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Krebs cycle
Josef Fontana
EC - 46
Overview of the seminar
• Krebs cycle (KC)
– The importance of the KC for the cell -
amphibolic character
– The overall equation and the individual
reactions of the KC
– Anaplerotic reactions of the KC and the
linking of the KC to with the other
metabolic pathways in the cells
– Regulation of the KC
Was a German-born British physician and biochemist.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1953 for
his discovery of the citric acid cycle.
Sir Hans Adolf Krebs
(25.8.1900 - 22.11.1981
Krebs cycle
The importance of the KC for
the cell - amphibolic
character
Citric acid cycle (CAC)
• CAC takes place in the MIT matrix
(not in erythrocytes) and only under
aerobic conditions.
• It is the ultimate path of oxidation.
• Substrate is Acetyl~CoA, which is
oxidised to 2CO2
with simultaneous
reduction of cofactors (3NAD+ and
1FAD). They are then reoxidised in
RC.
• We get 1GTP directly (= ATP).
• CAC plays a key role in futher
metabolic reactions (i. e.
gluconeogenesis, transamination,
deamination or lipogenesis). The figure is adopted from the book: Devlin, T.
M. (editor): Textbook of Biochemistry with
Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc.,
New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2
Amphibolic character
• It is not only catabolic pathway, but its
intermediates create many biologically
important compounds.
• E.g.:
– From α-ketoglutarate via transamination →
AA glutamate, which is the most abundant
excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.
– From Suc ~ CoA → tetrapyroles (Heme).
• Therefore has KC also amphibolic
function.
Krebs cycle
The overall equation and the
individual reactions of the
KC
Overall equation
CH3-CO-COOH + 4 NAD+
+ FAD + ADP + Pi + 2 H2O
→ 3 CO2+ 4 NADH + 4 H+
+ FADH2 + ATP
• Pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction (oxidative
decarboxylation, mitochondrial matrix)
Irreversible reaction!
• CH3-CO-COOH + NAD+
+ HSCoA → CO2+ NADH +
H+
+ CH3-CO~SCoA
• Krebs cycle
CH3-CO~SCoA + 3 NAD+
+ FAD + GDP + Pi + 2 H2O
→ 2 CO2+ 3 NADH + 3 H+
+ FADH2 + GTP
The figure is adopted from the book: Devlin, T. M. (editor): Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical
Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2
Substrate level
phosphorylation
Citrate synthase
Isocitrate
dehydrogenase
α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
Succinate
dehydrogenase
Substrate level phosphorylation
in KC
• In the KC, there is one substrate level -
thioester bond in Suc~CoA decays with
water to form succinate and HSCoA.
• This reaction releases so much energy that it
can be coupled with the phosphorylation of
GDP to GTP (exchanged for ATP).
• This reaction may also be bypassed in the
degradation of ketone bodies, acetoacetate
reacts with the Suc~CoA to form succinate
and acetoacetyl~CoA. But we gain no GTP.
Sucinate dehydrogenase
• In the KC it catalyzes:
-
OOC-CH2-CH2-COO-
↔ -
OOC-CH=CH-COO-
succinate fumarate
• Its prosthetic group is FAD.
• But it is also complex II in the inner
mitochondrial membrane (respiratory
chain). Electrons from FADH2
are
passed directly to complex III.
Krebs cycle
Anaplerotic reactions of the KC
and the linking of the KC to
with the other metabolic
pathways in the cells
Connection to the
other pathways
• Respiratory chain
• Metabolism of amino
acids
• Urea cycle
• Synthesis of heme
• Gluconeogenesis
• FA synthesis
• Citrate cycle
as a source of
substrates used in a
synthesis of other
molecules.
The figure is found at http://www.tcd.ie/Biochemistry/IUBMB-Nicholson/gif/13.html
The figure is found at http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/images/590metabolism.gif (December 2006)
Anaplerotic (support) reactions
• Because KC intermediates serve as substrates
for other metabolic pathways, there are
reactions to replace these losses.
• Synthesis of OAA from Pyr (Pyr
carboxylation needs ATP) by pyruvate
carboxylase.
• This is also the first
step in gluconeogenesis.
• Biotin is a cofactor of
carboxylases.
