SlideShare a Scribd company logo
NON AQUEOUS TITRATION
By Dr. Neetu Soni, SHUATS,
PRAYAGRAJ, UP
Non aqueous titration refers to a type of titration in which
the analyte substance is dissolved in a solvent which does
not contain water.
The need for non aqueous titration arises because water
can behave as a weak base and a weak acid as well, and
can hence compete in proton acceptance or proton
donation with other weak acids and bases dissolved in it.
The procedure of non aqueous titration is very useful
because:
 It satisfies two different requirements, namely – suitable
titration of very weak acids or bases
 It providing a solvent with an ability to dissolve organic
compounds.
Many reactions which occur in non aqueous titration
procedures can be explained via the Bronsted-Lowry
Theory and its definition of acids and bases. Basically, acids
can be thought of as proton donors, whereas bases can be
thought of as proton acceptors.
An example of a reaction in which water is not a suitable solvent
is the reaction given by:
R-NH2 + H+ ⇌ R-NH3
+
which is competed with in an aqueous solvent by the reaction
given by:
H2O + H+ ⇌ H3O+
This type of competition provided by water towards weak bases or
weak acids makes it difficult to detect the end point of the titration.
Therefore, these substances which have very sharp end points when
titrated in aqueous solutions due to their weakly basic or weakly acidic
nature generally need to be titrated in non-aqueous solvents.
Types of Non Aqueous
Solvents
Aprotic Solvents – these solvents are neutral in charge and are
chemically inert. They also generally have a low dielectric constant.
Examples of these types of solvents include chloroform and benzene.
Protophilic Solvents – these solvents have a basic character and tend to
react with the acids they come in contact with, leading to the formation of
solvated protons. Examples of protophilic solvents are ammonia and
pyridine.
Protogenic Solvents – these solvents have a more acidic character and
tend to have a levelling effect on the bases they come in contact with.
Examples of protogenic solvents used in non-aqueous titration are sulphuric
acid and acetic acid.
Amphiprotic Solvents – these solvents have properties which are
protophilic as well as protogenic. Examples of these types of solvents are
Major solvents used in non aqueous titration
(1) Glacial acetic acid
(2) Acetonitrile (CH3CN)
(3) Alcohols
(4) Dioxane
(5) DMF
Levelling Effect:
The acidity of the weak acids can be enhanced using basic
solvents because the basic solvent has higher affinity to take
up protons from acid. So, acetic acid behaves as a strong
acid in ammonia solution. Also the basicity of the weak bases
can be enhanced in the presence of acidic solvent. This is
called the levelling effect of the solvent.
NON AQUEOUS INDICATORS
The ionised form and unionised form or different resonant
form of indicators generally apply equally for nonaqueous
titration, but the colour change at the end point vary from
titration to titration, as they depend on the nature of the
titrant.
The end point may be determined either by potentiometric
titration or by colour change of the indicator.
1. Crystal voilet:- • It is considered as the most common
indicators in the titration of the bases.
• It is used as 0.5% solution in glacial acetic acid, it gives
voilet colour in basic medium and yellowish green in acidic
medium.
• It is most widely use for the titration of pyridine with
prechloride acid.
2. Oracet Blue B Indicator:- It is prepared o.5% glacial acetic
acid. It gives blue colour in basic medium while pink colour
in acidic medium.
3. Quinaldine Red: it is employed as indicator in the
determination of the drug substance in
dimethylformamide (DMF). It is used as 0.1% w/v
solution in ethanol. The colour change is from purple
red to pale green.
4. Thymol Blue: it is used as 0.2% w/v solution in methanol.
The colour change is from yellow to blue.
NON AQUEOUS TITRATION.pptx
PREPARATION OF 0.1 N PERCHLORIC ACID
Materials Required : 8.5 ml of perchloric acid (70.0 to 72.0%) ; 1 Litre of
glacial acetic acid ; 30 ml of acetic anhydride.
Procedure : Gradually mix 8.5 ml of perchloric acid to 900 ml of glacial
acetic acid with vigorous and continuous stirring. Now add 30 ml acetic
anhydride and make up the volume to 1 litre with glacial acetic acid and allow
to stand for 24 hours before use.
The acetic anhydride reacts with the water (approx. 30%) in perchloric acid
and some traces in glacial acetic acid thereby making the resulting mixture
practically anhydrous. Thus, we have :
Titration of weak base by non aqueous titration
Precautions : The following precautions must be observed :
(a) Perchloric acid is usually available as a 70 to 72% mixture with water (sp. gr. 1.6). It usually undergoes a
spontaneous explosive decomposition and, therefore, it is available always in the form of a solution.
(b) Conversion of acetic anhydride to acetic acid requires 40-45 minutes for its completion. It being an exothermic
reaction, the solution must be allowed to cool to room temperature before adding glacial acetic acid to volume,
(c) Avoid adding an excess of acetic anhydride especially when primary and secondary amines are to be assayed,
because these may be converted rapidly to their corresponding acetylated non-basic products :
(d) Perchloric acid is not only a powerful oxidising agent but also a strong acid. Hence, it must be handled very
carefully.
Perchloric acid has a molecular weight of 100.46 and 1 L of 0.1 N solution shall contain 1 /10th the equivalent weight or
10.046 g. To prepare 1 L of standard perchloric acid solution, it requires 8.5 ml (sp. gr. 1.6) volume and a purity of 72%
which will calculate out as 9.792 g of HClO4.
STANDARDIZATION OF 0.1 N
PERCHLORIC ACID
Alkaline earth (e.g., Mg, Ca, Ba), and alkali (e.g., Na, K, Rb), salts of organic acids
behave as bases in acetic acid solution :
In usual practice, potassium hydrogen phthalate (or potassium biphthalate, KHC8H4O4) is
employed as a standardizing agent for acetous perchloric acid. The reaction may be
expressed as follows :
Procedure : Weigh accurately about 0.5 g of potassium hydrogen phthalate in a 100
ml conical flask. Add 25 ml of glacial acetic acid and attach a reflux condenser fitted
with a silica-gel drying tube. Warm until the salt gets dissolved completely. Cool and
titrate with 0.1 N perchloric acid by making use of either of the
following two indicators :
(a) acetous crystal violet-2 drops, end point Blue to Blue-Green (0.5% w/v)
(a) acetous oracet blue B-2 drops, end point Blue to Pink.
NON AQUEOUS TITRATION.pptx
Titration of weak Acids by non aqueous titration
Preparation of 0.1 N Potassium Methoxide in Toluene-Methanol
Materials Required: Absolute methanol : 40 ml ; dry toluene : 50 ml ;
potassium metal : 4 g. Procedure:
Add into a dry flask, a mixture of methanol (40 ml) and dry toluene (50
ml) and cover it loosely. Carefully add freshly cut pieces of potassium
metal to the above mixture gradually with constant shaking. After
complete dissolution of potassium metal, add enough absolute
methanol to yield a clear solution. Toluene 50 ml is added with constant
shaking until the mixture turns hazy in appearance. The process is
repeated by the alternate addition of methanol and benzene until 1 litre
of solution is obtained, taking care to add a minimum volume of
methanol to give a visible clear solution.
Preparation of 0.1 N Sodiun Methoxide
It is prepared exactly in a similar manner as for 0.1 N
Potassium Methoxide, using 2.3 g of freshly-cut sodium in
place of potassium.
Standardization of 0.1 N Methoxide Solution
Materials Required: Dimethylformamide (DMF) : 80 ml ;
Thymol blue (0.3% in MeOH) ; benzoic acid : 0.4 g.
Procedure : Transfer 80 ml of DMF in a conical flask and
add to it 3 to 4 drops of thymolpthalein Quickly introduce
0.4 g of benzoic acid and titrate immediately with
Methoxide in toluene methanol.
Estimation of Sodium Benzoate
Sodium Benzoate : Formula : C7H5NaO2 Mol. Wt. 144.1 Sodium
Benzoate contains not less than 99.0 per cent and not more than
100.5 per cent of C7H5NaO2, calculated on the dried basis.
Description : A white, crystalline or granular powder or flakes;
odourless or with a faint odour; hygroscopic.
For the Estimation of Sodium Benzoate :
Assay Procedure : Weigh accurately about 0.25 g of Sodium
Benzoate, dissolve in 20 ml of anhydrous glacial acetic acid, warming
to 50º if necessary, cool. Titrate with 0.1 M perchloric acid, using 0.05
ml of 1-naphtholbenzein solution as indicator. Carry out a blank
titration. Equivalent or I.P factor : 1 ml of 0.1 M perchloric acid is
equivalent to 0.01441 g of C7H5NaO2.
.
Estimation of Ephedrine Hydrochloride :-
Ephedrine Hydrochloride : Formula : C10H15NO,HCl Mol. Wt. 201.7
Ephedrine Hydrochloride contains not less than 99.0 per cent and not more
than 101.0 per cent of C10H15NO,HCl calculated on the dried basis.
Description : Colourless crystals or a white, crystalline powder; odourless.
It is affected by light. For the Estimation of Ephedrine Hydrochloride :
Assay Procedure : Weigh accurately about 0.17 g of Ephedrine
Hydrochloride, dissolve in 10 ml of mercuric acetate solution, warming
gently, add 50 ml of acetone and mix. Titrate with 0.1 M perchloric acid,
using 1 ml of a saturated solution of methyl orange in acetone as indicator,
until a red colour is obtained. Carry out a blank titration. Equivalent or I.P
factor : 1 ml of 0.1 M perchloric acid is equivalent to 0.02017 g of

More Related Content

What's hot

Types of Redox Titration & Principles and Applications.pdf
Types of Redox Titration &  Principles and Applications.pdfTypes of Redox Titration &  Principles and Applications.pdf
Types of Redox Titration & Principles and Applications.pdf
Geeta Prasad Kashyap
 
Redox titration.pptx
Redox titration.pptxRedox titration.pptx
Redox titration.pptx
pooja shinde
 
PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 2.pptx
PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 2.pptxPHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 2.pptx
PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 2.pptx
RCThakur5
 
Non-aqueous titration.
Non-aqueous titration.Non-aqueous titration.
Non-aqueous titration.
Nidhi Sharma
 
Volumetric Analysis by Dr. A. Amsavel
Volumetric Analysis by  Dr. A. AmsavelVolumetric Analysis by  Dr. A. Amsavel
Volumetric Analysis by Dr. A. Amsavel
Dr. Amsavel A
 
5. To determine the amount of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in a mixture using 1,10-phen...
5.	To determine the amount of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in a mixture using 1,10-phen...5.	To determine the amount of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in a mixture using 1,10-phen...
5. To determine the amount of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in a mixture using 1,10-phen...
wadhava gurumeet
 
Chapter No 3 : Gastrointestinal Agents
Chapter No 3 : Gastrointestinal AgentsChapter No 3 : Gastrointestinal Agents
Chapter No 3 : Gastrointestinal Agents
Chetan Jain
 
Masking and Demasking Agents
Masking and Demasking AgentsMasking and Demasking Agents
Masking and Demasking Agents
प्रतिक्षा ठाकूर
 
Conductometry / conductometric titration
Conductometry / conductometric titrationConductometry / conductometric titration
Conductometry / conductometric titration
Rabia Aziz
 
QUINOLINE, ISOQUINOLINE AND INDOLE
QUINOLINE, ISOQUINOLINE AND INDOLEQUINOLINE, ISOQUINOLINE AND INDOLE
QUINOLINE, ISOQUINOLINE AND INDOLE
Pharma Rising, Bhopal
 
Acid base titration
Acid base titrationAcid base titration
Acid base titration
Fizan Chee
 
Rearrangement of carbocation
Rearrangement of carbocationRearrangement of carbocation
Rearrangement of carbocation
SandhyaPunetha1
 
Precipitation titration
Precipitation titrationPrecipitation titration
Precipitation titration
lamrin33
 
Iodimetry & iodometry
Iodimetry & iodometryIodimetry & iodometry
Iodimetry & iodometry
Apusi Chowdhury
 
Impurities and their limit test
Impurities and their limit testImpurities and their limit test
Impurities and their limit test
ESHA SHAH
 
Gravimetry
GravimetryGravimetry
Gravimetry
Suresh Selvaraj
 
Conductometry (Pharmaceutical analysis)
Conductometry (Pharmaceutical analysis)Conductometry (Pharmaceutical analysis)
Conductometry (Pharmaceutical analysis)
Yunesalsayadi
 
Acid base titration
Acid base titrationAcid base titration
Acid base titration
meraj khan
 
Gravimetric analysis- Pharmaceutical Analysis
Gravimetric analysis- Pharmaceutical AnalysisGravimetric analysis- Pharmaceutical Analysis
Gravimetric analysis- Pharmaceutical Analysis
Sanchit Dhankhar
 
Markovnikov's addition & anti-Markovnikov's addition
Markovnikov's addition & anti-Markovnikov's additionMarkovnikov's addition & anti-Markovnikov's addition
Markovnikov's addition & anti-Markovnikov's addition
Dr Venkatesh P
 

What's hot (20)

Types of Redox Titration & Principles and Applications.pdf
Types of Redox Titration &  Principles and Applications.pdfTypes of Redox Titration &  Principles and Applications.pdf
Types of Redox Titration & Principles and Applications.pdf
 
Redox titration.pptx
Redox titration.pptxRedox titration.pptx
Redox titration.pptx
 
PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 2.pptx
PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 2.pptxPHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 2.pptx
PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 2.pptx
 
Non-aqueous titration.
Non-aqueous titration.Non-aqueous titration.
Non-aqueous titration.
 
Volumetric Analysis by Dr. A. Amsavel
Volumetric Analysis by  Dr. A. AmsavelVolumetric Analysis by  Dr. A. Amsavel
Volumetric Analysis by Dr. A. Amsavel
 
5. To determine the amount of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in a mixture using 1,10-phen...
5.	To determine the amount of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in a mixture using 1,10-phen...5.	To determine the amount of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in a mixture using 1,10-phen...
5. To determine the amount of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in a mixture using 1,10-phen...
 
Chapter No 3 : Gastrointestinal Agents
Chapter No 3 : Gastrointestinal AgentsChapter No 3 : Gastrointestinal Agents
Chapter No 3 : Gastrointestinal Agents
 
Masking and Demasking Agents
Masking and Demasking AgentsMasking and Demasking Agents
Masking and Demasking Agents
 
Conductometry / conductometric titration
Conductometry / conductometric titrationConductometry / conductometric titration
Conductometry / conductometric titration
 
QUINOLINE, ISOQUINOLINE AND INDOLE
QUINOLINE, ISOQUINOLINE AND INDOLEQUINOLINE, ISOQUINOLINE AND INDOLE
QUINOLINE, ISOQUINOLINE AND INDOLE
 
Acid base titration
Acid base titrationAcid base titration
Acid base titration
 
Rearrangement of carbocation
Rearrangement of carbocationRearrangement of carbocation
Rearrangement of carbocation
 
Precipitation titration
Precipitation titrationPrecipitation titration
Precipitation titration
 
Iodimetry & iodometry
Iodimetry & iodometryIodimetry & iodometry
Iodimetry & iodometry
 
Impurities and their limit test
Impurities and their limit testImpurities and their limit test
Impurities and their limit test
 
Gravimetry
GravimetryGravimetry
Gravimetry
 
Conductometry (Pharmaceutical analysis)
Conductometry (Pharmaceutical analysis)Conductometry (Pharmaceutical analysis)
Conductometry (Pharmaceutical analysis)
 
Acid base titration
Acid base titrationAcid base titration
Acid base titration
 
Gravimetric analysis- Pharmaceutical Analysis
Gravimetric analysis- Pharmaceutical AnalysisGravimetric analysis- Pharmaceutical Analysis
Gravimetric analysis- Pharmaceutical Analysis
 
Markovnikov's addition & anti-Markovnikov's addition
Markovnikov's addition & anti-Markovnikov's additionMarkovnikov's addition & anti-Markovnikov's addition
Markovnikov's addition & anti-Markovnikov's addition
 

Similar to NON AQUEOUS TITRATION.pptx

Non aq titrations unit 2
Non aq titrations unit 2Non aq titrations unit 2
Non aq titrations unit 2
RoopeshGupta5
 
NON AQUEOUS FINAL - Copy.pptx
NON AQUEOUS FINAL - Copy.pptxNON AQUEOUS FINAL - Copy.pptx
NON AQUEOUS FINAL - Copy.pptx
AnandGupta554610
 
Non aqueous titration
Non aqueous titrationNon aqueous titration
Non aqueous titration
YasminMomin3
 
5. non aqueous titrations
5. non aqueous titrations5. non aqueous titrations
5. non aqueous titrations
NikithaGopalpet
 
Non-aq. Titration.pdf
Non-aq. Titration.pdfNon-aq. Titration.pdf
Non-aq. Titration.pdf
Jasmine Chaudhary
 
Non aq. acid base titration
Non aq. acid base titrationNon aq. acid base titration
Non aq. acid base titration
Dhanashree Kad
 
Non aqueous titration.pptx
Non aqueous titration.pptxNon aqueous titration.pptx
Non aqueous titration.pptx
DhanyaBSen
 
non aqueous titrations of acid and base .pptx
non aqueous titrations of acid and base  .pptxnon aqueous titrations of acid and base  .pptx
non aqueous titrations of acid and base .pptx
Deepali69
 
Non aqueous titration
Non aqueous titrationNon aqueous titration
Non aqueous titration
meraj khan
 
non aqueous titration, pharmaceutical and cosmetic analysis,Pca seminar
non aqueous titration, pharmaceutical and cosmetic analysis,Pca seminarnon aqueous titration, pharmaceutical and cosmetic analysis,Pca seminar
non aqueous titration, pharmaceutical and cosmetic analysis,Pca seminar
Sharath Hns
 
Non aqoues tittrations FOR MPHARM IST YEAR
Non aqoues tittrations FOR MPHARM IST YEARNon aqoues tittrations FOR MPHARM IST YEAR
Non aqoues tittrations FOR MPHARM IST YEAR
prakash64742
 
NON-AQEUOUS TITRATION.pdf
NON-AQEUOUS TITRATION.pdfNON-AQEUOUS TITRATION.pdf
NON-AQEUOUS TITRATION.pdf
GraceShajiChittilapp
 
Non aqueous titration
Non aqueous titrationNon aqueous titration
Non aqueous titration
Shashank shekher mishra
 
prepare and standardize N10 NaOH solution.pptx
prepare  and standardize N10 NaOH solution.pptxprepare  and standardize N10 NaOH solution.pptx
prepare and standardize N10 NaOH solution.pptx
RamanWalia6
 
Non aqueous acid-base titrations
Non aqueous acid-base titrationsNon aqueous acid-base titrations
Non aqueous acid-base titrations
Sai Datri Arige
 
6 non aqueous jntu pharmacy
6 non aqueous jntu pharmacy6 non aqueous jntu pharmacy
6 non aqueous jntu pharmacy
Dr. Suman Pattanayak
 
E3 acetic acid
E3 acetic acidE3 acetic acid
E3 acetic acid
Rione Drevale
 
Unit First.pptx
Unit First.pptxUnit First.pptx
Unit First.pptx
Sumant Saini
 
Non-aqueous acid base titrimetry
Non-aqueous acid base titrimetryNon-aqueous acid base titrimetry
Non-aqueous acid base titrimetry
Obydulla (Al Mamun)
 
Non aq. titration
Non aq. titrationNon aq. titration
Non aq. titration
sumel ashique
 

Similar to NON AQUEOUS TITRATION.pptx (20)

Non aq titrations unit 2
Non aq titrations unit 2Non aq titrations unit 2
Non aq titrations unit 2
 
NON AQUEOUS FINAL - Copy.pptx
NON AQUEOUS FINAL - Copy.pptxNON AQUEOUS FINAL - Copy.pptx
NON AQUEOUS FINAL - Copy.pptx
 
Non aqueous titration
Non aqueous titrationNon aqueous titration
Non aqueous titration
 
5. non aqueous titrations
5. non aqueous titrations5. non aqueous titrations
5. non aqueous titrations
 
Non-aq. Titration.pdf
Non-aq. Titration.pdfNon-aq. Titration.pdf
Non-aq. Titration.pdf
 
Non aq. acid base titration
Non aq. acid base titrationNon aq. acid base titration
Non aq. acid base titration
 
