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AN OVERVIEW OF MINERALSAN OVERVIEW OF MINERALS
POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITYPOTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITY
IN THE PHILIPPINESIN THE PHILIPPINES
Mining and Minerals – The new drivers of growth
Minesand GeosciencesBureau
Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Slide 2Mining Philippines 2005
PhilippinesPhilippines
Porphyry Cu beltsPorphyry Cu belts
Porphyry Cu beltsPorphyry Cu belts
Slide 3Mining Philippines 2005
N
Philippine Sea
Sulu Sea
Celebes Sea
Luzon
Trough
SouthChinaSea
PHILIPPINETRENCH
MANILATRENCH
SULU
TRENCH
NEGROS
TRENCH
COT
ABA
TO
TR.
Simplified tectonic
map of the
PHILIPPINES
TRENCHES IN THETRENCHES IN THE
PHILIPPINESPHILIPPINES
Volcanic arc terrane
(Au, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn)
Ophiolite Terrane
(Cr, Pt, Co, Ni, Cu-
Pb-Zn, Au)
1.1. Manila TrenchManila Trench
2.2. Philippine TrenchPhilippine Trench
3.3. Negros TrenchNegros Trench
4.4. Sulu TrenchSulu Trench
5.5. Cotabato TrenchCotabato Trench
Slide 4Mining Philippines 2005
THE MINING INDUSTRY :THE MINING INDUSTRY :
BRIEF OVERVIEWBRIEF OVERVIEW
 PHILIPPINE MINING DATES BACK TO 16PHILIPPINE MINING DATES BACK TO 16THTH
CENTURYCENTURY
 RICH DIVERSITY IN BOTH METALLIC AND NON-METALLICRICH DIVERSITY IN BOTH METALLIC AND NON-METALLIC
MINERAL RESOURCESMINERAL RESOURCES
 SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTION TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTSIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTION TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
OF THE COUNTRY & SKILL TRAINING OF WORKFORCEOF THE COUNTRY & SKILL TRAINING OF WORKFORCE
 INDUSTRY SUBJECT TO GROWING SOCIAL NEEDS ANDINDUSTRY SUBJECT TO GROWING SOCIAL NEEDS AND
DEMANDS, COUPLED WITH GREATER AWARENESS ANDDEMANDS, COUPLED WITH GREATER AWARENESS AND
ACTIVISMACTIVISM
 FAST EVOLVING REGULATORY REGIMES – MINING ACT OFFAST EVOLVING REGULATORY REGIMES – MINING ACT OF
1995 (RA No. 7942)1995 (RA No. 7942)
 ONGOING REVITALIZATION OF THE MINERALS INDUSTRYONGOING REVITALIZATION OF THE MINERALS INDUSTRY
WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTWITHIN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Slide 5Mining Philippines 2005
ONSHORE MINERALONSHORE MINERAL
RESOURCESRESOURCES
Mineral Land Distribution
(In Hectares)
Total Land Area of the
Philippines
Geologically
Prospective Areas for
Metallic Minerals
Total Land Area
Covered by Approved
Mining Tenements
30.0%
68.6%
1.4%
 Only 1.4% are covered by
mining permits
 9 million hectares more of
potential sites for metallic
minerals
Slide 6Mining Philippines 2005
OPERATING MINESOPERATING MINES
2 Big mines2 Big mines::
Victoria Gold MineVictoria Gold Mine
Padcal Copper MinePadcal Copper Mine
4 Medium-scale nickel mines4 Medium-scale nickel mines
Rio Tuba Nickel MineRio Tuba Nickel Mine
Cagdianao Nickel MineCagdianao Nickel Mine
Sigbanog Project of HMCSigbanog Project of HMC
Taganito Nickel MineTaganito Nickel Mine
3 Medium-scale chromite mines3 Medium-scale chromite mines
Masinloc Project of Benguet Corp.,
Omasdang Project of Crau Minerals
Homonhon Project of Heritage Res.
5 medium-scale gold mines5 medium-scale gold mines
Canatuan Project of TVI
Acupan SSM Operations of Benguet
Diwalwal Direct State Development
Project of NRDC
Banahaw Gold Project of Philsaga
Mining Corp.
Johson Gold Mining Corp. in Panganiban
15 Cement plants and quarries15 Cement plants and quarries
Slide 7Mining Philippines 2005
ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTIONSECONOMIC CONTRIBUTIONS
OF THE MINERALS SECTOR (FY 2004)OF THE MINERALS SECTOR (FY 2004)
Production Value P 41.5 Billion
or 19% increase from CY 2002
Value Added Contribution P 18.0 Billion or 1.6% of Phil. GDP
or 1.52% of the Phil. GNP (CY 2003)
Exports US$ 638 Million or 1.8% of total Phil.
Exports
Paid-up Investments P 367 Million (CY2002)
Employment 104,000
Wages and Benefits P 4 to P5 Billion
Taxes and Fees Estimate P 2.1 Billion (CY 2002)
Multiplier Effect For each mining job, 4 to 10 allied jobs
created upstream and downstream
Slide 8Mining Philippines 2005
11
22
44
33
66
77
88
99
10101212
55
1111
Potential areas and deposits:Potential areas and deposits:
1. Luzon Central Cordillera – Au,
Cu, Fe, Mn
2. Northern Sierra Madre – Cr, Ni,
Cu
3. Zambales – Cr, Ni, Co, Pt, Cu,
Au
4. Vizcaya-Aurora – Cu, Au
5. Bicol – Au, Fe, Cu
6. Southern Tagalog – Cu, Au, Ni,
Co
7. Central Visayas – Cu, Au, Mn
8. Samar-Eastern Mindanao – Au,
Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Co, Pt, Mn
9. North Central Mindanao – Cr,
Cu, Au
10. Zamboanga Peninsula – Au, Cu,
Cr, Fe
11. Southern Mindanao – Cu, Au
12. Palawan – Cr, Ni, Co, Pt, Au,
REE
Slide 9Mining Philippines 2005
RESERVE: 163 million tons
with 0.81% copper and 1.76
grams per ton gold; 1.8 Cu eq.
FAR SOUTHEAST porphyryFAR SOUTHEAST porphyry
copper - gold depositcopper - gold deposit
RESOURCE: 300 million tons
with 0.6% copper and 1 gram
per ton gold.
BOYONGAN porphyryBOYONGAN porphyry
copper - gold depositcopper - gold deposit
RESOURCE: 700 million tons
with 0.81% copper and 0.32
gram per ton gold
TAMPAKAN porphyryTAMPAKAN porphyry
copper - gold depositcopper - gold deposit
MAJOR DISCOVERIESMAJOR DISCOVERIES
Slide 10Mining Philippines 2005
Bato dacite
(Pleistocene)
Epithermal Cu- Au/
Au-(Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu)
Imbanguila dacite
(Pliocene)
Bagon tonalite
(Miocene)
Basement rocks
(Cretaceous-
Miocene)
Porphyry Cu-Au
deposit/prospect
1 km
N
Simplified geologic map of the Mankayan
mineral district
Victoria gold
deposit
Far Southeast
porphyry copper
deposit
Lepanto Enargite
deposit
Mankayan
district Far SoutheastFar Southeast
porphyry-copper goldporphyry-copper gold
depositdeposit
163 M tons reserve163 M tons reserve
0.81% Cu0.81% Cu
1.76 g/t Au1.76 g/t Au
1.8% Cu eq.1.8% Cu eq.
Slide 11Mining Philippines 2005
Simplified geologic
map of Surigao
peninsula
Boyongan porphyry-Boyongan porphyry-
copper gold depositcopper gold deposit
300 million tons300 million tons
0.6% Cu0.6% Cu
1 g/t Au1 g/t Au
Slide 12Mining Philippines 2005
TampakanTampakan
Cu-Au depositCu-Au deposit
Tampakan Cu-AuTampakan Cu-Au
depositdeposit
> 1 billion T resource> 1 billion T resource
0.7% Cu0.7% Cu
0.3 g/t Au0.3 g/t Au
Slide 13Mining Philippines 2005
DIDIPIO porphyry copper -DIDIPIO porphyry copper -
gold depositgold deposit (20.4 MMt, 0.65%(20.4 MMt, 0.65%
Cu, 1.7 g/t Au)Cu, 1.7 g/t Au)
AROROY gold depositAROROY gold deposit (71.3(71.3
MMt, 1.34 g/t Au)MMt, 1.34 g/t Au)
PALAWAN HPP ProjectPALAWAN HPP Project (11.5(11.5
MMt, 2.3% Ni)MMt, 2.3% Ni)
PIPELINE PROJECTSPIPELINE PROJECTS
RAPU-RAPU polymetallicRAPU-RAPU polymetallic
depositdeposit (7 MMt, 2.61g/t Au, 14(7 MMt, 2.61g/t Au, 14
g/t Ag, 1.24% Cu, 2.06% Zn)g/t Ag, 1.24% Cu, 2.06% Zn)
CANATUAN gold projectCANATUAN gold project
(954,763 Mt, 3.81 g/t Au; 1.4(954,763 Mt, 3.81 g/t Au; 1.4
MMt, 2.6% Cu, 1.61% Zn, 1.07MMt, 2.6% Cu, 1.61% Zn, 1.07
g/t Au, 63.3 g/t Au)g/t Au, 63.3 g/t Au)
DIWALWAL gold depositDIWALWAL gold deposit (>6(>6
MMt, 0.8 g/t Au)MMt, 0.8 g/t Au)
Slide 14Mining Philippines 2005
BATONG-BUHAY porphyryBATONG-BUHAY porphyry
copper-gold projectcopper-gold project (85.9 MMt,(85.9 MMt,
0.6% Cu, 0.25 g/t Au, 2.7 g/t Ag)0.6% Cu, 0.25 g/t Au, 2.7 g/t Ag)
SAN ANTONIO porphyry copperSAN ANTONIO porphyry copper
projectproject (178.3 MMt, 0.44% Cu,(178.3 MMt, 0.44% Cu,
0.09 g/t Au, 1.19 g/t Ag)0.09 g/t Au, 1.19 g/t Ag)
AMACAN porphyry copper- goldAMACAN porphyry copper- gold
projectproject (110 MMt,0.3% Cu, 0.43g/t(110 MMt,0.3% Cu, 0.43g/t
Au; 133 MMt, 1.5-10 g/t Au)Au; 133 MMt, 1.5-10 g/t Au)
KINGKING porphyry copper-KINGKING porphyry copper-
gold projectgold project (353.5 MMt, 0.39%(353.5 MMt, 0.39%
Cu, 0.44 g/t AuCu, 0.44 g/t Au
OTHER PROJECTS
ATLAS porphyry copperATLAS porphyry copper
projectproject (872 MMt, 0.41% Cu)(872 MMt, 0.41% Cu)
COPPERCOPPER
Slide 15Mining Philippines 2005
TERESA gold projectTERESA gold project (7.3 MMt,(7.3 MMt,
5.29 g/t Au)5.29 g/t Au)
GOLDGOLD
SIANA gold projectSIANA gold project (18.8 MMt,(18.8 MMt,
1.9 g/t Au)1.9 g/t Au)
OTHER PROJECTS
DIWALWAL gold projectDIWALWAL gold project (9.7(9.7
MMt, 7.0 g/t Au)MMt, 7.0 g/t Au)
Slide 16Mining Philippines 2005
OTHER PROJECTS
NICKELNICKEL
MINDORO nickel projectMINDORO nickel project (>200(>200
MMt, 0.94% Ni)MMt, 0.94% Ni)
NONOCNONOC nickel projectnickel project (60 MMt,(60 MMt,
1.13% Ni, 0.094% Co, 33.31% Fe)1.13% Ni, 0.094% Co, 33.31% Fe)
ADLAY projectADLAY project (18 MMt, 1.6%(18 MMt, 1.6%
Ni, 0.1% Co)Ni, 0.1% Co)
Slide 17Mining Philippines 2005
Other Mineral Exploration Projects
1) Cordillera Au (Anglo-American) - Benguet
2) Surigao Cu (Climax) – Surigao del Norte
3) Siana Au (Red 5) – Surigao del Norte
4) Labo Au and Leyte Au (Indophil) –
Camarines Norte & Southern Leyte
5) Nueva Vizcaya Au, Southern Leyte Au,
Surigao Au (Oxiana)
6) Del Gallego Au (Phelps Dodge) –
Camarines Norte
7) Pujada Ni (QNI/BHP-Billiton) – Davao
Oriental)
8) New Bataan Au (Sur American) –
Compostela Valley
9) Bayug Au (ZMC) – Zamboanga del Sur
10) Pan de Azucar Au and Lobo Cu-Au
(MRL) – Iloilo & Batangas
11) Zambales Platinum (Kinloch Res.) -
Zambales
12) Mabuhay Au (Pelican) – Surigao
del Norte
13) Libona Au (Great Horizon) - Bukidnon
14) Pamplona Sulfur (Crew Dev) – Negros
Oriental
Slide 18Mining Philippines 2005
OFFSHORE RESOURCES
Manganese
Magnetite
Magnetite
Magnetite
Chromite
Chromite
Chromite
Chromite
Gold
Gold
 Philippines offshore area
including EEZ 2.2 million Km2
• Placer minerals including gold,
chromite, magnetite, silica
 Potential offshore mineral
resources:
• Aggregate resources (sand &
gravel)
• Decorative stones, manganese
nodules/encrustrations with
associated copper, gold, zinc,
cobalt
• Polymetallic sulphide deposits
containing gold, copper, cobalt,
etc.
• Offshore Palawan also holds
resources of manganese
Slide 19Mining Philippines 2005
Areas of high interest
COPPER-GOLDCOPPER-GOLD
• Relatively unexplored extensions
of mineral districts are highly
prospective
Baguio-MankayanBaguio-Mankayan
districtdistrict
Northern LuzonNorthern Luzon
Central CordilleraCentral Cordillera
Vizcaya-EcijaVizcaya-Ecija
• Northern part of Luzon Central
Cordillera remains relatively
unexplored but is probably the
best potential area
• Encouraging geologic and
mineral indications in Vizcaya-
Ecija area
Known district
Areas of interest
Slide 20Mining Philippines 2005
• Surigao gold district holds
promise for porphyry copper
mineralization
COPPER-GOLDCOPPER-GOLD
Areas of high interest
• Time for rational exploration in
Diwalwal-Masara area
• Zamboanga is an emerging
district
• Discovery of Tampakan grabs
attention for Cotabato
• Central Cordillera of Mindanao
remains unexplored; gold
panning activities reported.
Surigao-AgusanSurigao-Agusan
districtdistrict
Diwalwal-MasaraDiwalwal-Masara
districtdistrict
ZamboangaZamboanga
CotabatoCotabato
MindanaoMindanao
CentralCentral
CordilleraCordillera
Known district
Areas of interest
Slide 21Mining Philippines 2005
We learn from success stories
Recognition of telescoped epithermal-hypothermal deposit pairsRecognition of telescoped epithermal-hypothermal deposit pairs
offers a new dimension in copper-gold explorationoffers a new dimension in copper-gold exploration
Slide 22Mining Philippines 2005
Recognition of telescoped epithermal-hypothermal deposit pairsRecognition of telescoped epithermal-hypothermal deposit pairs
offers a new dimension in copper-gold explorationoffers a new dimension in copper-gold exploration
We learn from success stories
Slide 23Mining Philippines 2005
OTHER METALS
NICKELNICKEL
• The Philippine nickel resource is the biggest in Southeast Asia
• Improved technology makes low-grade lateritic ore viable
IRONIRON
• The increasing demand for iron is reviving exploration for the commodity in the
Philippines
• The spatial relationship of carbonate rocks with younger intrusives in the
Philippines offers the possibility of finding new skarn deposits
• Improving chromite prices could revive Philippine chromite mines in Zambales,
Palawan, Samar, Dinagat and Zamboanga.
CHROMITECHROMITE
LEAD and ZINCLEAD and ZINC
• Ophiolitic and Early Tertiary arc terranes in the Philippines holds much promise
for VMS deposits similar to those of Lafayette in Rapu-Rapu island.
Slide 24Mining Philippines 2005
THE NEW MINERALS INDUSTRYTHE NEW MINERALS INDUSTRY
AND SUSTAINABLEAND SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENT• Enshrined in the 1987 Philippine Constitution, acknowledged in
Philippine Agenda 21 and recognized in the WSSD Plan of
Implementation.
• Given flesh through the Philippine Mining Act of 1995, its revised
implementing rules and regulations and recently, in EO No. 270, the
National Policy Agenda Revitalizing Mining in the Philippines.
• Advances the critical shift from purely regulatory compliance to
sustainable development where:
“Mineral resources development is undertaken in a transparent and
sustainable manner guided by relevant laws, rules and regulations,
industry guidelines and corporate responsibility and accountability;
committed to the highest technical standards, management
systems and practices; and engaged in a sustained process of
consultation with local governments and communities, business
groups, civil society and other industry stakeholders.”
Slide 25Mining Philippines 2005
FORTIFYING THE FOUNDATIONSFORTIFYING THE FOUNDATIONS
FOR A REVITALIZED MINERALSFOR A REVITALIZED MINERALS
INDUSTRYINDUSTRY
 CLEAR, STABLE & PREDICTABLE POLICIES
Streamlined procedures for mining applications
Stable fiscal regime and equitable sharing
 ADDRESS ENVIRONMENTAL & SOCIAL CONCERNS
Rationalize environmental standards
Strengthen protection measures and sureties
 PROVIDE STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS ON MINERAL
RESOURCES DEV’T
Slide 26Mining Philippines 2005
OUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATIONOUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATION
OF MINERALS INDUSTRYOF MINERALS INDUSTRY
• An industry with sustained exploration activities
dominated by new generation, high profit potential
mines able to absorb the profit objective of the
contractor and the social and environmental costs of
modern mining and contributing to the sustained
economic well-being of the nation and in countryside
community development;
• A value-added minerals industry that paves the way
to industrialization by generating wealth,
employment and other benefits in both rural and
urban regions and exporting finished products
rather than raw materials;
Slide 27Mining Philippines 2005
• Recognition of multinational and state corporations
with proven track record as pace-setter in modern
technologies in mineral exploration, mine
environmental management and social culture, and
experience in the application of innovative
technologies from whom the country could benefit
in the discovery of new mineral deposits and in the
management of mines;
• Enhanced contribution of the mining sector to the
economy with reduced social and environmental
impacts;
OUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATIONOUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATION
OF MINERALS INDUSTRYOF MINERALS INDUSTRY
Slide 28Mining Philippines 2005
• A socially accepted and vibrant minerals industry
demonstrating a track record of good corporate
practice and engaging in enduring relationships
with stakeholders;
• Retrofitting of local operating mines & quarries and
the management of public health & safety and
environmental risks associated with abandoned/
inactive mines and their cost-effective
transformation to targeted end-uses acceptable to
local communities and other stakeholders;
OUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATIONOUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATION
OF MINERALS INDUSTRYOF MINERALS INDUSTRY
Slide 29Mining Philippines 2005
• A culture of change leading to a self-regulating
minerals industry driven by the highest degree of
professionalism, responsibility and accountability
and dedication to continual improvement and
commitment to Best Practice and sustainable
development;
• Improved environment for research & development
and enhanced collaboration among Government,
industry and academic research sectors, with
increased participation of stakeholders, to build up
the scientific base needed to support policy
development and innovative response to unique
industry challenges and opportunities;
OUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATIONOUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATION
OF MINERALS INDUSTRYOF MINERALS INDUSTRY
Slide 30Mining Philippines 2005
• Strong linkage with international organizations and
active participation in international initiatives to
learn and share and be part in developing
international consensus and response to common
issues on mining; and
• Full government support at the local and national
level, to mineral resources development as a
development option for the country.
OUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATIONOUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATION
OF MINERALS INDUSTRYOF MINERALS INDUSTRY
Slide 31Mining Philippines 2005
VISIOVISIO
NNA MINING AND MINERALS INDUSTRY THAT IS
NOT ONLY PROSPEROUS BUT ALSO
ECONOMICALLY, SOCIALLY AND
ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE, WITH
BROAD COMMUNITY AND POLITICAL SUPPORT,
WHILE POSITIVELY AND PROGRESSIVELY
ASSISTING IN THE GOVERNMENT’S PROGRAM
ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND CONTRIBUTING
TO THE GENERAL ECONOMIC WELL-BEING OF
THE NATION
Slide 32Mining Philippines 2005
THANK YOU FOR
YOUR ATTENTION
For more information visit our website at:
www.mgb.gov.ph

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Overview of the phil minerals potential

  • 1. AN OVERVIEW OF MINERALSAN OVERVIEW OF MINERALS POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITYPOTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITY IN THE PHILIPPINESIN THE PHILIPPINES Mining and Minerals – The new drivers of growth Minesand GeosciencesBureau Department of Environment and Natural Resources
  • 2. Slide 2Mining Philippines 2005 PhilippinesPhilippines Porphyry Cu beltsPorphyry Cu belts Porphyry Cu beltsPorphyry Cu belts
  • 3. Slide 3Mining Philippines 2005 N Philippine Sea Sulu Sea Celebes Sea Luzon Trough SouthChinaSea PHILIPPINETRENCH MANILATRENCH SULU TRENCH NEGROS TRENCH COT ABA TO TR. Simplified tectonic map of the PHILIPPINES TRENCHES IN THETRENCHES IN THE PHILIPPINESPHILIPPINES Volcanic arc terrane (Au, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) Ophiolite Terrane (Cr, Pt, Co, Ni, Cu- Pb-Zn, Au) 1.1. Manila TrenchManila Trench 2.2. Philippine TrenchPhilippine Trench 3.3. Negros TrenchNegros Trench 4.4. Sulu TrenchSulu Trench 5.5. Cotabato TrenchCotabato Trench
  • 4. Slide 4Mining Philippines 2005 THE MINING INDUSTRY :THE MINING INDUSTRY : BRIEF OVERVIEWBRIEF OVERVIEW  PHILIPPINE MINING DATES BACK TO 16PHILIPPINE MINING DATES BACK TO 16THTH CENTURYCENTURY  RICH DIVERSITY IN BOTH METALLIC AND NON-METALLICRICH DIVERSITY IN BOTH METALLIC AND NON-METALLIC MINERAL RESOURCESMINERAL RESOURCES  SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTION TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTSIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTION TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE COUNTRY & SKILL TRAINING OF WORKFORCEOF THE COUNTRY & SKILL TRAINING OF WORKFORCE  INDUSTRY SUBJECT TO GROWING SOCIAL NEEDS ANDINDUSTRY SUBJECT TO GROWING SOCIAL NEEDS AND DEMANDS, COUPLED WITH GREATER AWARENESS ANDDEMANDS, COUPLED WITH GREATER AWARENESS AND ACTIVISMACTIVISM  FAST EVOLVING REGULATORY REGIMES – MINING ACT OFFAST EVOLVING REGULATORY REGIMES – MINING ACT OF 1995 (RA No. 7942)1995 (RA No. 7942)  ONGOING REVITALIZATION OF THE MINERALS INDUSTRYONGOING REVITALIZATION OF THE MINERALS INDUSTRY WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTWITHIN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  • 5. Slide 5Mining Philippines 2005 ONSHORE MINERALONSHORE MINERAL RESOURCESRESOURCES Mineral Land Distribution (In Hectares) Total Land Area of the Philippines Geologically Prospective Areas for Metallic Minerals Total Land Area Covered by Approved Mining Tenements 30.0% 68.6% 1.4%  Only 1.4% are covered by mining permits  9 million hectares more of potential sites for metallic minerals
  • 6. Slide 6Mining Philippines 2005 OPERATING MINESOPERATING MINES 2 Big mines2 Big mines:: Victoria Gold MineVictoria Gold Mine Padcal Copper MinePadcal Copper Mine 4 Medium-scale nickel mines4 Medium-scale nickel mines Rio Tuba Nickel MineRio Tuba Nickel Mine Cagdianao Nickel MineCagdianao Nickel Mine Sigbanog Project of HMCSigbanog Project of HMC Taganito Nickel MineTaganito Nickel Mine 3 Medium-scale chromite mines3 Medium-scale chromite mines Masinloc Project of Benguet Corp., Omasdang Project of Crau Minerals Homonhon Project of Heritage Res. 5 medium-scale gold mines5 medium-scale gold mines Canatuan Project of TVI Acupan SSM Operations of Benguet Diwalwal Direct State Development Project of NRDC Banahaw Gold Project of Philsaga Mining Corp. Johson Gold Mining Corp. in Panganiban 15 Cement plants and quarries15 Cement plants and quarries
  • 7. Slide 7Mining Philippines 2005 ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTIONSECONOMIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE MINERALS SECTOR (FY 2004)OF THE MINERALS SECTOR (FY 2004) Production Value P 41.5 Billion or 19% increase from CY 2002 Value Added Contribution P 18.0 Billion or 1.6% of Phil. GDP or 1.52% of the Phil. GNP (CY 2003) Exports US$ 638 Million or 1.8% of total Phil. Exports Paid-up Investments P 367 Million (CY2002) Employment 104,000 Wages and Benefits P 4 to P5 Billion Taxes and Fees Estimate P 2.1 Billion (CY 2002) Multiplier Effect For each mining job, 4 to 10 allied jobs created upstream and downstream