• Degradation of most amino acids gives the following
intermediates of KC: OAA, α-KG, fumarate
Connecting of KC to FA formation
• Acetyl-CoA + OAA citrate (citrate synthase in KC)→
• Citrate is transferred from mitochondria into the
cytoplasm, (to MIT goes malate).
• Citrate in the cytoplasm is split into acetyl-CoA and
OAA (ATP-citrate lyase).
Citrate + ATP + HSCoA + H2O AcCoA + ADP + P→ i +
OAA
• AcCoA enters the synthesis of FA.
• Reduction of oxaloacetate to malate (malate
dehydrogenase = consumption of NADH + H +)
• Malate returns via antiport in mitochondria or is
decarboxylated to pyruvate.
Connecting of KC to FA formation
• OAA formed during transport of citrate into the cytosol should
return back to the matrix. But the inner membrane of
mitochondria is impermeable to OAA.
• OAA is therefore reduced in the presence of NADH to malate
by the cytosolic malate dehydrogenase:
OAA + NADH + H+
→ malate + NAD+
• Malate is oxidatively decarboxylated by NADP+
- malate enzyme
(malic enzyme):
Malate + NADP+
→ Pyr + CO2 + NADPH
• Finally, Pyr enters the mitochondria, where it is carboxylated by
pyruvate carboxylase:
Pyr + CO2 + ATP + H2O → OAA + ADP + Pi + 2 H+
• Summary equation:
NADP+
+ NADH + ATP + H2O → NADPH + NAD+
+ ADP + Pi + H+
Connecting of KC to FA formation
Krebs cycle
Regulation of the KC
Regulatory enzymes
• Citrate synthase
• Isocitrate dehydrogenase
• α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
• The activity of CAC is closely linked
to the availability of O2.
Regulation of the KC
• Regulatory enzymes:
– 1) Citrate synthase
– 2) Izocitrate dehydrogenase
– 3) α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
• Energy Control: If enough energy, enzymes 2 and 3
are inhibited - ATP is inhibitor, ADP is activator.
• Respiratory Control: KC and RC must work
together. Accumulation of NADH+H+
and FADH2
inhibits enzymes 2, 3.
• Substrate control: Enzyme 1. Citrate synthase is
mainly regulated by the availability of acetyl-CoA
and oxaloacetate.

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Cycle de Krebs

  • 2. Overview of the seminar • Krebs cycle (KC) – The importance of the KC for the cell - amphibolic character – The overall equation and the individual reactions of the KC – Anaplerotic reactions of the KC and the linking of the KC to with the other metabolic pathways in the cells – Regulation of the KC
  • 3. Was a German-born British physician and biochemist. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1953 for his discovery of the citric acid cycle. Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (25.8.1900 - 22.11.1981
  • 4. Krebs cycle The importance of the KC for the cell - amphibolic character
  • 5. Citric acid cycle (CAC) • CAC takes place in the MIT matrix (not in erythrocytes) and only under aerobic conditions. • It is the ultimate path of oxidation. • Substrate is Acetyl~CoA, which is oxidised to 2CO2 with simultaneous reduction of cofactors (3NAD+ and 1FAD). They are then reoxidised in RC. • We get 1GTP directly (= ATP). • CAC plays a key role in futher metabolic reactions (i. e. gluconeogenesis, transamination, deamination or lipogenesis). The figure is adopted from the book: Devlin, T. M. (editor): Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2
  • 6. Amphibolic character • It is not only catabolic pathway, but its intermediates create many biologically important compounds. • E.g.: – From α-ketoglutarate via transamination → AA glutamate, which is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. – From Suc ~ CoA → tetrapyroles (Heme). • Therefore has KC also amphibolic function.
  • 7.
