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Presentation Skills
Preparing an Oral
   Presentation




                    Ch. 15, Slide 2
Preparing an Oral
         Presentation
• Identif y your purpose.
  • Decide what you want your audience
    to believe, remember, or do when
    you finish.
  • Aim all parts of your talk toward
    your purpose.



                                Ch. 15, Slide 3
Preparing an Oral
         Presentation
• Organize the introduction.
  • Get the audience involved.
  • Capture attention by opening with a
    promise, stor y, startling fact,
    question, quotation, relevant
    problem, or self-effacing stor y.
  • Establish your credibility by
    identifying your position, expertise,
    knowledge, or qualifications.
                                   Ch. 15, Slide 4
Preparing an Oral
         Presentation
• Organize the
  introduction.
  • Introduce your topic.
  • Preview the main points.




                               Ch. 15, Slide 5
Preparing an Oral
         Presentation
• Organize the body.
  • Develop two to four main points.
    Streamline your topic and summarize
    its principal parts.
  • Arrange the points logically:
    chronologically, from most important
    to least important, by comparison
    and contrast, or by some other
    strategy.
                                  Ch. 15, Slide 6
Preparing an Oral
         Presentation
• Organize the body.
  • Prepare transitions.
    • Use “bridge” statements between major
      parts (I’ve just discussed three reasons for X;
      now I want to move to Y).
    • Use verbal signposts (however, for example,
      etc.).
  • Have extra material ready.
    • Be prepared with more information and
      visuals if needed.
                                             Ch. 15, Slide 7
Preparing an Oral
        Presentation
• Organize the conclusion.
  • Review your main points.
  • Provide a final focus. Tell your
    listeners how they can use this
    information, why you have spoken,
    or what you want them to do.
  • Plan a graceful exit.


                                 Ch. 15, Slide 8
Preparing an Oral
           Presentation
Nine Techniques for Gaining and Keeping
          Audience Attention
1. A promise
     By the end of this presentation, you will be able to . .
     . .

2. Drama
     Tell a moving stor y; describe a serious problem.

3. Eye contact
     Command attention at the beginning by making eye
     contact with as many people as possible.
                                                 Ch. 15, Slide 9
Preparing an Oral
           Presentation
Nine Techniques for Gaining and Keeping
          Audience Attention
4. Movement
     Leave the lectern area. Move toward the audience.

5. Questions
     Ask for a show of hands. Use rhetorical questions.

6. Demonstrations
     Include a member of the audience.


                                               Ch. 15, Slide 10
Preparing an Oral
            Presentation
Nine Techniques for Gaining and Keeping
          Audience Attention
7. Samples/gimmicks
      Award prizes to volunteer participants; pass out samples.

8. Visuals
      Use a variety of visuals.

9. Self-interest
      Audience wants to know “ What’s in it for me?”


                                                       Ch. 15, Slide 11
Designing and Using
     Graphics




                  Ch. 15, Slide 12
Designing and Using
        Graphics
• Select the medium.
  • Consider the size of the audience and
    the degree of formality desired.
  • Consider cost, ease of preparation,
    and potential effectiveness.




                                  Ch. 15, Slide 13
Designing and Using
        Graphics
• Highlight the main ideas.
  • Focus on major concepts only.
  • Avoid overkill. Showing too many
    graphics reduces effectiveness.
  • Keep all visuals simple.




                                Ch. 15, Slide 14
Designing and Using
         Graphics
• Ensure visibility.
  • Use large type for transparencies and
    slides.
  • Position the screen high enough to
    be seen.
  • Be sure all audience members can
    see.


                                  Ch. 15, Slide 15
Designing and Using
        Graphics
• Enhance comprehension.
  • Give the audience a moment to study
    a visual before discussing it.
  • Paraphrase its verbal message; don’t
    read it.




                                 Ch. 15, Slide 16
Designing and Using
         Graphics
• Practice using your visual aids.
  • Rehearse your talk, perfecting the
    handling of your visual aids.
  • Practice talking to the audience and
    not to the visual.




                                  Ch. 15, Slide 17
Presentation Enhancers




                   Ch. 15, Slide 18
Presentation Enhancers
• Overhead Projector
  • Cost: Low
  • Audience size: 2-200
  • Formality level: Formal or informal




                                  Ch. 15, Slide 19
Presentation Enhancers
• Flipchart
  • Cost: Low
  • Audience size: 2-200
  • Formality level: Informal




                                Ch. 15, Slide 20
Presentation Enhancers
• Write-and-wipe Board
  • Cost: Medium
  • Audience size: 2-200
  • Formality level: Informal




                                Ch. 15, Slide 21
Presentation Enhancers
• Slide Projector
  • Cost: Medium
  • Audience size: 2-500
  • Formality level: Formal




                              Ch. 15, Slide 22
Presentation Enhancers
• Computer Presentation Slides
  • Cost: Low
  • Audience size: 2-200
  • Formality level: Formal or informal




                                  Ch. 15, Slide 23
Presentation Enhancers
• Handouts
 • Cost: Varies
 • Audience size: Unlimited
 • Formality level: Formal or informal




                                 Ch. 15, Slide 24
Overcoming Stage Fright




                   Ch. 15, Slide 25
Overcoming Stage Fright
    Symptoms of Stage Fright
• Stomach           • Wobbly knees
 butterflies        • Tied tongue
• Pounding heart
• Shortage of
 breath
• Sweaty palms
• Dr y throat
• Unsteady voice
                               Ch. 15, Slide 26

• Trembling hands
Overcoming Stage Fright
Ways to Overcome Stage Fright
• Select a familiar, relevant topic.
  Prepare 150 percent.
• Use positive self-talk.
• Convert your fear into anticipation
  and enthusiasm.
• Shift the focus from yourself to your
  visuals.

                                   Ch. 15, Slide 27
Overcoming Stage Fright
Ways to Overcome Stage Fright
• Give yourself permission to make an
  occasional mistake.
• Ignore stumbles; keep going. Don’t
  apologize.
• Make the listeners your partners. Get
  them involved.
• Just before you speak, practice deep
  breathing.
                                Ch. 15, Slide 28
Effective Telephone Calls




                     Ch. 15, Slide 29
Effective Telephone Calls
• Making Calls
  • Plan a mini agenda.
  • Use a three-point introduction:
      1. Your name
      2. Your affiliation
      3. A brief explanation of why you are calling.
  • Be cheerful and accurate.
  • Bring it to a close.
  • Avoid telephone tag.
  • Leave complete voice-mail messages.

                                              Ch. 15, Slide 30
Effective Telephone Calls
• Receiving Calls
  • Identif y yourself immediately.
  • Be responsive and helpful.
  • Be cautious when answering calls for
    others.
  • Take messages carefully.
  • Explain when transferring calls.