  • 8. Slide 8Mining Philippines 2005 11 22 44 33 66 77 88 99 10101212 55 1111 Potential areas and deposits:Potential areas and deposits: 1. Luzon Central Cordillera – Au, Cu, Fe, Mn 2. Northern Sierra Madre – Cr, Ni, Cu 3. Zambales – Cr, Ni, Co, Pt, Cu, Au 4. Vizcaya-Aurora – Cu, Au 5. Bicol – Au, Fe, Cu 6. Southern Tagalog – Cu, Au, Ni, Co 7. Central Visayas – Cu, Au, Mn 8. Samar-Eastern Mindanao – Au, Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Co, Pt, Mn 9. North Central Mindanao – Cr, Cu, Au 10. Zamboanga Peninsula – Au, Cu, Cr, Fe 11. Southern Mindanao – Cu, Au 12. Palawan – Cr, Ni, Co, Pt, Au, REE
  • 9. Slide 9Mining Philippines 2005 RESERVE: 163 million tons with 0.81% copper and 1.76 grams per ton gold; 1.8 Cu eq. FAR SOUTHEAST porphyryFAR SOUTHEAST porphyry copper - gold depositcopper - gold deposit RESOURCE: 300 million tons with 0.6% copper and 1 gram per ton gold. BOYONGAN porphyryBOYONGAN porphyry copper - gold depositcopper - gold deposit RESOURCE: 700 million tons with 0.81% copper and 0.32 gram per ton gold TAMPAKAN porphyryTAMPAKAN porphyry copper - gold depositcopper - gold deposit MAJOR DISCOVERIESMAJOR DISCOVERIES
  • 10. Slide 10Mining Philippines 2005 Bato dacite (Pleistocene) Epithermal Cu- Au/ Au-(Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu) Imbanguila dacite (Pliocene) Bagon tonalite (Miocene) Basement rocks (Cretaceous- Miocene) Porphyry Cu-Au deposit/prospect 1 km N Simplified geologic map of the Mankayan mineral district Victoria gold deposit Far Southeast porphyry copper deposit Lepanto Enargite deposit Mankayan district Far SoutheastFar Southeast porphyry-copper goldporphyry-copper gold depositdeposit 163 M tons reserve163 M tons reserve 0.81% Cu0.81% Cu 1.76 g/t Au1.76 g/t Au 1.8% Cu eq.1.8% Cu eq.
  • 11. Slide 11Mining Philippines 2005 Simplified geologic map of Surigao peninsula Boyongan porphyry-Boyongan porphyry- copper gold depositcopper gold deposit 300 million tons300 million tons 0.6% Cu0.6% Cu 1 g/t Au1 g/t Au
  • 12. Slide 12Mining Philippines 2005 TampakanTampakan Cu-Au depositCu-Au deposit Tampakan Cu-AuTampakan Cu-Au depositdeposit > 1 billion T resource> 1 billion T resource 0.7% Cu0.7% Cu 0.3 g/t Au0.3 g/t Au
  • 13. Slide 13Mining Philippines 2005 DIDIPIO porphyry copper -DIDIPIO porphyry copper - gold depositgold deposit (20.4 MMt, 0.65%(20.4 MMt, 0.65% Cu, 1.7 g/t Au)Cu, 1.7 g/t Au) AROROY gold depositAROROY gold deposit (71.3(71.3 MMt, 1.34 g/t Au)MMt, 1.34 g/t Au) PALAWAN HPP ProjectPALAWAN HPP Project (11.5(11.5 MMt, 2.3% Ni)MMt, 2.3% Ni) PIPELINE PROJECTSPIPELINE PROJECTS RAPU-RAPU polymetallicRAPU-RAPU polymetallic depositdeposit (7 MMt, 2.61g/t Au, 14(7 MMt, 2.61g/t Au, 14 g/t Ag, 1.24% Cu, 2.06% Zn)g/t Ag, 1.24% Cu, 2.06% Zn) CANATUAN gold projectCANATUAN gold project (954,763 Mt, 3.81 g/t Au; 1.4(954,763 Mt, 3.81 g/t Au; 1.4 MMt, 2.6% Cu, 1.61% Zn, 1.07MMt, 2.6% Cu, 1.61% Zn, 1.07 g/t Au, 63.3 g/t Au)g/t Au, 63.3 g/t Au) DIWALWAL gold depositDIWALWAL gold deposit (>6(>6 MMt, 0.8 g/t Au)MMt, 0.8 g/t Au)
  • 14. Slide 14Mining Philippines 2005 BATONG-BUHAY porphyryBATONG-BUHAY porphyry copper-gold projectcopper-gold project (85.9 MMt,(85.9 MMt, 0.6% Cu, 0.25 g/t Au, 2.7 g/t Ag)0.6% Cu, 0.25 g/t Au, 2.7 g/t Ag) SAN ANTONIO porphyry copperSAN ANTONIO porphyry copper projectproject (178.3 MMt, 0.44% Cu,(178.3 MMt, 0.44% Cu, 0.09 g/t Au, 1.19 g/t Ag)0.09 g/t Au, 1.19 g/t Ag) AMACAN porphyry copper- goldAMACAN porphyry copper- gold projectproject (110 MMt,0.3% Cu, 0.43g/t(110 MMt,0.3% Cu, 0.43g/t Au; 133 MMt, 1.5-10 g/t Au)Au; 133 MMt, 1.5-10 g/t Au) KINGKING porphyry copper-KINGKING porphyry copper- gold projectgold project (353.5 MMt, 0.39%(353.5 MMt, 0.39% Cu, 0.44 g/t AuCu, 0.44 g/t Au OTHER PROJECTS ATLAS porphyry copperATLAS porphyry copper projectproject (872 MMt, 0.41% Cu)(872 MMt, 0.41% Cu) COPPERCOPPER
  • 15. Slide 15Mining Philippines 2005 TERESA gold projectTERESA gold project (7.3 MMt,(7.3 MMt, 5.29 g/t Au)5.29 g/t Au) GOLDGOLD SIANA gold projectSIANA gold project (18.8 MMt,(18.8 MMt, 1.9 g/t Au)1.9 g/t Au) OTHER PROJECTS DIWALWAL gold projectDIWALWAL gold project (9.7(9.7 MMt, 7.0 g/t Au)MMt, 7.0 g/t Au)
  • 16. Slide 16Mining Philippines 2005 OTHER PROJECTS NICKELNICKEL MINDORO nickel projectMINDORO nickel project (>200(>200 MMt, 0.94% Ni)MMt, 0.94% Ni) NONOCNONOC nickel projectnickel project (60 MMt,(60 MMt, 1.13% Ni, 0.094% Co, 33.31% Fe)1.13% Ni, 0.094% Co, 33.31% Fe) ADLAY projectADLAY project (18 MMt, 1.6%(18 MMt, 1.6% Ni, 0.1% Co)Ni, 0.1% Co)