Non aqueous titration.pptx
Non aqueous titration.pptxNon aqueous titration.pptx
Non aqueous titration.pptx
 
non aqueous titrations of acid and base .pptx
non aqueous titrations of acid and base  .pptxnon aqueous titrations of acid and base  .pptx
non aqueous titrations of acid and base .pptx
 
Non aqueous titration
Non aqueous titrationNon aqueous titration
Non aqueous titration
 
non aqueous titration, pharmaceutical and cosmetic analysis,Pca seminar
non aqueous titration, pharmaceutical and cosmetic analysis,Pca seminarnon aqueous titration, pharmaceutical and cosmetic analysis,Pca seminar
non aqueous titration, pharmaceutical and cosmetic analysis,Pca seminar
 
Non aqoues tittrations FOR MPHARM IST YEAR
Non aqoues tittrations FOR MPHARM IST YEARNon aqoues tittrations FOR MPHARM IST YEAR
Non aqoues tittrations FOR MPHARM IST YEAR
 
NON-AQEUOUS TITRATION.pdf
NON-AQEUOUS TITRATION.pdfNON-AQEUOUS TITRATION.pdf
NON-AQEUOUS TITRATION.pdf
 
Non aqueous titration
Non aqueous titrationNon aqueous titration
Non aqueous titration
 
prepare and standardize N10 NaOH solution.pptx
prepare  and standardize N10 NaOH solution.pptxprepare  and standardize N10 NaOH solution.pptx
prepare and standardize N10 NaOH solution.pptx
 
Non aqueous acid-base titrations
Non aqueous acid-base titrationsNon aqueous acid-base titrations
Non aqueous acid-base titrations
 
6 non aqueous jntu pharmacy
6 non aqueous jntu pharmacy6 non aqueous jntu pharmacy
6 non aqueous jntu pharmacy
 
E3 acetic acid
E3 acetic acidE3 acetic acid
E3 acetic acid
 
Unit First.pptx
Unit First.pptxUnit First.pptx
Unit First.pptx
 
Non-aqueous acid base titrimetry
Non-aqueous acid base titrimetryNon-aqueous acid base titrimetry
Non-aqueous acid base titrimetry
 
Non aq. titration
Non aq. titrationNon aq. titration
Non aq. titration
 

Recently uploaded

BDSM Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDelivery
BDSM Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDeliveryBDSM Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDelivery
BDSM Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDelivery
erynsouthern
 
Beautiful Girls Call Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Beautiful Girls Call Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...Beautiful Girls Call Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Beautiful Girls Call Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
birajmohan012
 
社内勉強会資料_TransNeXt: Robust Foveal Visual Perception for Vision Transformers
社内勉強会資料_TransNeXt: Robust Foveal Visual Perception for Vision Transformers社内勉強会資料_TransNeXt: Robust Foveal Visual Perception for Vision Transformers
社内勉強会資料_TransNeXt: Robust Foveal Visual Perception for Vision Transformers
NABLAS株式会社
 
Harendra Singh, AI Strategy and Consulting Portfolio
Harendra Singh, AI Strategy and Consulting PortfolioHarendra Singh, AI Strategy and Consulting Portfolio
Harendra Singh, AI Strategy and Consulting Portfolio
harendmgr
 
Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
gargnatasha985
 
Celebrity Girls Call Andheri 9930245274 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
Celebrity Girls Call Andheri 9930245274 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...Celebrity Girls Call Andheri 9930245274 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
Celebrity Girls Call Andheri 9930245274 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
revolutionary575
 
Exclusive Girls Call Noida 🎈🔥9873940964 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...
Exclusive Girls Call Noida 🎈🔥9873940964 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...Exclusive Girls Call Noida 🎈🔥9873940964 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...
Exclusive Girls Call Noida 🎈🔥9873940964 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...
sheetal singh$A17
 
Best Girls Call Navi Mumbai 9930245274 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Best Girls Call Navi Mumbai 9930245274 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...Best Girls Call Navi Mumbai 9930245274 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Best Girls Call Navi Mumbai 9930245274 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
sharonblush
 
Data Preprocessing Cheatsheet for learners
Data Preprocessing Cheatsheet for learnersData Preprocessing Cheatsheet for learners
Data Preprocessing Cheatsheet for learners
mohamed Ibrahim
 
Busty Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And...
Busty Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And...Busty Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And...
Busty Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And...
tanupasswan6
 
Willis Tower //Sears Tower- Supertall Building .pdf
Willis Tower //Sears Tower- Supertall Building .pdfWillis Tower //Sears Tower- Supertall Building .pdf
Willis Tower //Sears Tower- Supertall Building .pdf
LINAT
 
DataScienceConcept_Kanchana_Weerasinghe.pptx
DataScienceConcept_Kanchana_Weerasinghe.pptxDataScienceConcept_Kanchana_Weerasinghe.pptx
DataScienceConcept_Kanchana_Weerasinghe.pptx
Kanchana Weerasinghe
 
Potential Uses of the Floyd-Warshall Algorithm as appropriate
Potential Uses of the Floyd-Warshall Algorithm as appropriatePotential Uses of the Floyd-Warshall Algorithm as appropriate
Potential Uses of the Floyd-Warshall Algorithm as appropriate
huseindihon
 
