinfection of medical instruments is important for preventing the
spread of disease. Cleaning and disinfecting reusable equipment after
it comes into contact with patients can be expensive, both in the cost
of the disinfection procedure, but also in terms of time away from the
patients themselves.
• Not all medical instruments can be fully sterilized after each use.
Thankfully, not all reusable instruments need the highest level of
disinfection. But how to determine the minimum level of disinfection
in a given situation?
Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in
Healthcare Facilities
• Earle H. Spaulding devised a rational approach to disinfection and
sterilization of patient-care items and equipment
• Spaulding believed the nature of disinfection could be understood
readily if instruments and items for patient care were categorized as
critical, semi-critical, and non-critical according to the degree of risk
for infection involved in use of the items.
Overview of the Spaulding Classification
• Spaulding recognized that the need for disinfection of equipment in
medical settings ranged from non-critical to semi-critical to critical,
depending on the likelihood of spreading disease.
• For example, sterilization is necessary for equipment that comes into
contact with a patient’s bloodstream or sterile tissue. This category of
equipment, such as surgical knives, is designated “critical” because it
presents a high risk of disease transmission from patient to patient.
• Equipment that only touches healthy, unbroken skin presents a low risk of
contamination because intact skin acts as an effective barrier to most
microorganisms. Examples in this “non-critical” category include bedpans,
blood-pressure cuffs, and bedrails.
• In between those two scenarios, a “semi-critical” level of disinfection
presents a medium risk of contamination. This would include equipment
such as endoscopes used on mucous membranes or areas of broken skin.
Spaulding divided the three levels of criticality into four classifications for disinfection or
sterilization requirements:
• Sterilization – The highest level of decontamination requires that all
microbes have been destroyed.
• High-level disinfection – HLD is considered semi-critical and requires the
destruction of all bacteria, fungi, mycobacteria, and viruses, though small
numbers of bacterial spores may remain.
• Intermediate-level disinfection – The ILD designation is considered non-
critical, but requires the destruction of most bacteria, mycobacteria, and
certain types of viruses, as well as some fungi. It is not required to destroy
any spores.
• Low-level disinfection – LLD is also non-critical. This designation requires
only the destruction of bacteria and enveloped viruses, as well as partially
destroying fungi and non-enveloped viruses. It does not need to destroy
spores or mycobacteria.
Overview of the Spaulding Classification
Microbes and disinfection levels
Critical Items
• Critical items confer a high risk for infection if they are contaminated
with any microorganism.
• Thus, objects that enter sterile tissue or the vascular system must be
sterile because any microbial contamination could transmit disease.
• This category includes surgical instruments, cardiac and urinary
catheters, implants, and ultrasound probes used in sterile body
cavities.
Critical Items
• Most of the items in this category should be purchased as sterile or be sterilized
with steam if possible.
• Heat-sensitive objects can be treated with EtO, hydrogen peroxide gas plasma; or
if other methods are unsuitable, by liquid chemical sterilant.
• Germicides categorized as chemical sterilant include ≥2.4% glutaraldehyde-based
formulations, 0.95% glutaraldehyde with 1.64% phenol/phenate, 7.5% stabilized
hydrogen peroxide, 7.35% hydrogen peroxide with 0.23% peracetic acid, 0.2%
peracetic acid, and 0.08% peracetic acid with 1.0% hydrogen peroxide.
• Liquid chemical sterilant reliably produce sterility only if cleaning precedes
treatment and if proper guidelines are followed regarding concentration, contact
time, temperature, and pH.
Semicritical Items
• Semicritical items contact mucous membranes or nonintact skin. This category
includes respiratory therapy and anesthesia equipment, some endoscopes,
laryngoscope blades , esophageal manometry probes, cystoscopes , anorectal
manometry catheters, and diaphragm fitting rings.
• These medical devices should be free from all microorganisms; however, small
numbers of bacterial spores are permissible. Intact mucous membranes, such as
those of the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract, generally are resistant to
infection by common bacterial spores but susceptible to other organisms, such as
bacteria, mycobacteria, and viruses.
• Semicritical items minimally require high-level disinfection using chemical
disinfectants. Glutaraldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, ortho-phthalaldehyde, and
peracetic acid with hydrogen peroxide are cleared by the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) and are dependable high-level disinfectants provided the
factors influencing germicidal procedures are met. When a disinfectant is
selected for use with certain patient-care items, the chemical compatibility after
extended use with the items to be disinfected also must be considered.
Semicritical Items
• High-level disinfection traditionally is defined as complete elimination of all microorganisms in or
on an instrument, except for small numbers of bacterial spores. The FDA definition of high-level
disinfection is a sterilant used for a shorter contact time to achieve a 6-log10 kill of an
appropriate Mycobacterium species. Cleaning followed by high-level disinfection should eliminate
enough pathogens to prevent transmission of infection.
• Laparoscopes and arthroscopes entering sterile tissue ideally should be sterilized between
patients.
• As with flexible endoscopes, these devices can be difficult to clean and high-level disinfect or
sterilize because of intricate device design (e.g., long narrow lumens, hinges). Meticulous cleaning
must precede any high-level disinfection or sterilization process.
• Although sterilization is preferred, no reports have been published of outbreaks resulting from
high-level disinfection of these scopes when they are properly cleaned and high-level disinfected.
Newer models of these instruments can withstand steam sterilization that for critical items would
be preferable to high-level disinfection
Semicritical Items
• Rinsing endoscopes and flushing channels with sterile water, filtered water, or tap water will prevent adverse
effects associated with disinfectant retained in the endoscope (e.g., disinfectant-induced colitis). Items can
be rinsed and flushed using sterile water after high-level disinfection to prevent contamination with
organisms in tap water, such as nontuberculous mycobacteria, Legionella, or gram-negative bacilli such
as Pseudomonas.
• Alternatively, a tap water or filtered water (0.2m filter) rinse should be followed by an alcohol rinse and
forced air drying.
• Forced-air drying markedly reduces bacterial contamination of stored endoscopes, most likely by removing
the wet environment favorable for bacterial growth. After rinsing, items should be dried and stored (e.g.,
packaged) in a manner that protects them from recontamination.
• Some items that may come in contact with nonintact skin for a brief period of time (i.e., hydrotherapy tanks,
bed side rails) are usually considered noncritical surfaces and are disinfected with intermediate-level
disinfectants (i.e., phenolic, iodophor, alcohol, chlorine).Since hydrotherapy tanks have been associated with
spread of infection, some facilities have chosen to disinfect them with recommended levels of chlorine.
• In the past, high-level disinfection was recommended for mouthpieces and spirometry tubing (e.g.,
glutaraldehyde) but cleaning the interior surfaces of the spirometers was considered unnecessary . This was
based on a study that showed that mouthpieces and spirometry tubing become contaminated with
microorganisms but there was no bacterial contamination of the surfaces inside the spirometers. Filters have
been used to prevent contamination of this equipment distal to the filter; such filters and the proximal
mouthpiece are changed between patients.
Noncritical Items
• Noncritical items are those that come in contact with intact skin but not
mucous membranes. Intact skin acts as an effective barrier to most
microorganisms; therefore, the sterility of items coming in contact with
intact skin is “not critical.”
• In this guideline, noncritical items are divided into noncritical patient care
items and noncritical environmental surfaces.
• Examples of noncritical patient-care items are bedpans, blood pressure
cuffs, crutches and computers . In contrast to critical and some semi-critical
items, most noncritical reusable items may be decontaminated where they
are used and do not need to be transported to a central processing area.
Virtually no risk has been documented for transmission of infectious agents
to patients through noncritical items when they are used as noncritical
items and do not contact non-intact skin and/or mucous membranes.
• Non-critcal environmental surfaces include bed rails, some food utensils, bedside
tables, patient furniture and floors. Noncritical environmental surfaces frequently
touched by hand (e.g., bedside tables, bed rails) potentially could contribute to
secondary transmission by contaminating hands of health-care workers or by
contacting medical equipment that subsequently contacts patients.13, 46-48, 51, 66,
67 Mops and reusable cleaning cloths are regularly used to achieve low-level
disinfection on environmental surfaces. However, they often are not adequately
cleaned and disinfected, and if the water-disinfectant mixture is not changed
regularly (e.g., after every three to four rooms, at no longer than 60-minute
intervals), the mopping procedure actually can spread heavy microbial
contamination throughout the health-care facility.68 In one study, standard
laundering provided acceptable decontamination of heavily contaminated
mopheads but chemical disinfection with a phenolic was less
effective.68 Frequent laundering of mops (e.g., daily), therefore, is recommended.