  • 8. Krebs cycle The overall equation and the individual reactions of the KC
  • 9. Overall equation CH3-CO-COOH + 4 NAD+ + FAD + ADP + Pi + 2 H2O → 3 CO2+ 4 NADH + 4 H+ + FADH2 + ATP • Pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction (oxidative decarboxylation, mitochondrial matrix) Irreversible reaction! • CH3-CO-COOH + NAD+ + HSCoA → CO2+ NADH + H+ + CH3-CO~SCoA • Krebs cycle CH3-CO~SCoA + 3 NAD+ + FAD + GDP + Pi + 2 H2O → 2 CO2+ 3 NADH + 3 H+ + FADH2 + GTP
  • 10. The figure is adopted from the book: Devlin, T. M. (editor): Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2
  • 12. Substrate level phosphorylation in KC • In the KC, there is one substrate level - thioester bond in Suc~CoA decays with water to form succinate and HSCoA. • This reaction releases so much energy that it can be coupled with the phosphorylation of GDP to GTP (exchanged for ATP). • This reaction may also be bypassed in the degradation of ketone bodies, acetoacetate reacts with the Suc~CoA to form succinate and acetoacetyl~CoA. But we gain no GTP.
  • 13. Sucinate dehydrogenase • In the KC it catalyzes: - OOC-CH2-CH2-COO- ↔ - OOC-CH=CH-COO- succinate fumarate • Its prosthetic group is FAD. • But it is also complex II in the inner mitochondrial membrane (respiratory chain). Electrons from FADH2 are passed directly to complex III.
  • 14. Krebs cycle Anaplerotic reactions of the KC and the linking of the KC to with the other metabolic pathways in the cells
  • 15. Connection to the other pathways • Respiratory chain • Metabolism of amino acids • Urea cycle • Synthesis of heme • Gluconeogenesis • FA synthesis • Citrate cycle as a source of substrates used in a synthesis of other molecules. The figure is found at http://www.tcd.ie/Biochemistry/IUBMB-Nicholson/gif/13.html
  • 16. The figure is found at http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/images/590metabolism.gif (December 2006)
  • 17.
  • 18. Anaplerotic (support) reactions • Because KC intermediates serve as substrates for other metabolic pathways, there are reactions to replace these losses. • Synthesis of OAA from Pyr (Pyr carboxylation needs ATP) by pyruvate carboxylase. • This is also the first step in gluconeogenesis. • Biotin is a cofactor of carboxylases. • Degradation of most amino acids gives the following intermediates of KC: OAA, α-KG, fumarate
  • 19. Connecting of KC to FA formation • Acetyl-CoA + OAA citrate (citrate synthase in KC)→ • Citrate is transferred from mitochondria into the cytoplasm, (to MIT goes malate). • Citrate in the cytoplasm is split into acetyl-CoA and OAA (ATP-citrate lyase). Citrate + ATP + HSCoA + H2O AcCoA + ADP + P→ i + OAA • AcCoA enters the synthesis of FA. • Reduction of oxaloacetate to malate (malate dehydrogenase = consumption of NADH + H +) • Malate returns via antiport in mitochondria or is decarboxylated to pyruvate.
  • 20. Connecting of KC to FA formation • OAA formed during transport of citrate into the cytosol should return back to the matrix. But the inner membrane of mitochondria is impermeable to OAA. • OAA is therefore reduced in the presence of NADH to malate by the cytosolic malate dehydrogenase: OAA + NADH + H+ → malate + NAD+ • Malate is oxidatively decarboxylated by NADP+ - malate enzyme (malic enzyme): Malate + NADP+ → Pyr + CO2 + NADPH • Finally, Pyr enters the mitochondria, where it is carboxylated by pyruvate carboxylase: Pyr + CO2 + ATP + H2O → OAA + ADP + Pi + 2 H+ • Summary equation: NADP+ + NADH + ATP + H2O → NADPH + NAD+ + ADP + Pi + H+
  • 21. Connecting of KC to FA formation
  • 23. Regulatory enzymes • Citrate synthase • Isocitrate dehydrogenase • α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase • The activity of CAC is closely linked to the availability of O2.
  • 24. Regulation of the KC • Regulatory enzymes: – 1) Citrate synthase – 2) Izocitrate dehydrogenase – 3) α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase • Energy Control: If enough energy, enzymes 2 and 3 are inhibited - ATP is inhibitor, ADP is activator. • Respiratory Control: KC and RC must work together. Accumulation of NADH+H+ and FADH2 inhibits enzymes 2, 3. • Substrate control: Enzyme 1. Citrate synthase is mainly regulated by the availability of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate.