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D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Modelling Software
Requirements
–Important diagrams and templates–
Prof. Dr. Dagmar Monett Díaz
Computer Science Dept.
Faculty of Cooperative Studies
Berlin School of Economics and Law
dagmar@monettdiaz.com
Europe Week, 2nd – 6th March 2015
120 Minutes
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Dilbert
 Scott Adams
At http://dilbert.com/strip/2000-02-27/
(Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved)
Oh, my, diagrams…
2
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 3
Main topics
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 4
Main topics
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Why using visual models?
 The Requirements Modelling Language (RML)
- Objectives, People, Systems and Data Models
 The Unified Modelling Language (UML)
- Most used UML diagrams
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 5
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Why using visual models?
 The Requirements Modelling Language (RML)
- Objectives, People, Systems and Data Models
 The Unified Modelling Language (UML)
- Most used UML diagrams
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 6
©
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Visual Models for
Software Requirements
Joy Beatty and Anthony Chen
1st Edition, 480 pp.
Microsoft Press, 2012
ISBN-13: 978-0-7356-6772-3
(See more at
https://www.microsoftpressstore.com/store/vis
ual-models-for-software-requirements-
9780735667723)
7
Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Software Requirements
Karl Wiegers and Joy Beatty
3rd Edition, 672 pp.
Microsoft Press, 2013
ISBN-13: 978-0-7356-7966-5
(See more at
http://aka.ms/SoftwareReq3E/files)
8
Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Software Engineering
Ian Sommerville
9th Edition, 792 pp.
Addison-Wesley, 2010
ISBN-13: 978-0137035151
(10th Edition: April 2015. See more at
http://iansommerville.com/software-
engineering-book/)
9
Sommerville
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 10
The traditional software
development process:
Perceptions, communication patterns
and interests…
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 11Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 12Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 13
Requirements and
Requirements Engineering
– An Overview –
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 14
A requirement is…
According to Wiegers & Beatty:
“[A requirement is a] statement of a
customer need or objective, or of a condition
or capability that a product must possess to
satisfy such a need or objective. A property
that a product must have to provide value to
a stakeholder.”
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Requirements Engineering
Definition according to Wiegers & Beatty:
Requirements engineering is the subdiscipline of
systems engineering and software engineering that
encompasses all project activities associated with
understanding a product's necessary capabilities and
attributes. Includes both requirements development
and requirements management.
15
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 16
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Engineering
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 17
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Engineering
Requirements
Engineering
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 18
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Elicitation
Requirements
Engineering
Analysis Specification Validation
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 19
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Management
Tracking
Requirements
Engineering
Managing Controlling Tracing
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 20
Topics of other related lectures
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 21
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Engineering
Elicitation
Requirements
Engineering
Analysis Specification Validation
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
All are topics of lecture:
“A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 22
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Requirements
Engineering
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation
Topic of lecture
“Requirements Engineering Techniques for Eliciting Requirements”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 23
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Requirements
Engineering
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Elicitation Specification Validation
Topics of lecture
“Requirements Engineering Methods for Documenting Requirements”
Analysis
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 24
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Requirements
Engineering
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation
Topic of (this) lecture
“Modelling Software Requirements. Important diagrams and templates”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 25
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Requirements
Engineering
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation
Topic of lecture
“Methods for Validating and Testing Software Requirements”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 26
A Requirements Development
process framework
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 27
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Elicitation
Requirements
Engineering
Analysis Specification Validation
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
RD process framework
28
Elicitation
Analysis
Specification
Validation
re-evaluate
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
identifying, discovering
evaluating,
verifying
documenting, SRS
classifying,
representing,
deriving,
negotiating
RD: Requirements Development
SRS: Software Requirements Specification
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for details!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 29
A structured approach to
Requirements Development
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 30
A structured approach to RD
(1) Define stakeholders!
 Who is interested in the system?
 Who makes decisions?
 Who are the users, managers, developers, etc.?
In other words, WHO has influence on the software requirements?
(2) Define goals!
 Stakeholders have goals (define coarse goals!)
 These goals can be divided into more specific goals (define granular goals!)
In other words, WHAT should be implemented or achieved?
(3) Define requirements!
 Goals can be derived into concrete requirements
 How to get to the requirements? (goal-based!)
 Model those requirements using diagrams, templates, etc.
In other words, HOW will the goals be achieved?
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 31
A structured approach to RD
Granular goals
CG3
CG2
CG1
Coarse goals
Define
stakeholders
Define
goals
Define
requirements
Diagrams
Templates
Models
WHO
WHAT
HOW
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for details!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 32
Requirements Specification
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
RD process framework
33
Elicitation
Analysis
Specification
Validation
re-evaluate
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
identifying, discovering
evaluating,
verifying
documenting, SRS
classifying,
representing,
deriving,
negotiating
RD: Requirements Development
SRS: Software Requirements Specification
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
RD process framework
34
Elicitation
Analysis
Specification
Validation
re-evaluate
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
identifying, discovering
evaluating,
verifying
documenting, SRS
classifying,
representing,
deriving,
negotiating
RD: Requirements Development
SRS: Software Requirements Specification
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Specification: Definition
35
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Specification
“[Specification is the] process of documenting a
software application's requirements in a
structured, shareable, and manageable form.
Also, the product from this process.”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 36
A structured approach to RD
Granular goals
CG3
CG2
CG1
Coarse goals
Define
stakeholders
Define
goals
Define
requirements
Diagrams
Templates
Models
WHO
WHAT
HOW
classifying,
representing,
deriving,
negotiating
identifying, discovering
documenting, SRS
+
+
evaluating, verifying
+
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 37
Key actions in specification
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Key action
38
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Specification
Translating the collected user needs into written
requirements and diagrams suitable for
comprehension, review, and use by their intended
audiences.