Single-use disposable towels impregnated with a disinfectant also can be used for
low-level disinfection when spot-cleaning of noncritical surfaces is needed
Reception of instruments for Disinfection
steriliser
Thank you

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Spauldings classification ppt by Dr C P PRINCE

  • 1. Spaulding Classification DR.PRINCE C P HOD & Associate Professor , Department of Microbiology, Mother Theresa Post Graduate & Research Institute of Health Sciences (Government of Puducherry Institution)
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4. Introduction • Disinfection of medical instruments is important for preventing the spread of disease. Cleaning and disinfecting reusable equipment after it comes into contact with patients can be expensive, both in the cost of the disinfection procedure, but also in terms of time away from the patients themselves. • Not all medical instruments can be fully sterilized after each use. Thankfully, not all reusable instruments need the highest level of disinfection. But how to determine the minimum level of disinfection in a given situation?
  • 5. Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities • Earle H. Spaulding devised a rational approach to disinfection and sterilization of patient-care items and equipment • Spaulding believed the nature of disinfection could be understood readily if instruments and items for patient care were categorized as critical, semi-critical, and non-critical according to the degree of risk for infection involved in use of the items.
  • 6. Overview of the Spaulding Classification • Spaulding recognized that the need for disinfection of equipment in medical settings ranged from non-critical to semi-critical to critical, depending on the likelihood of spreading disease. • For example, sterilization is necessary for equipment that comes into contact with a patient’s bloodstream or sterile tissue. This category of equipment, such as surgical knives, is designated “critical” because it presents a high risk of disease transmission from patient to patient. • Equipment that only touches healthy, unbroken skin presents a low risk of contamination because intact skin acts as an effective barrier to most microorganisms. Examples in this “non-critical” category include bedpans, blood-pressure cuffs, and bedrails. • In between those two scenarios, a “semi-critical” level of disinfection presents a medium risk of contamination. This would include equipment such as endoscopes used on mucous membranes or areas of broken skin.
  • 7. Spaulding divided the three levels of criticality into four classifications for disinfection or sterilization requirements: • Sterilization – The highest level of decontamination requires that all microbes have been destroyed. • High-level disinfection – HLD is considered semi-critical and requires the destruction of all bacteria, fungi, mycobacteria, and viruses, though small numbers of bacterial spores may remain. • Intermediate-level disinfection – The ILD designation is considered non- critical, but requires the destruction of most bacteria, mycobacteria, and certain types of viruses, as well as some fungi. It is not required to destroy any spores. • Low-level disinfection – LLD is also non-critical. This designation requires only the destruction of bacteria and enveloped viruses, as well as partially destroying fungi and non-enveloped viruses. It does not need to destroy spores or mycobacteria.
  • 8. Overview of the Spaulding Classification
  • 10.
  • 11. Critical Items • Critical items confer a high risk for infection if they are contaminated with any microorganism. • Thus, objects that enter sterile tissue or the vascular system must be sterile because any microbial contamination could transmit disease. • This category includes surgical instruments, cardiac and urinary catheters, implants, and ultrasound probes used in sterile body cavities.
  • 12.
  • 13. Critical Items • Most of the items in this category should be purchased as sterile or be sterilized with steam if possible. • Heat-sensitive objects can be treated with EtO, hydrogen peroxide gas plasma; or if other methods are unsuitable, by liquid chemical sterilant. • Germicides categorized as chemical sterilant include ≥2.4% glutaraldehyde-based formulations, 0.95% glutaraldehyde with 1.64% phenol/phenate, 7.5% stabilized hydrogen peroxide, 7.35% hydrogen peroxide with 0.23% peracetic acid, 0.2% peracetic acid, and 0.08% peracetic acid with 1.0% hydrogen peroxide. • Liquid chemical sterilant reliably produce sterility only if cleaning precedes treatment and if proper guidelines are followed regarding concentration, contact time, temperature, and pH.
  • 14. Semicritical Items • Semicritical items contact mucous membranes or nonintact skin. This category includes respiratory therapy and anesthesia equipment, some endoscopes, laryngoscope blades , esophageal manometry probes, cystoscopes , anorectal manometry catheters, and diaphragm fitting rings. • These medical devices should be free from all microorganisms; however, small numbers of bacterial spores are permissible. Intact mucous membranes, such as those of the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract, generally are resistant to infection by common bacterial spores but susceptible to other organisms, such as bacteria, mycobacteria, and viruses. • Semicritical items minimally require high-level disinfection using chemical disinfectants. Glutaraldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, ortho-phthalaldehyde, and peracetic acid with hydrogen peroxide are cleared by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are dependable high-level disinfectants provided the factors influencing germicidal procedures are met. When a disinfectant is selected for use with certain patient-care items, the chemical compatibility after extended use with the items to be disinfected also must be considered.
