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Defining and Classifying Groups © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Group(s) Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. Formal Group A designated work group defined by the organization’s structure. Informal Group A group that is neither formally structured now organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contact.
Defining and Classifying Groups (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Command Group A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager. Task Group Those working together to complete a job or task. Interest Group Those working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned. Friendship Group Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics.
Why People Join Groups © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],E X H I B I T  8 –1
The Five-Stage Model of Group Development © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Forming Stage The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty. Storming Stage The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict. Norming Stage The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness.
… Group Development (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Performing Stage The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional. Adjourning Stage The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance.
Stages of Group Development © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– E X H I B I T  8 –2
Group Structure - Roles (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Role(s) A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. Role Identity Certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role. Role Perception An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation.
Group Structure - Roles (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Role Expectations How others believe a person should act in a given situation. Role Conflict A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations. Psychological Contract An unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from the employee and vice versa.
Group Structure - Norms © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Norms Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members.
Group Structure - Norms (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Conformity Adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group. Reference Groups Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform.
Group Structure - Norms (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Deviant (Depart)  Workplace Behavior Antisocial actions by organizational members that intentionally violate established norms and result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both.
Typology of Deviant Workplace Behavior © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– E X H I B I T  8 –5 Category  Examples Production  Leaving early Intentionally working slowly Wasting resources Property  Sabotage  Lying about hours worked  Stealing from the organization  Political  Showing favoritism Gossiping and spreading rumors Blaming coworkers  Personal Aggression  Sexual harassment Verbal abuse Stealing from coworkers Source:  Adapted from S.L. Robinson, and R.J. Bennett. “A Typology of Deviant Workplace Behaviors: A Multidimensional Scaling Study,”  Academy of Management Journal , April 1995, p. 565.
Group Structure - Status © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Group Member Status Status A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. Group Norms Status Equity  Culture
Group Structure - Size © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Social Loafing The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. Group Size Performance Expected Actual (due to loafing)
Group Structure - Composition © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Group Demography The degree to which members of a group share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in the organization, and the impact of this attribute on turnover. Cohorts (shared feature) Individuals who, as part of a group, hold a common attribute.
Group Structure - Cohesiveness © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Cohesiveness Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group.
Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness, Performance Norms, and Productivity © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– E X H I B I T  8 –6
Group Tasks ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
Group Decision Making ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
Group Decision Making (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Group think Phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative course of action. Group shift A change in decision risk between the group’s decision and the individual decision that member within the group would make; can be either toward conservatism or greater risk.
Symptoms Of The Groupthink Phenomenon  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
Group Decision-Making Techniques © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Interacting Groups Typical groups, in which the members interact with each other face-to-face. Nominal Group Technique A group decision-making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion.
Group Decision-Making Techniques © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Electronic Meeting A meeting in which members interact on computers, allowing for anonymity of comments and aggregation of votes. Brainstorming An idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives.
Why Have Teams Become So Popular ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
Team Versus Group: What’s the Difference © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Work Group A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility. Work Team A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.
Comparing Work Groups and Work Teams © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– E X H I B I T  9 –1
Types of Teams © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Problem-Solving Teams Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. Self-Managed Work Teams Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors.
Types of Teams (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– ,[object Object],[object Object],Cross-Functional Teams Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task.
Types of Teams (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Virtual Teams Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.
A Team-Effectiveness Model © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– E X H I B I T  9 –3
Creating Effective Teams © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
Creating Effective Teams (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
Key Roles of Teams © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– E X H I B I T  9 –4
Creating Effective Teams (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
Creating Effective Teams (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
Effects of Group Processes © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– + – = E X H I B I T  9 –4
Creating Effective Teams: Diversity © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Group Demography The degree to which members of a group share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in the organization, and the impact of this attribute on turnover. Cohorts Individuals who, as part of a group, hold a common attribute.
Turning Individuals Into Team Players ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
Teams and Quality Management ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
Beware: Teams Aren’t Always the Answer ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
Formal and Informal Group of Dynamics  Submitted By: Sanjay and Priyanka
Group?... ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
  Group Dynamics… ,[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
  Classification… ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
  Group Classification… ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Informal Groups ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Contd… ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
IWG n social needs ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
IWG n esteem needs ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Advantages of IG ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Disadvantages  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
FORMAL GROUPS
STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
FORMAL GROUPS ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
GROWTH AND DOMINANCE ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
TYPES- FORMAL GROUP DYNAMICS  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
VOLUNTARY ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
FUNCTIONAL ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
CONFLICT ,[object Object],[object Object]
INTERACTIONALISM ,[object Object],[object Object]
THANKS

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Session 7 group dynamics

  • 1. Defining and Classifying Groups © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Group(s) Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. Formal Group A designated work group defined by the organization’s structure. Informal Group A group that is neither formally structured now organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contact.
  • 2. Defining and Classifying Groups (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Command Group A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager. Task Group Those working together to complete a job or task. Interest Group Those working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned. Friendship Group Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics.
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  • 4. The Five-Stage Model of Group Development © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Forming Stage The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty. Storming Stage The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict. Norming Stage The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness.
  • 5. … Group Development (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Performing Stage The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional. Adjourning Stage The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance.
  • 6. Stages of Group Development © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– E X H I B I T 8 –2
  • 7. Group Structure - Roles (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Role(s) A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. Role Identity Certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role. Role Perception An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation.
  • 8. Group Structure - Roles (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Role Expectations How others believe a person should act in a given situation. Role Conflict A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations. Psychological Contract An unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from the employee and vice versa.
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  • 10. Group Structure - Norms (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Conformity Adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group. Reference Groups Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform.
  • 11. Group Structure - Norms (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Deviant (Depart) Workplace Behavior Antisocial actions by organizational members that intentionally violate established norms and result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both.
  • 12. Typology of Deviant Workplace Behavior © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– E X H I B I T 8 –5 Category Examples Production Leaving early Intentionally working slowly Wasting resources Property Sabotage Lying about hours worked Stealing from the organization Political Showing favoritism Gossiping and spreading rumors Blaming coworkers Personal Aggression Sexual harassment Verbal abuse Stealing from coworkers Source: Adapted from S.L. Robinson, and R.J. Bennett. “A Typology of Deviant Workplace Behaviors: A Multidimensional Scaling Study,” Academy of Management Journal , April 1995, p. 565.
  • 13. Group Structure - Status © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Group Member Status Status A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. Group Norms Status Equity Culture
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  • 15. Group Structure - Composition © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Group Demography The degree to which members of a group share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in the organization, and the impact of this attribute on turnover. Cohorts (shared feature) Individuals who, as part of a group, hold a common attribute.
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  • 17. Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness, Performance Norms, and Productivity © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– E X H I B I T 8 –6
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  • 20. Group Decision Making (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Group think Phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative course of action. Group shift A change in decision risk between the group’s decision and the individual decision that member within the group would make; can be either toward conservatism or greater risk.
  • 21.
  • 22. Group Decision-Making Techniques © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Interacting Groups Typical groups, in which the members interact with each other face-to-face. Nominal Group Technique A group decision-making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion.
  • 23. Group Decision-Making Techniques © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Electronic Meeting A meeting in which members interact on computers, allowing for anonymity of comments and aggregation of votes. Brainstorming An idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives.
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  • 25. Team Versus Group: What’s the Difference © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Work Group A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility. Work Team A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.
  • 26. Comparing Work Groups and Work Teams © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– E X H I B I T 9 –1
  • 27. Types of Teams © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Problem-Solving Teams Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. Self-Managed Work Teams Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors.
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  • 30. A Team-Effectiveness Model © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– E X H I B I T 9 –3
  • 31. Creating Effective Teams © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
  • 32. Creating Effective Teams (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
  • 33. Key Roles of Teams © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– E X H I B I T 9 –4
  • 34. Creating Effective Teams (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
  • 35. Creating Effective Teams (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–
  • 36. Effects of Group Processes © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– + – = E X H I B I T 9 –4
  • 37. Creating Effective Teams: Diversity © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8– Group Demography The degree to which members of a group share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in the organization, and the impact of this attribute on turnover. Cohorts Individuals who, as part of a group, hold a common attribute.
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  • 41. Formal and Informal Group of Dynamics Submitted By: Sanjay and Priyanka
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