  • 17. Slide 17Mining Philippines 2005 Other Mineral Exploration Projects 1) Cordillera Au (Anglo-American) - Benguet 2) Surigao Cu (Climax) – Surigao del Norte 3) Siana Au (Red 5) – Surigao del Norte 4) Labo Au and Leyte Au (Indophil) – Camarines Norte & Southern Leyte 5) Nueva Vizcaya Au, Southern Leyte Au, Surigao Au (Oxiana) 6) Del Gallego Au (Phelps Dodge) – Camarines Norte 7) Pujada Ni (QNI/BHP-Billiton) – Davao Oriental) 8) New Bataan Au (Sur American) – Compostela Valley 9) Bayug Au (ZMC) – Zamboanga del Sur 10) Pan de Azucar Au and Lobo Cu-Au (MRL) – Iloilo & Batangas 11) Zambales Platinum (Kinloch Res.) - Zambales 12) Mabuhay Au (Pelican) – Surigao del Norte 13) Libona Au (Great Horizon) - Bukidnon 14) Pamplona Sulfur (Crew Dev) – Negros Oriental
  • 18. Slide 18Mining Philippines 2005 OFFSHORE RESOURCES Manganese Magnetite Magnetite Magnetite Chromite Chromite Chromite Chromite Gold Gold  Philippines offshore area including EEZ 2.2 million Km2 • Placer minerals including gold, chromite, magnetite, silica  Potential offshore mineral resources: • Aggregate resources (sand & gravel) • Decorative stones, manganese nodules/encrustrations with associated copper, gold, zinc, cobalt • Polymetallic sulphide deposits containing gold, copper, cobalt, etc. • Offshore Palawan also holds resources of manganese
  • 19. Slide 19Mining Philippines 2005 Areas of high interest COPPER-GOLDCOPPER-GOLD • Relatively unexplored extensions of mineral districts are highly prospective Baguio-MankayanBaguio-Mankayan districtdistrict Northern LuzonNorthern Luzon Central CordilleraCentral Cordillera Vizcaya-EcijaVizcaya-Ecija • Northern part of Luzon Central Cordillera remains relatively unexplored but is probably the best potential area • Encouraging geologic and mineral indications in Vizcaya- Ecija area Known district Areas of interest
  • 20. Slide 20Mining Philippines 2005 • Surigao gold district holds promise for porphyry copper mineralization COPPER-GOLDCOPPER-GOLD Areas of high interest • Time for rational exploration in Diwalwal-Masara area • Zamboanga is an emerging district • Discovery of Tampakan grabs attention for Cotabato • Central Cordillera of Mindanao remains unexplored; gold panning activities reported. Surigao-AgusanSurigao-Agusan districtdistrict Diwalwal-MasaraDiwalwal-Masara districtdistrict ZamboangaZamboanga CotabatoCotabato MindanaoMindanao CentralCentral CordilleraCordillera Known district Areas of interest
  • 21. Slide 21Mining Philippines 2005 We learn from success stories Recognition of telescoped epithermal-hypothermal deposit pairsRecognition of telescoped epithermal-hypothermal deposit pairs offers a new dimension in copper-gold explorationoffers a new dimension in copper-gold exploration
  • 22. Slide 22Mining Philippines 2005 Recognition of telescoped epithermal-hypothermal deposit pairsRecognition of telescoped epithermal-hypothermal deposit pairs offers a new dimension in copper-gold explorationoffers a new dimension in copper-gold exploration We learn from success stories
  • 23. Slide 23Mining Philippines 2005 OTHER METALS NICKELNICKEL • The Philippine nickel resource is the biggest in Southeast Asia • Improved technology makes low-grade lateritic ore viable IRONIRON • The increasing demand for iron is reviving exploration for the commodity in the Philippines • The spatial relationship of carbonate rocks with younger intrusives in the Philippines offers the possibility of finding new skarn deposits • Improving chromite prices could revive Philippine chromite mines in Zambales, Palawan, Samar, Dinagat and Zamboanga. CHROMITECHROMITE LEAD and ZINCLEAD and ZINC • Ophiolitic and Early Tertiary arc terranes in the Philippines holds much promise for VMS deposits similar to those of Lafayette in Rapu-Rapu island.
  • 24. Slide 24Mining Philippines 2005 THE NEW MINERALS INDUSTRYTHE NEW MINERALS INDUSTRY AND SUSTAINABLEAND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENT• Enshrined in the 1987 Philippine Constitution, acknowledged in Philippine Agenda 21 and recognized in the WSSD Plan of Implementation. • Given flesh through the Philippine Mining Act of 1995, its revised implementing rules and regulations and recently, in EO No. 270, the National Policy Agenda Revitalizing Mining in the Philippines. • Advances the critical shift from purely regulatory compliance to sustainable development where: “Mineral resources development is undertaken in a transparent and sustainable manner guided by relevant laws, rules and regulations, industry guidelines and corporate responsibility and accountability; committed to the highest technical standards, management systems and practices; and engaged in a sustained process of consultation with local governments and communities, business groups, civil society and other industry stakeholders.”
