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is as an increase in hemoglobin concentration,
hematocrit, and RBC count above normal level for age
and sex .
Polycythemia can be classified as following:-
1- Absolute polycythemia
a- primary(polycythemia Rubra vera)
b-secondary polycythemia.
2- Relative polycythemia.
Absolute polycythemia
A disease characterize by increase number of RBC,
caused by a clonal malignancy of marrow stem cells,
there is also an over production of granulocytes and
platelets. The disease is associated With a number of
chromosomal changes, of which deletion of
chromosome 20q is the most frequent, It is found most
often in patients over 60y of age.
Clinical features :-
1-Headache, dyspnea, blurred vision, night sweat and
pruritus.
2- Increase skin coloration (ruddy cyanosis )
3- Splenomegaly is a common finding and enlarged
liver is found in many cases.
4- Hemorrhage( gastro intestinal, uterine, and cerebral)
5-Thrombosis, Arterial or venous .
6- Hypertension.
7-Gout.
8- Peptic ulceration.
Laboratory findings;-
1- The peripheral blood smear shows:-
A- Normochromic, normocytic RBC, moderate anisocytosis and
slight poly chromatophilia, occasional nucleated RBC ( erythroid
progenitor ).
B- Atypical platelet or megakaryocytes fragments may be seen.
C- Immature granulocytes occasionally seen.
2- The hemoglobin, hematocrit, and RBC count are
increased, The total red cell volume is increased.
3-The relative and absolute numbers of eosinophils and
basophils may be increased.
4-Increase platelets count in about half the patients.
5- The neutrophil alkaline phosphatase increase.
6- Increase serum vitamin B12 and vitamin B12 binding
capacity.
7- The bone marrow is hyper cellular with prominent
megakaryocytes.
8-Blood viscosity is increased.
9- Increase plasma urate level.
Treatment:-
vein section ,
Cytotoxic drugs.
Secondary polycythemia:-
Causes:- 1-Increased level of erythropoietin in the blood due to:-
a-Any condition that decreases the arterial oxygen saturation or
decreases the capacity of the Hb molecule to carry oxygen.eg.
High altitudes, chronic pulmonary disease, chronic congestive
heart disease, certain abnormal hemoglobin's.
b- certain tumors of the liver, brain, and pituitary gland, Renal
cell carcinoma, In this type of secondary polycythemia the
erythropoietin level increase, but the oxygen saturation of the
blood is normal.
Laboratory findings:
1- Blood smear show normal chromic normocytic RBC,
and normal WBC ,and platelet morphology
2- The Hb. Hematocrit, and RBC count are elevated.
3- The WBC count is normal .
4- The whole blood volume is increased.
5- The bone marrow shows erythroid hyperplasia.
6- The leukocyte alkaline phosphatase is normal .
Relative polycythemia ( apparent or pseudo polycythemia
It is polycythemia in which there is a decrease in fluid
portion(plasma) of the blood therefore the actual
number of RBC in the blood is not increased, but the
number of cells per unit volume of blood is increased.
Occurs particularly in young or middle aged men.
Causes:1- dehydration . 2- Nervous stress, 3- Diuretic
therapy. 4-Smoking .
Laboratory findings:-
1- The blood smear shows normochromic normocytic RBC,
also normal WBC, and platelet morphology.
2- The Hb, Hematocrit, and red blood cell count are
elevated.
3- The whole blood volume is decreased, where the total
RBC volume is normal.
4- Normal bone marrow.
5- The leukocyte alkaline phosphatase is normal.

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Polydythemia

  • 1.
  • 2. is as an increase in hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and RBC count above normal level for age and sex .
  • 3. Polycythemia can be classified as following:- 1- Absolute polycythemia a- primary(polycythemia Rubra vera) b-secondary polycythemia. 2- Relative polycythemia.
  • 4. Absolute polycythemia A disease characterize by increase number of RBC, caused by a clonal malignancy of marrow stem cells, there is also an over production of granulocytes and platelets. The disease is associated With a number of chromosomal changes, of which deletion of chromosome 20q is the most frequent, It is found most often in patients over 60y of age.
  • 5. Clinical features :- 1-Headache, dyspnea, blurred vision, night sweat and pruritus. 2- Increase skin coloration (ruddy cyanosis ) 3- Splenomegaly is a common finding and enlarged liver is found in many cases.
  • 6. 4- Hemorrhage( gastro intestinal, uterine, and cerebral) 5-Thrombosis, Arterial or venous . 6- Hypertension. 7-Gout. 8- Peptic ulceration.
  • 7. Laboratory findings;- 1- The peripheral blood smear shows:- A- Normochromic, normocytic RBC, moderate anisocytosis and slight poly chromatophilia, occasional nucleated RBC ( erythroid progenitor ). B- Atypical platelet or megakaryocytes fragments may be seen. C- Immature granulocytes occasionally seen.
  • 8. 2- The hemoglobin, hematocrit, and RBC count are increased, The total red cell volume is increased. 3-The relative and absolute numbers of eosinophils and basophils may be increased. 4-Increase platelets count in about half the patients. 5- The neutrophil alkaline phosphatase increase.
  • 9. 6- Increase serum vitamin B12 and vitamin B12 binding capacity. 7- The bone marrow is hyper cellular with prominent megakaryocytes. 8-Blood viscosity is increased. 9- Increase plasma urate level.
  • 11. Secondary polycythemia:- Causes:- 1-Increased level of erythropoietin in the blood due to:- a-Any condition that decreases the arterial oxygen saturation or decreases the capacity of the Hb molecule to carry oxygen.eg. High altitudes, chronic pulmonary disease, chronic congestive heart disease, certain abnormal hemoglobin's. b- certain tumors of the liver, brain, and pituitary gland, Renal cell carcinoma, In this type of secondary polycythemia the erythropoietin level increase, but the oxygen saturation of the blood is normal.
  • 12. Laboratory findings: 1- Blood smear show normal chromic normocytic RBC, and normal WBC ,and platelet morphology 2- The Hb. Hematocrit, and RBC count are elevated. 3- The WBC count is normal . 4- The whole blood volume is increased. 5- The bone marrow shows erythroid hyperplasia. 6- The leukocyte alkaline phosphatase is normal .
  • 13. Relative polycythemia ( apparent or pseudo polycythemia It is polycythemia in which there is a decrease in fluid portion(plasma) of the blood therefore the actual number of RBC in the blood is not increased, but the number of cells per unit volume of blood is increased. Occurs particularly in young or middle aged men. Causes:1- dehydration . 2- Nervous stress, 3- Diuretic therapy. 4-Smoking .
  • 14. Laboratory findings:- 1- The blood smear shows normochromic normocytic RBC, also normal WBC, and platelet morphology. 2- The Hb, Hematocrit, and red blood cell count are elevated. 3- The whole blood volume is decreased, where the total RBC volume is normal. 4- Normal bone marrow. 5- The leukocyte alkaline phosphatase is normal.