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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-1
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-2
•Define groups and the stages of group
development
•Describe the major components that determine
group performance and satisfaction
•Define teams and best practices influencing
team performance
•Discuss contemporary issues in managing teams
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-3
Groups
• Group - two or more interacting and
interdependent individuals who come
together to achieve specific goals.
– Formal groups
• Work groups defined by the organization’s structure
that have designated work assignments and tasks
– Informal groups
• Groups that are independently formed to meet the
social needs of their members
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-4
Exhibit 13-1: Examples of Formal
Work Groups
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-5
Group Development
• Forming stage - the first stage of group
development in which people join the group
and then define the group’s purpose,
structure, and leadership
• Storming stage - the second stage of group
development, characterized by intragroup
conflict
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-6
Group Development (cont.)
• Norming stage - the third stage of group
development, characterized by close relationships
and cohesiveness.
• Performing stage - the fourth stage of group
development when the group is fully functional and
works on group task.
• Adjourning - the final stage of group development
for temporary groups during which group members
are concerned with wrapping up activities rather
than task performance.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-7
Exhibit 13-2: Stages of Group Development
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-8
Exhibit 13-3: Group
Performance/Satisfaction Model
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-9
Group Structure
• Role - behavior patterns expected of someone
occupying a given position in a social unit.
• Norms - standards or expectations that are
accepted and shared by a group’s members.
• Groupthink - when a group exerts extensive
pressure on an individual to align his or her
opinion with that of others.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-10
Exhibit 13-4: Examples of Asch’s Cards
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-11
Group Structure (cont.)
• Status - a prestige grading, position, or rank
within a group.
• Social loafing - the tendency for individuals to
expend less effort when working collectively
than when working individually.
• Group cohesiveness - the degree to which
group members are attracted to one another
and share the group’s goals.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-12
Exhibit 13-5: Group Cohesiveness
and Productivity
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-13
Exhibit 13-6: Creative Group
Decision Making
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-14
Conflict Management
• Conflict - perceived incompatible differences
that result in interference or opposition.
• Traditional view of conflict - the view that all
conflict is bad and must be avoided.
• Human relations view of conflict - the view
that conflict is a natural and inevitable
outcome in any group
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-15
Conflict Management (cont.)
• Interactionist view of conflict - the view that
some conflict is necessary for a group to
perform effectively.
• Functional conflicts - conflicts that support a
group’s goals and improve its performance.
• Dysfunctional conflicts - conflicts that prevent
a group from achieving its goals.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-16
Conflict Management (cont.)
• Task conflict - conflicts over content and goals
of the work.
• Relationship conflict - conflict based on
interpersonal relationships.
• Process conflict - conflict over how work gets
done.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-17
Exhibit 13-7: Conflict and
Group Performance
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-18
Exhibit 13-8: Conflict-Management
Techniques
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-19
What Is a Work Team?
• Work teams - groups
whose members work
intensely on a specific,
common goal using
their positive synergy,
individual and mutual
accountability, and
complementary skills.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-20
Exhibit 13-9: Groups Versus Teams
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-21
Types of Work Teams
• Problem-solving team - a team from the same
department or functional area that’s involved
in efforts to improve work activities or to solve
specific problems.
• Self-managed work team - a type of work
team that operates without a manager and is
responsible for a complete work process or
segment.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-22
Types of Work Teams (cont.)
• Cross-functional team - a work team
composed of individuals from various
functional specialties.
• Virtual team - a type of work team that uses
technology to link physically dispersed
members in order to achieve a common goal.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-23
Advantages of Using Teams
• Teams outperform individuals.
• Teams provide a way to better use employee
talents.
• Teams are more flexible and responsive.
• Teams can be quickly assembled, deployed,
refocused, and disbanded.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-24
Characteristics of Effective Teams
• Clear goals
• Relevant skills
• mutual
• Unified commitment
• good communication
• negotiation skills
• appropriate leadership
• internal and external
support
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-25
Exhibit 13-10: Characteristics of
Effective Teams
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-26
Understanding Social Networks
• Social Network
– The patterns of informal connections among
individuals within groups.
• The Importance of Social Networks
– Relationships can help or hinder team
effectiveness.
– Relationships improve team goal attainment and
increase member commitment to the team.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-27
Exhibit 13-11: Global Teams
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-28
Terms to Know
• group
• forming stage
• storming stage
• norming stage
• performing stage
• adjourning stage
• role
• norms
• groupthink
• status
• social loafing
• group cohesiveness
• conflict
• traditional view of conflict
• human relations view of conflict
• interactionist view of conflict
• functional conflicts
• dysfunctional conflicts
• task conflict
• relationship conflict
• process conflict
• work teams
• problem-solving team
• self-managed work team
• cross-functional team
• virtual team
• social network structure
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13-29

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Management 11th Edition - Chapter 13 - Managing Teams

  • 1. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-1
  • 2. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-2 •Define groups and the stages of group development •Describe the major components that determine group performance and satisfaction •Define teams and best practices influencing team performance •Discuss contemporary issues in managing teams
  • 3. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-3 Groups • Group - two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve specific goals. – Formal groups • Work groups defined by the organization’s structure that have designated work assignments and tasks – Informal groups • Groups that are independently formed to meet the social needs of their members
  • 4. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-4 Exhibit 13-1: Examples of Formal Work Groups
  • 5. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-5 Group Development • Forming stage - the first stage of group development in which people join the group and then define the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership • Storming stage - the second stage of group development, characterized by intragroup conflict
  • 6. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-6 Group Development (cont.) • Norming stage - the third stage of group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness. • Performing stage - the fourth stage of group development when the group is fully functional and works on group task. • Adjourning - the final stage of group development for temporary groups during which group members are concerned with wrapping up activities rather than task performance.
  • 7. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-7 Exhibit 13-2: Stages of Group Development
  • 8. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-8 Exhibit 13-3: Group Performance/Satisfaction Model
  • 9. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-9 Group Structure • Role - behavior patterns expected of someone occupying a given position in a social unit. • Norms - standards or expectations that are accepted and shared by a group’s members. • Groupthink - when a group exerts extensive pressure on an individual to align his or her opinion with that of others.
  • 10. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-10 Exhibit 13-4: Examples of Asch’s Cards
  • 11. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-11 Group Structure (cont.) • Status - a prestige grading, position, or rank within a group. • Social loafing - the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. • Group cohesiveness - the degree to which group members are attracted to one another and share the group’s goals.
  • 12. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-12 Exhibit 13-5: Group Cohesiveness and Productivity
  • 13. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-13 Exhibit 13-6: Creative Group Decision Making
  • 14. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-14 Conflict Management • Conflict - perceived incompatible differences that result in interference or opposition. • Traditional view of conflict - the view that all conflict is bad and must be avoided. • Human relations view of conflict - the view that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group
  • 15. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-15 Conflict Management (cont.) • Interactionist view of conflict - the view that some conflict is necessary for a group to perform effectively. • Functional conflicts - conflicts that support a group’s goals and improve its performance. • Dysfunctional conflicts - conflicts that prevent a group from achieving its goals.
  • 16. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-16 Conflict Management (cont.) • Task conflict - conflicts over content and goals of the work. • Relationship conflict - conflict based on interpersonal relationships. • Process conflict - conflict over how work gets done.
  • 17. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-17 Exhibit 13-7: Conflict and Group Performance
  • 18. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-18 Exhibit 13-8: Conflict-Management Techniques
  • 19. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-19 What Is a Work Team? • Work teams - groups whose members work intensely on a specific, common goal using their positive synergy, individual and mutual accountability, and complementary skills.
  • 20. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-20 Exhibit 13-9: Groups Versus Teams
  • 21. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-21 Types of Work Teams • Problem-solving team - a team from the same department or functional area that’s involved in efforts to improve work activities or to solve specific problems. • Self-managed work team - a type of work team that operates without a manager and is responsible for a complete work process or segment.