Mumbai Girls Call Mumbai 🛵🚡9910780858 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Mumbai Girls Call Mumbai 🛵🚡9910780858 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service And ...Mumbai Girls Call Mumbai 🛵🚡9910780858 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Mumbai Girls Call Mumbai 🛵🚡9910780858 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service And ...
norina2645
 
Female Service Girls Call Navi Mumbai 9930245274 Provide Best And Top Girl Se...
Female Service Girls Call Navi Mumbai 9930245274 Provide Best And Top Girl Se...Female Service Girls Call Navi Mumbai 9930245274 Provide Best And Top Girl Se...
Female Service Girls Call Navi Mumbai 9930245274 Provide Best And Top Girl Se...
dizzycaye
 
Why_are_we_hypnotizing_ourselves-_ATeggin-1.pdf
Why_are_we_hypnotizing_ourselves-_ATeggin-1.pdfWhy_are_we_hypnotizing_ourselves-_ATeggin-1.pdf
Why_are_we_hypnotizing_ourselves-_ATeggin-1.pdf
Alexander Teggin
 
potential development of the A* search algorithm specifically
potential development of the A* search algorithm specificallypotential development of the A* search algorithm specifically
potential development of the A* search algorithm specifically
huseindihon
 
High Girls Call Nagpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
High Girls Call Nagpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...High Girls Call Nagpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
High Girls Call Nagpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
saadkhan1485265
 
transgenders community data in india by govt
transgenders community data in india by govttransgenders community data in india by govt
transgenders community data in india by govt
palanisamyiiiier
 
Supervised Learning (Data Science).pptx
Supervised Learning  (Data Science).pptxSupervised Learning  (Data Science).pptx
Supervised Learning (Data Science).pptx
TARIKU ENDALE
 

Recently uploaded (20)

BDSM Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDelivery
BDSM Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDeliveryBDSM Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDelivery
BDSM Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDelivery
 
Beautiful Girls Call Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Beautiful Girls Call Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...Beautiful Girls Call Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Beautiful Girls Call Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
 
社内勉強会資料_TransNeXt: Robust Foveal Visual Perception for Vision Transformers
社内勉強会資料_TransNeXt: Robust Foveal Visual Perception for Vision Transformers社内勉強会資料_TransNeXt: Robust Foveal Visual Perception for Vision Transformers
社内勉強会資料_TransNeXt: Robust Foveal Visual Perception for Vision Transformers
 
Harendra Singh, AI Strategy and Consulting Portfolio
Harendra Singh, AI Strategy and Consulting PortfolioHarendra Singh, AI Strategy and Consulting Portfolio
Harendra Singh, AI Strategy and Consulting Portfolio
 
Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
 
Celebrity Girls Call Andheri 9930245274 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
Celebrity Girls Call Andheri 9930245274 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...Celebrity Girls Call Andheri 9930245274 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
Celebrity Girls Call Andheri 9930245274 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
 
Exclusive Girls Call Noida 🎈🔥9873940964 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...
Exclusive Girls Call Noida 🎈🔥9873940964 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...Exclusive Girls Call Noida 🎈🔥9873940964 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...
Exclusive Girls Call Noida 🎈🔥9873940964 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...
 
Best Girls Call Navi Mumbai 9930245274 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Best Girls Call Navi Mumbai 9930245274 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...Best Girls Call Navi Mumbai 9930245274 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Best Girls Call Navi Mumbai 9930245274 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
 
Data Preprocessing Cheatsheet for learners
Data Preprocessing Cheatsheet for learnersData Preprocessing Cheatsheet for learners
Data Preprocessing Cheatsheet for learners
 
Busty Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And...
Busty Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And...Busty Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And...
Busty Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And...
 
Willis Tower //Sears Tower- Supertall Building .pdf
Willis Tower //Sears Tower- Supertall Building .pdfWillis Tower //Sears Tower- Supertall Building .pdf
Willis Tower //Sears Tower- Supertall Building .pdf
 
DataScienceConcept_Kanchana_Weerasinghe.pptx
DataScienceConcept_Kanchana_Weerasinghe.pptxDataScienceConcept_Kanchana_Weerasinghe.pptx
DataScienceConcept_Kanchana_Weerasinghe.pptx
 
Potential Uses of the Floyd-Warshall Algorithm as appropriate
Potential Uses of the Floyd-Warshall Algorithm as appropriatePotential Uses of the Floyd-Warshall Algorithm as appropriate
Potential Uses of the Floyd-Warshall Algorithm as appropriate
 
Mumbai Girls Call Mumbai 🛵🚡9910780858 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Mumbai Girls Call Mumbai 🛵🚡9910780858 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service And ...Mumbai Girls Call Mumbai 🛵🚡9910780858 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Mumbai Girls Call Mumbai 🛵🚡9910780858 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service And ...
 
Female Service Girls Call Navi Mumbai 9930245274 Provide Best And Top Girl Se...
Female Service Girls Call Navi Mumbai 9930245274 Provide Best And Top Girl Se...Female Service Girls Call Navi Mumbai 9930245274 Provide Best And Top Girl Se...
Female Service Girls Call Navi Mumbai 9930245274 Provide Best And Top Girl Se...
 