                                       Ch. 15, Slide 31
End

      Ch. 15, Slide 32

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Presentation skills

  • 2. Preparing an Oral Presentation Ch. 15, Slide 2
  • 3. Preparing an Oral Presentation • Identif y your purpose. • Decide what you want your audience to believe, remember, or do when you finish. • Aim all parts of your talk toward your purpose. Ch. 15, Slide 3
  • 4. Preparing an Oral Presentation • Organize the introduction. • Get the audience involved. • Capture attention by opening with a promise, stor y, startling fact, question, quotation, relevant problem, or self-effacing stor y. • Establish your credibility by identifying your position, expertise, knowledge, or qualifications. Ch. 15, Slide 4
  • 5. Preparing an Oral Presentation • Organize the introduction. • Introduce your topic. • Preview the main points. Ch. 15, Slide 5
  • 6. Preparing an Oral Presentation • Organize the body. • Develop two to four main points. Streamline your topic and summarize its principal parts. • Arrange the points logically: chronologically, from most important to least important, by comparison and contrast, or by some other strategy. Ch. 15, Slide 6
  • 7. Preparing an Oral Presentation • Organize the body. • Prepare transitions. • Use “bridge” statements between major parts (I’ve just discussed three reasons for X; now I want to move to Y). • Use verbal signposts (however, for example, etc.). • Have extra material ready. • Be prepared with more information and visuals if needed. Ch. 15, Slide 7
  • 8. Preparing an Oral Presentation • Organize the conclusion. • Review your main points. • Provide a final focus. Tell your listeners how they can use this information, why you have spoken, or what you want them to do. • Plan a graceful exit. Ch. 15, Slide 8
  • 9. Preparing an Oral Presentation Nine Techniques for Gaining and Keeping Audience Attention 1. A promise By the end of this presentation, you will be able to . . . . 2. Drama Tell a moving stor y; describe a serious problem. 3. Eye contact Command attention at the beginning by making eye contact with as many people as possible. Ch. 15, Slide 9
  • 10. Preparing an Oral Presentation Nine Techniques for Gaining and Keeping Audience Attention 4. Movement Leave the lectern area. Move toward the audience. 5. Questions Ask for a show of hands. Use rhetorical questions. 6. Demonstrations Include a member of the audience. Ch. 15, Slide 10
  • 11. Preparing an Oral Presentation Nine Techniques for Gaining and Keeping Audience Attention 7. Samples/gimmicks Award prizes to volunteer participants; pass out samples. 8. Visuals Use a variety of visuals. 9. Self-interest Audience wants to know “ What’s in it for me?” Ch. 15, Slide 11
  • 12. Designing and Using Graphics Ch. 15, Slide 12
  • 13. Designing and Using Graphics • Select the medium. • Consider the size of the audience and the degree of formality desired. • Consider cost, ease of preparation, and potential effectiveness. Ch. 15, Slide 13
  • 14. Designing and Using Graphics • Highlight the main ideas. • Focus on major concepts only. • Avoid overkill. Showing too many graphics reduces effectiveness. • Keep all visuals simple. Ch. 15, Slide 14
  • 15. Designing and Using Graphics • Ensure visibility. • Use large type for transparencies and slides. • Position the screen high enough to be seen. • Be sure all audience members can see. Ch. 15, Slide 15
  • 16. Designing and Using Graphics • Enhance comprehension. • Give the audience a moment to study a visual before discussing it. • Paraphrase its verbal message; don’t read it. Ch. 15, Slide 16
  • 17. Designing and Using Graphics • Practice using your visual aids. • Rehearse your talk, perfecting the handling of your visual aids. • Practice talking to the audience and not to the visual. Ch. 15, Slide 17
  • 18. Presentation Enhancers Ch. 15, Slide 18
  • 19. Presentation Enhancers • Overhead Projector • Cost: Low • Audience size: 2-200 • Formality level: Formal or informal Ch. 15, Slide 19
  • 20. Presentation Enhancers • Flipchart • Cost: Low • Audience size: 2-200 • Formality level: Informal Ch. 15, Slide 20
  • 21. Presentation Enhancers • Write-and-wipe Board • Cost: Medium • Audience size: 2-200 • Formality level: Informal Ch. 15, Slide 21
  • 22. Presentation Enhancers • Slide Projector • Cost: Medium • Audience size: 2-500 • Formality level: Formal Ch. 15, Slide 22
  • 23. Presentation Enhancers • Computer Presentation Slides • Cost: Low • Audience size: 2-200 • Formality level: Formal or informal Ch. 15, Slide 23
  • 24. Presentation Enhancers • Handouts • Cost: Varies • Audience size: Unlimited • Formality level: Formal or informal Ch. 15, Slide 24
  • 25. Overcoming Stage Fright Ch. 15, Slide 25
  • 26. Overcoming Stage Fright Symptoms of Stage Fright • Stomach • Wobbly knees butterflies • Tied tongue • Pounding heart • Shortage of breath • Sweaty palms • Dr y throat • Unsteady voice Ch. 15, Slide 26 • Trembling hands
  • 27. Overcoming Stage Fright Ways to Overcome Stage Fright • Select a familiar, relevant topic. Prepare 150 percent. • Use positive self-talk. • Convert your fear into anticipation and enthusiasm. • Shift the focus from yourself to your visuals. Ch. 15, Slide 27
  • 28. Overcoming Stage Fright Ways to Overcome Stage Fright • Give yourself permission to make an occasional mistake. • Ignore stumbles; keep going. Don’t apologize. • Make the listeners your partners. Get them involved. • Just before you speak, practice deep breathing. Ch. 15, Slide 28
  • 29. Effective Telephone Calls Ch. 15, Slide 29
  • 30. Effective Telephone Calls • Making Calls • Plan a mini agenda. • Use a three-point introduction: 1. Your name 2. Your affiliation 3. A brief explanation of why you are calling. • Be cheerful and accurate. • Bring it to a close. • Avoid telephone tag. • Leave complete voice-mail messages. Ch. 15, Slide 30
  • 31. Effective Telephone Calls • Receiving Calls • Identif y yourself immediately. • Be responsive and helpful. • Be cautious when answering calls for others. • Take messages carefully. • Explain when transferring calls. Ch. 15, Slide 31
  • 32. End Ch. 15, Slide 32