  • 22. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-22 Types of Work Teams (cont.) • Cross-functional team - a work team composed of individuals from various functional specialties. • Virtual team - a type of work team that uses technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.
  • 23. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-23 Advantages of Using Teams • Teams outperform individuals. • Teams provide a way to better use employee talents. • Teams are more flexible and responsive. • Teams can be quickly assembled, deployed, refocused, and disbanded.
  • 24. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-24 Characteristics of Effective Teams • Clear goals • Relevant skills • mutual • Unified commitment • good communication • negotiation skills • appropriate leadership • internal and external support
  • 25. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-25 Exhibit 13-10: Characteristics of Effective Teams
  • 26. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-26 Understanding Social Networks • Social Network – The patterns of informal connections among individuals within groups. • The Importance of Social Networks – Relationships can help or hinder team effectiveness. – Relationships improve team goal attainment and increase member commitment to the team.
  • 27. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-27 Exhibit 13-11: Global Teams
  • 28. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-28 Terms to Know • group • forming stage • storming stage • norming stage • performing stage • adjourning stage • role • norms • groupthink • status • social loafing • group cohesiveness • conflict • traditional view of conflict • human relations view of conflict • interactionist view of conflict • functional conflicts • dysfunctional conflicts • task conflict • relationship conflict • process conflict • work teams • problem-solving team • self-managed work team • cross-functional team • virtual team • social network structure
  • 29. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Management, Eleventh Edition by Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13-29

Editor's Notes

  1. A group is defined as two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve specific goals. Formal groups are work groups that are defined by the organization’s structure and have designated work assignments and specific tasks directed at accomplishing organizational goals. Exhibit 13-1 provides some examples. Informal groups are social groups.
  2. Research shows that groups develop through five stages. As shown in Exhibit 13-2, these five stages are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning
  3. Why are some groups more successful than others? Why do some groups achieve high levels of performance and high levels of member satisfaction and others do not? The answers are complex, but include variables such as the abilities of the group’s members, the size of the group, the level of conflict, and the internal pressures on members to conform to the group’s norms. Exhibit 13-3 presents the major factors that determine group performance and satisfaction.
  4. Asch demonstrated the impact that conformity has on an individual’s judgment and attitudes. In these experiments, groups of seven or eight people were asked to compare two cards held up by the experimenter. One card had three lines of different lengths and the other had one line which was equal in length to one of the three lines on the other card (see Exhibit 13-4).
  5. Research has generally shown that highly cohesive groups are more effective than are less cohesive ones. However, the relationship between cohesiveness and effectiveness is complex. A key moderating variable is the degree to which the group’s attitude aligns with its goals or with the goals of the organization. (See Exhibit 13-5.)
  6. What techniques can managers use to help groups make more creative decisions? Exhibit 13-6 describes three possibilities.
  7. Some conflicts— functional conflicts—are constructive and support the goals of the work group and improve its performance. Other conflicts—dysfunctional conflicts—are destructive and prevent a group from achieving its goals. Exhibit 13-7 illustrates the challenge facing managers.
  8. When group conflict levels are too high, managers can select from five conflict management options: avoidance, accommodation, forcing, compromise, and collaboration. (See Exhibit 13-8 for a description of these techniques.) Keep in mind that no one option is ideal for every situation. Which approach to use depends upon the circumstances at hand.
  9. Most of you are probably familiar with teams especially if you’ve watched or participated in organized sports events. Work teams differ from work groups and have their own unique traits (see Exhibit 13-9).
  10. Research on teams provides insights into the characteristics typically associated with effective teams. These characteristics are listed in Exhibit 13-10.
  11. Two characteristics of today’s organizations are obvious: They’re global and work is increasingly done by teams. These two aspects mean that any manager is likely to have to manage a global team. What do we know about managing global teams? We know there are both drawbacks and benefits in using global teams (see Exhibit 13-11).