  • 15.
  • 16. Semicritical Items • High-level disinfection traditionally is defined as complete elimination of all microorganisms in or on an instrument, except for small numbers of bacterial spores. The FDA definition of high-level disinfection is a sterilant used for a shorter contact time to achieve a 6-log10 kill of an appropriate Mycobacterium species. Cleaning followed by high-level disinfection should eliminate enough pathogens to prevent transmission of infection. • Laparoscopes and arthroscopes entering sterile tissue ideally should be sterilized between patients. • As with flexible endoscopes, these devices can be difficult to clean and high-level disinfect or sterilize because of intricate device design (e.g., long narrow lumens, hinges). Meticulous cleaning must precede any high-level disinfection or sterilization process. • Although sterilization is preferred, no reports have been published of outbreaks resulting from high-level disinfection of these scopes when they are properly cleaned and high-level disinfected. Newer models of these instruments can withstand steam sterilization that for critical items would be preferable to high-level disinfection
  • 17. Semicritical Items • Rinsing endoscopes and flushing channels with sterile water, filtered water, or tap water will prevent adverse effects associated with disinfectant retained in the endoscope (e.g., disinfectant-induced colitis). Items can be rinsed and flushed using sterile water after high-level disinfection to prevent contamination with organisms in tap water, such as nontuberculous mycobacteria, Legionella, or gram-negative bacilli such as Pseudomonas. • Alternatively, a tap water or filtered water (0.2m filter) rinse should be followed by an alcohol rinse and forced air drying. • Forced-air drying markedly reduces bacterial contamination of stored endoscopes, most likely by removing the wet environment favorable for bacterial growth. After rinsing, items should be dried and stored (e.g., packaged) in a manner that protects them from recontamination. • Some items that may come in contact with nonintact skin for a brief period of time (i.e., hydrotherapy tanks, bed side rails) are usually considered noncritical surfaces and are disinfected with intermediate-level disinfectants (i.e., phenolic, iodophor, alcohol, chlorine).Since hydrotherapy tanks have been associated with spread of infection, some facilities have chosen to disinfect them with recommended levels of chlorine. • In the past, high-level disinfection was recommended for mouthpieces and spirometry tubing (e.g., glutaraldehyde) but cleaning the interior surfaces of the spirometers was considered unnecessary . This was based on a study that showed that mouthpieces and spirometry tubing become contaminated with microorganisms but there was no bacterial contamination of the surfaces inside the spirometers. Filters have been used to prevent contamination of this equipment distal to the filter; such filters and the proximal mouthpiece are changed between patients.
  • 18. Noncritical Items • Noncritical items are those that come in contact with intact skin but not mucous membranes. Intact skin acts as an effective barrier to most microorganisms; therefore, the sterility of items coming in contact with intact skin is “not critical.” • In this guideline, noncritical items are divided into noncritical patient care items and noncritical environmental surfaces. • Examples of noncritical patient-care items are bedpans, blood pressure cuffs, crutches and computers . In contrast to critical and some semi-critical items, most noncritical reusable items may be decontaminated where they are used and do not need to be transported to a central processing area. Virtually no risk has been documented for transmission of infectious agents to patients through noncritical items when they are used as noncritical items and do not contact non-intact skin and/or mucous membranes.
  • 19.
  • 20. • Non-critcal environmental surfaces include bed rails, some food utensils, bedside tables, patient furniture and floors. Noncritical environmental surfaces frequently touched by hand (e.g., bedside tables, bed rails) potentially could contribute to secondary transmission by contaminating hands of health-care workers or by contacting medical equipment that subsequently contacts patients.13, 46-48, 51, 66, 67 Mops and reusable cleaning cloths are regularly used to achieve low-level disinfection on environmental surfaces. However, they often are not adequately cleaned and disinfected, and if the water-disinfectant mixture is not changed regularly (e.g., after every three to four rooms, at no longer than 60-minute intervals), the mopping procedure actually can spread heavy microbial contamination throughout the health-care facility.68 In one study, standard laundering provided acceptable decontamination of heavily contaminated mopheads but chemical disinfection with a phenolic was less effective.68 Frequent laundering of mops (e.g., daily), therefore, is recommended. Single-use disposable towels impregnated with a disinfectant also can be used for low-level disinfection when spot-cleaning of noncritical surfaces is needed
  • 21. Reception of instruments for Disinfection
  • 22.