Why_are_we_hypnotizing_ourselves-_ATeggin-1.pdf
Why_are_we_hypnotizing_ourselves-_ATeggin-1.pdfWhy_are_we_hypnotizing_ourselves-_ATeggin-1.pdf
Why_are_we_hypnotizing_ourselves-_ATeggin-1.pdf
 
potential development of the A* search algorithm specifically
potential development of the A* search algorithm specificallypotential development of the A* search algorithm specifically
potential development of the A* search algorithm specifically
 
High Girls Call Nagpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
High Girls Call Nagpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...High Girls Call Nagpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
High Girls Call Nagpur 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
 
transgenders community data in india by govt
transgenders community data in india by govttransgenders community data in india by govt
transgenders community data in india by govt
 
Supervised Learning (Data Science).pptx
Supervised Learning  (Data Science).pptxSupervised Learning  (Data Science).pptx
Supervised Learning (Data Science).pptx
 

NON AQUEOUS TITRATION.pptx

  • 1. NON AQUEOUS TITRATION By Dr. Neetu Soni, SHUATS, PRAYAGRAJ, UP
  • 2. Non aqueous titration refers to a type of titration in which the analyte substance is dissolved in a solvent which does not contain water. The need for non aqueous titration arises because water can behave as a weak base and a weak acid as well, and can hence compete in proton acceptance or proton donation with other weak acids and bases dissolved in it.
  • 3. The procedure of non aqueous titration is very useful because:  It satisfies two different requirements, namely – suitable titration of very weak acids or bases  It providing a solvent with an ability to dissolve organic compounds. Many reactions which occur in non aqueous titration procedures can be explained via the Bronsted-Lowry Theory and its definition of acids and bases. Basically, acids can be thought of as proton donors, whereas bases can be thought of as proton acceptors.
  • 4. An example of a reaction in which water is not a suitable solvent is the reaction given by: R-NH2 + H+ ⇌ R-NH3 + which is competed with in an aqueous solvent by the reaction given by: H2O + H+ ⇌ H3O+ This type of competition provided by water towards weak bases or weak acids makes it difficult to detect the end point of the titration. Therefore, these substances which have very sharp end points when titrated in aqueous solutions due to their weakly basic or weakly acidic nature generally need to be titrated in non-aqueous solvents.
  • 5. Types of Non Aqueous Solvents Aprotic Solvents – these solvents are neutral in charge and are chemically inert. They also generally have a low dielectric constant. Examples of these types of solvents include chloroform and benzene. Protophilic Solvents – these solvents have a basic character and tend to react with the acids they come in contact with, leading to the formation of solvated protons. Examples of protophilic solvents are ammonia and pyridine. Protogenic Solvents – these solvents have a more acidic character and tend to have a levelling effect on the bases they come in contact with. Examples of protogenic solvents used in non-aqueous titration are sulphuric acid and acetic acid. Amphiprotic Solvents – these solvents have properties which are protophilic as well as protogenic. Examples of these types of solvents are
  • 6. Major solvents used in non aqueous titration (1) Glacial acetic acid (2) Acetonitrile (CH3CN) (3) Alcohols (4) Dioxane (5) DMF
  • 7. Levelling Effect: The acidity of the weak acids can be enhanced using basic solvents because the basic solvent has higher affinity to take up protons from acid. So, acetic acid behaves as a strong acid in ammonia solution. Also the basicity of the weak bases can be enhanced in the presence of acidic solvent. This is called the levelling effect of the solvent.
  • 8. NON AQUEOUS INDICATORS The ionised form and unionised form or different resonant form of indicators generally apply equally for nonaqueous titration, but the colour change at the end point vary from titration to titration, as they depend on the nature of the titrant. The end point may be determined either by potentiometric titration or by colour change of the indicator.
  • 9. 1. Crystal voilet:- • It is considered as the most common indicators in the titration of the bases. • It is used as 0.5% solution in glacial acetic acid, it gives voilet colour in basic medium and yellowish green in acidic medium. • It is most widely use for the titration of pyridine with prechloride acid. 2. Oracet Blue B Indicator:- It is prepared o.5% glacial acetic acid. It gives blue colour in basic medium while pink colour in acidic medium.
  • 10. 3. Quinaldine Red: it is employed as indicator in the determination of the drug substance in dimethylformamide (DMF). It is used as 0.1% w/v solution in ethanol. The colour change is from purple red to pale green. 4. Thymol Blue: it is used as 0.2% w/v solution in methanol. The colour change is from yellow to blue.