  • 25. Slide 25Mining Philippines 2005 FORTIFYING THE FOUNDATIONSFORTIFYING THE FOUNDATIONS FOR A REVITALIZED MINERALSFOR A REVITALIZED MINERALS INDUSTRYINDUSTRY  CLEAR, STABLE & PREDICTABLE POLICIES Streamlined procedures for mining applications Stable fiscal regime and equitable sharing  ADDRESS ENVIRONMENTAL & SOCIAL CONCERNS Rationalize environmental standards Strengthen protection measures and sureties  PROVIDE STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS ON MINERAL RESOURCES DEV’T
  • 26. Slide 26Mining Philippines 2005 OUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATIONOUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATION OF MINERALS INDUSTRYOF MINERALS INDUSTRY • An industry with sustained exploration activities dominated by new generation, high profit potential mines able to absorb the profit objective of the contractor and the social and environmental costs of modern mining and contributing to the sustained economic well-being of the nation and in countryside community development; • A value-added minerals industry that paves the way to industrialization by generating wealth, employment and other benefits in both rural and urban regions and exporting finished products rather than raw materials;
  • 27. Slide 27Mining Philippines 2005 • Recognition of multinational and state corporations with proven track record as pace-setter in modern technologies in mineral exploration, mine environmental management and social culture, and experience in the application of innovative technologies from whom the country could benefit in the discovery of new mineral deposits and in the management of mines; • Enhanced contribution of the mining sector to the economy with reduced social and environmental impacts; OUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATIONOUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATION OF MINERALS INDUSTRYOF MINERALS INDUSTRY
  • 28. Slide 28Mining Philippines 2005 • A socially accepted and vibrant minerals industry demonstrating a track record of good corporate practice and engaging in enduring relationships with stakeholders; • Retrofitting of local operating mines & quarries and the management of public health & safety and environmental risks associated with abandoned/ inactive mines and their cost-effective transformation to targeted end-uses acceptable to local communities and other stakeholders; OUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATIONOUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATION OF MINERALS INDUSTRYOF MINERALS INDUSTRY
  • 29. Slide 29Mining Philippines 2005 • A culture of change leading to a self-regulating minerals industry driven by the highest degree of professionalism, responsibility and accountability and dedication to continual improvement and commitment to Best Practice and sustainable development; • Improved environment for research & development and enhanced collaboration among Government, industry and academic research sectors, with increased participation of stakeholders, to build up the scientific base needed to support policy development and innovative response to unique industry challenges and opportunities; OUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATIONOUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATION OF MINERALS INDUSTRYOF MINERALS INDUSTRY
  • 30. Slide 30Mining Philippines 2005 • Strong linkage with international organizations and active participation in international initiatives to learn and share and be part in developing international consensus and response to common issues on mining; and • Full government support at the local and national level, to mineral resources development as a development option for the country. OUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATIONOUTCOME OF THE REVITALIZATION OF MINERALS INDUSTRYOF MINERALS INDUSTRY
  • 31. Slide 31Mining Philippines 2005 VISIOVISIO NNA MINING AND MINERALS INDUSTRY THAT IS NOT ONLY PROSPEROUS BUT ALSO ECONOMICALLY, SOCIALLY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE, WITH BROAD COMMUNITY AND POLITICAL SUPPORT, WHILE POSITIVELY AND PROGRESSIVELY ASSISTING IN THE GOVERNMENT’S PROGRAM ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND CONTRIBUTING TO THE GENERAL ECONOMIC WELL-BEING OF THE NATION
  • 32. Slide 32Mining Philippines 2005 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION For more information visit our website at: www.mgb.gov.ph

Editor's Notes

  1. From a geologic perspective, the Philippines is situated along that ubiquitous belt of volcanoes called the Circum-Pacific belt of fire that extends from the tip of South America, to North America, East Asia and Oceania. This belt is also an extensive and continuous zone where tectonic plates collide. Perhaps, more importantly, these processes of volcanism or magmatism and plate convergence resulted in the formation of abundant and important metallic mineral deposits of gold, copper, iron, chromite, nickel, cobalt and platinum. In fact, the areas defining this belt are the primary producers of copper and gold in the world today.
  2. Volcanism and plate convergence are both associated temporally, spatially and genetically with oceanic trenches. In the Philippines, we have five of such trenches surrounding the whole archipelago. It becomes not surprising therefore, that, perhaps in a per square inch proportion, our country ranks as one of the most mineral-endowed in the world. Gold, copper and iron are genetically linked with the copious magmatism present in continuous chains from north to south of the archipelago. Also, extensive belts of rocks suites called ophiolites, which are pieces of oceanic crust incorporated in the landmass due to plate convergence, are sources of our chromite, nickel, cobalt, platinum and even copper-lead-zinc ores.
  3. The Philippines has a long history in mining. It dates back in the 16th century during the Spanish regime. (Remember, the famous Hispanic quest for God, Gold and Glory?) The Philippines is know for its rich mineral potentials both in metallic and non-metallic resources. (It has been said that the Spanish American and the Japanese invasions of the Philippines were partly precipitated by the rich diversity of mineral resources in the Philippines.) In the past, mining is known because of its significant contribution to the economic development of the country. It has transformed many sleepy towns to bustling economic centers and into cities and developed a skilled workforce in mining operations.. Over time, the industry has been subject to increasing accountability and responsibility in social and environmental concerns. Over a period of one century, four regulatory regimes were enacted in accordance with the needs of the times, the current one is the Mining Act of 1995. Despite the industry’s long history, its full development has been interrupted. Several events, such as World War II, misguided investments and policies in 1970s, political instability in 1980s, negative environmental legacies I 1990s contributed and adverse public image contributed to its decline. There is now a need to revitalize the industry within the context of sustainable development to optimize the benefits from the country’s mineral wealth.
  4. The Philippines, it is said, ranks among the world’s most endowed countries in terms of mineral deposits. Shown on the map is a simplified geologic map of the Philippines with the numerous identified deposits and prospects of copper, gold, chromite, nickel, iron and manganese. These identified prospects are awaiting renewed or in-depth evaluation, several, of which, I am sure may turn out to be the next important world class deposit. Of the approximately 30 million hectares of Philippine territory, 34 per cent is identified as geologically prospective for metallic minerals. To date, only 1.4% is covered by mining permits. Thus, there is an estimated 9 million hectares more of potential sites available for mineral rights approval and exploration.
  5. To date, there are only two remaining big mines in the Philippines. One is a gold mine which operates the Victoria and Teresa deposits of the Lepanto Consolidated Mining Corporation, and the other is the longest operating copper mine in the Philippines, the Padcal Mine of Philex Mining Corporation. The rest are medium-scale mines of chromite, nickel and gold.
  6. Here is a map delineating the various mineral provinces and districts and potential areas in the Philippines. The most prolific copper and gold producers in the Philippines are found in the Baguio and Mankayan districts within area number 1, while the Surigao-Davao districts in area number 8 contributed much to Philippine gold production.
  7. Despite the economic and political difficulties encountered by the Philippine mineral industry in years past, important world-class deposits of copper were discovered in the last two decades. Two of them belong to traditional mineral districts, and one from an emerging district in Mindanao. These are: the Far Southeast or FSE porphyry copper-gold deposit in the Mankayan district in Luzon, discovered by the Lepanto Consolidated Mining Corporation; the Boyongan porphyry copper-gold deposit in the Surigao district in northeastern Mindanao discovered by Philex Mining Corp. which they now jointly explore with Anglo-American Corp.; and the Tampakan copper-gold deposit in Cotabato, southern Mindanao, discovered by Western Mining Corp. and now under feasibility study by Sagittarius Mines Incorporated.
  8. The Far Southeast porphyry-copper gold deposit is a highly promising deposit within the Mankayan district, and is adjacent the famous Mankayan enargite and Victoria and Teresa gold deposits of the Lepanto mines. To date, it has a reserve of around 163 million tons of ore averaging 0.81% copper and 1.76 grams per ton gold. Its copper equivalent of 1.8% is the highest among the porphyry copper deposits in the Philippines. Lepanto is willing to go into detailed drilling and subsequent development with a foreign partner.
  9. The Boyongan project is a joint venture between Philex Gold Corp. and Anglo American Exploration (Philippines). It is located within the Surigao gold district and, once developed, will be the first porphyry copper mine in Surigao, among other prospects. Active drilling exploration has already delineated a resource of around 300 million tons of ore with 0.6% copper and 1 gram per ton gold. The immediate exploration target is to identify additional resources before development begins. The discovery of the Boyongan deposit triggered the interest of several companies to likewise look for copper deposits in the Surigao district, among them, Climax Arimco and Red 5 of Australia.
  10. The Tampakan copper-gold deposit consists of a porphyry copper-gold deposit, overprinted by an epithermal vein copper-gold mineralization. Tampakan sits at the southern end of the Mindanao central cordillera in Cotabato. It is considered to be the most significant discovery of a mineral deposit in the Philippines in the 1990’s, as the deposit later turned out to be of truly world-class quality, with over 1 billion tons of ore resource with 0.7% copper and 0.3 grams per ton gold. Sagittarius Mines Incorporated, which holds the mineral rights to the property, is a joint-venture company of Indophil Resources and the Tampakan group. These three projects are among the 23 identified as priority projects expected to develop or be rehabilitated into operating mines in the next 5 years. Several among these are already pipeline projects, expected to be completed and become productive mines in the next 1 to 3 years.
  11. These are:   the Didipio copper-gold project of Climax Arimco in Nueva Vizcaya, the Rapu-Rapu polymetalic project of Lafayette in Rapu-Rapu island, the Aroroy gold project of Filminera in Aroroy, Masbate, the Diwalwal gold project of the NRMDC in Davao del Norte; the Palawan HPP project in Palawan; and the expansion of the Canatuan gold project of TVI in Zamboanga del Norte   Other projects, most of which requires funding for exploration or rehabilitation are:
  12. For copper or copper-gold: Batong-Buhay copper-gold project of Batong Buhay Gold Mines in Kailnga; San Antonio copper project of Marcopper Mining Corp. in Marinduque; ATLAS copper project of Toledo Copper Plc. in Cebu, Amacan copper-gold Project of North Davao Mining Corp. in Davao el Norte and Kingking copper-gold project of Benguet Consolidated Mining Corp in Pantukan
  13. For gold: Teresa gold project of Lepanto in Mankayan Siana gold project of JCG Resources Corp in Surigao del Norte Diwalwal Project by NRMDC in Monkayo, Davao del Norte  
  14. For Nickel: Mindoro nickel project of Crew Development Corp in Mindoro island Nonoc Nickel Project of Philippine Nickel Corp. in Nonoc Island Adlay-Cadianao-Tandawa Project of Case Mining and Development in Surigao del Norte
  15. In addition to these, active exploration is on-going in the areas shown on the map, many of which would welcome partnership ventures.   Of course, we must not ignore the various non-metallic resources that also abound in the Philippines.
  16. Not only does the Philippines boast of abundant onshore resources. We are also aware of the high potential of offshore mineral deposits that may become important sources of enriched metallic ores in the form of mechanically transported and enriched deposits bordering the Philippine shores. These include deposits of gold, chromite and magnetite. Offshore manganese deposits also occur north and south of Palawan.
  17. Among the areas I identified as potential sites of mineralization, I believe the relatively unexplored extensions or adjacent areas of traditional mineral districts are most prospective. In Luzon, this would include the relatively unexplored northern extension of the Luzon Central Cordillera. We are confident that the abundant copper and gold mineralization that characterizes the Baguio and Mankayan districts in the south also can be found in the Provinces of Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Apayao, Kalinga, Abra and the Mountain Province. Also, the southeastern extension of the cordillera to the Nueva Ecija and Nueva Vizcaya provinces show encouraging showings of copper-gold mineralization.
  18. In Mindanao, the discovery of the Boyongan porphyry copper deposit offers the possibility of finding more of such type in a traditionally gold mining area. Of course, such prospectivity has long been recognized in the Davao district, particularly in the Diwalwal and Masara gold districts. Emerging districts and other potential areas in Mindanao include the Zamboanga penisula where epithermal gold deposits, porphyry copper prospects, VMS deposits and PB-Zn veins have been either mined or identified; the Tampakan district in Cotabato; and the Mindanao Central cordillera where gold panning activities have been recently reported.
  19. Perhaps one important geological aspect that has been recognized in the Philippines by recent discoveries is the occurrence of telescoped hypothermal and epithermal deposits that offer rich resources of copper and gold. The FSE and the Tampakan deposits are examples of such a telescoped pair. Also, the discovery of the Boyongan deposit emphasizes the need to reassess areas of epithermal gold mineralization for their porphyry copper potential. This should now become one important strategy of companies venturing in the copper and gold issue.
  20. The renewed optimism in the Philippine mineral industry, plus the favorable metal prices brought about by the rapid growth in the Southeast Asian region has also revived the interest in other metal commodities. Perhaps one important metal in which the industry’s interest will continue to grow is nickel. The Philippines is said to contain the biggest resource of nickel in the whole SE Asian region. It might not be an exaggeration to say that “oil in Saudi Arabia is to nickel in the Philippines.” Also, improving chromite prices is starting to also revive interest in this commodity, that may lead to the reopening of stagnant chromite mines and the exploration of other deposits. The increasing demand for iron has renewed exploration efforts of this metal in the country. The close spatial and temporal affinity of carbonate rocks to plutonic rocks offers the possibility of finding more skarn deposits than are actually known today. Finally, the ophiolitic and Early Tertiary arc terranes in the Philippines are good targets for VMS deposits of Cu-Pb-Zn such as those being developed in Rapu-Rapu island by Lafayette and in Canatauan by TVI.
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  28. Our Vision may be summarized as follows: A mining and minerals industry that is not only prosperous but also socially, economically and environmentally sustainable, with broad community and political support, while positively and progressively assisting in the government’s program on poverty alleviation and contributing to the general economic well-being of the nation.