  • 12. PREPARATION OF 0.1 N PERCHLORIC ACID Materials Required : 8.5 ml of perchloric acid (70.0 to 72.0%) ; 1 Litre of glacial acetic acid ; 30 ml of acetic anhydride. Procedure : Gradually mix 8.5 ml of perchloric acid to 900 ml of glacial acetic acid with vigorous and continuous stirring. Now add 30 ml acetic anhydride and make up the volume to 1 litre with glacial acetic acid and allow to stand for 24 hours before use. The acetic anhydride reacts with the water (approx. 30%) in perchloric acid and some traces in glacial acetic acid thereby making the resulting mixture practically anhydrous. Thus, we have : Titration of weak base by non aqueous titration
  • 13. Precautions : The following precautions must be observed : (a) Perchloric acid is usually available as a 70 to 72% mixture with water (sp. gr. 1.6). It usually undergoes a spontaneous explosive decomposition and, therefore, it is available always in the form of a solution. (b) Conversion of acetic anhydride to acetic acid requires 40-45 minutes for its completion. It being an exothermic reaction, the solution must be allowed to cool to room temperature before adding glacial acetic acid to volume, (c) Avoid adding an excess of acetic anhydride especially when primary and secondary amines are to be assayed, because these may be converted rapidly to their corresponding acetylated non-basic products : (d) Perchloric acid is not only a powerful oxidising agent but also a strong acid. Hence, it must be handled very carefully. Perchloric acid has a molecular weight of 100.46 and 1 L of 0.1 N solution shall contain 1 /10th the equivalent weight or 10.046 g. To prepare 1 L of standard perchloric acid solution, it requires 8.5 ml (sp. gr. 1.6) volume and a purity of 72% which will calculate out as 9.792 g of HClO4.
  • 14. STANDARDIZATION OF 0.1 N PERCHLORIC ACID Alkaline earth (e.g., Mg, Ca, Ba), and alkali (e.g., Na, K, Rb), salts of organic acids behave as bases in acetic acid solution : In usual practice, potassium hydrogen phthalate (or potassium biphthalate, KHC8H4O4) is employed as a standardizing agent for acetous perchloric acid. The reaction may be expressed as follows :
  • 15. Procedure : Weigh accurately about 0.5 g of potassium hydrogen phthalate in a 100 ml conical flask. Add 25 ml of glacial acetic acid and attach a reflux condenser fitted with a silica-gel drying tube. Warm until the salt gets dissolved completely. Cool and titrate with 0.1 N perchloric acid by making use of either of the following two indicators : (a) acetous crystal violet-2 drops, end point Blue to Blue-Green (0.5% w/v) (a) acetous oracet blue B-2 drops, end point Blue to Pink.
  • 17. Titration of weak Acids by non aqueous titration Preparation of 0.1 N Potassium Methoxide in Toluene-Methanol Materials Required: Absolute methanol : 40 ml ; dry toluene : 50 ml ; potassium metal : 4 g. Procedure: Add into a dry flask, a mixture of methanol (40 ml) and dry toluene (50 ml) and cover it loosely. Carefully add freshly cut pieces of potassium metal to the above mixture gradually with constant shaking. After complete dissolution of potassium metal, add enough absolute methanol to yield a clear solution. Toluene 50 ml is added with constant shaking until the mixture turns hazy in appearance. The process is repeated by the alternate addition of methanol and benzene until 1 litre of solution is obtained, taking care to add a minimum volume of methanol to give a visible clear solution.
  • 18. Preparation of 0.1 N Sodiun Methoxide It is prepared exactly in a similar manner as for 0.1 N Potassium Methoxide, using 2.3 g of freshly-cut sodium in place of potassium.
  • 19. Standardization of 0.1 N Methoxide Solution Materials Required: Dimethylformamide (DMF) : 80 ml ; Thymol blue (0.3% in MeOH) ; benzoic acid : 0.4 g. Procedure : Transfer 80 ml of DMF in a conical flask and add to it 3 to 4 drops of thymolpthalein Quickly introduce 0.4 g of benzoic acid and titrate immediately with Methoxide in toluene methanol.
  • 20. Estimation of Sodium Benzoate Sodium Benzoate : Formula : C7H5NaO2 Mol. Wt. 144.1 Sodium Benzoate contains not less than 99.0 per cent and not more than 100.5 per cent of C7H5NaO2, calculated on the dried basis. Description : A white, crystalline or granular powder or flakes; odourless or with a faint odour; hygroscopic. For the Estimation of Sodium Benzoate : Assay Procedure : Weigh accurately about 0.25 g of Sodium Benzoate, dissolve in 20 ml of anhydrous glacial acetic acid, warming to 50º if necessary, cool. Titrate with 0.1 M perchloric acid, using 0.05 ml of 1-naphtholbenzein solution as indicator. Carry out a blank titration. Equivalent or I.P factor : 1 ml of 0.1 M perchloric acid is equivalent to 0.01441 g of C7H5NaO2. .
  • 21. Estimation of Ephedrine Hydrochloride :- Ephedrine Hydrochloride : Formula : C10H15NO,HCl Mol. Wt. 201.7 Ephedrine Hydrochloride contains not less than 99.0 per cent and not more than 101.0 per cent of C10H15NO,HCl calculated on the dried basis. Description : Colourless crystals or a white, crystalline powder; odourless. It is affected by light. For the Estimation of Ephedrine Hydrochloride : Assay Procedure : Weigh accurately about 0.17 g of Ephedrine Hydrochloride, dissolve in 10 ml of mercuric acetate solution, warming gently, add 50 ml of acetone and mix. Titrate with 0.1 M perchloric acid, using 1 ml of a saturated solution of methyl orange in acetone as indicator, until a red colour is obtained. Carry out a blank titration. Equivalent or I.P factor : 1 ml of 0.1 M perchloric acid is equivalent to 0.02017 g of