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 39
So far…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Why using visual models?
 The Requirements Modelling Language (RML)
- Objectives, People, Systems and Data Models
 The Unified Modelling Language (UML)
- Most used UML diagrams
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 40
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Why using visual models?
 The Requirements Modelling Language (RML)
- Objectives, People, Systems and Data Models
 The Unified Modelling Language (UML)
- Most used UML diagrams
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 41
Why using visual models?
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 42
Why using visual models?
 A picture is worth a thousand word!
 Communicating certain type of information more efficiently.
 As a means of facilitating discussion about an existing or
proposed system
- Incomplete and incorrect models are OK as their role is to support
discussion.
 As a way of documenting an existing system
- Models should be an accurate representation of the system but need
not be complete.
 As a detailed system description that can be used to generate
a system implementation
- Models have to be both correct and complete.
Acc. to Sommerville
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 43
Requirements Modelling Language
(RML)
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 44
Requirements Modelling
Language
 RML® – to visually model requirements
 RML focuses on specifying needs, rather than
solution designs.
 It looks at a project’s goals and objectives.
 It uses models to break down these objectives into
requirements which are easily understood by both
business stakeholders and developers.
 The RML models can be used as a starting point for
many of the models within UML and SysML.
According to Seilevel @ http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual-models/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 45
RML classification of models
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 46
RML Model categorisation
According to Beatty & Chen
O
P
S
D
OPSD classification of RML models
Objectives of the solution
People who are using the solution
Systems themselves
Data that is being processed
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 47
RML Objectives Models
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 48
RML Objectives Models
According to Beatty & Chen
O
P
S
D
OPSD classification of RML models
Objectives of the solution
“Describe the business
value of the system and
help prioritise features
and requirements based
on their value.”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 49
RML Objectives Models
According to Beatty & Chen
O
P
S
D
 Business Objectives Model
 Objective Chain
 Key Performance Indicator Model
 Feature Tree
 Requirements Mapping Matrix
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 50
Business Objective Model
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Business Objective Model
51
“The Business Objective Model (BOM) is
created to document a project’s value [for the
end users and] for the company creating it.”
According to Beatty & Chen:
(© Seilevel. See more at
http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual-
models/business-objective-model/ )
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 52
BOM Template
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 53
BOM Template
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
Measurable target that
specifies when the
business problem is solved
Vision, product
concept to solve
the business
problem
It measures whether the
business objective or the
solution is successful or not
Issue preventing the
business from
achieving its goals
pair
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 54
BOM Example
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
“Executives at a printer company
evaluate their financial success”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 55
Feature Tree
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Feature Tree
56
“Feature Trees are high-level models organizing
features into feature groups, capturing the entire
scope of a project into a single model. They
show the relationships between features”
According to Beatty & Chen:
(© Seilevel. See more at
http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual-
models/feature-tree/)
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 57
Feature Tree Template
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 58
Feature Tree Template
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
Levels of detail:
highest level features (L1),
mid-level features (L2),
and low-level features (L3)
This is a subfeature
This is a main feature
A “fishbone”
diagram
The product
concept being
developed
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 59
Feature Tree Example
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
“Content access at a training organisation’s portal”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Dilbert
 Scott Adams
At http://dilbert.com/strip/2013-02-25/
(Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved)
Features in teamwork…
60
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 61
RML People Models
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 62
RML People Models
According to Beatty & Chen
O
P
S
D
OPSD classification of RML models
People who are using the solution
“Describe who is using
the system along with
their business processes
and goals.”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 63
RML People Models
According to Beatty & Chen
 Organisation Chart
 Process Flow
 Use Case
 Roles and Permissions Matrix
O
P
S
D
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 64
Organisation Chart
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Organisation Chart
65
“An Org Chart is a collection of boxes
connected by lines with a hierarchical structure.”
According to Beatty & Chen:
(© Seilevel. See more at
http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual-
models/organization-charts/ )
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 66
Organisation Chart Template
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 67
Organisation Chart Template
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
Organizational group name,
role or individual person
Hierarchical reporting relationships
within the organisation
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 68
Organisation Chart Example
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
“Individual Org Chart for an automobile
manufacturing organisation”
VP: Vice-President; IT: Information Technology; QA: Quality-Assurance; BA: Business Analyst
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 69
Use Case template, use case
diagram, and use case scenario
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Use Case
70
“A Use Case is a people model that describes
the interactions between the actors and a
system. The value of a use case is that it helps
users picture themselves executing a task,
allowing them to identify the features that might
be required to support each step.”
According to Beatty & Chen:
(© Seilevel. See more at
http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual-
models/use-cases/ )
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 71
Use Case Template
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 72
Use Case Template
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
Headerfields
Userinteractions
withthesystem
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 73
How to identify actors?
 Who (or what) is notified when something occurs within the
system?
 Who (or what) provides information or services to the
system?
 Who (or what) helps the system respond to and complete a
task?
According to Joy Beatty
Actors:
persons, actual people (stakeholders),
but also another software system,
or a hardware device.
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 74
Sample Use Cases
According to Joy Beatty
Application: Airport check-in kiosk
Check in for a flight
Print boarding passes
Change seats
Check luggage
Purchase an upgrade
Application: Online bookstore
Update customer profile
Search for an item
Buy an item
Track a shipped package
Cancel an unshipped order
<action> + <object>
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 75
Example: Patient information system
Adapted from Ian Sommerville’s book
Register
patient
View
personal info
View
record
Edit
record
Setup
consultation
Export
statistics
Generate
reportMedical
receptionist
Nurse
Manager
Doctor
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 76
Example: Patient information system
Adapted from Ian Sommerville’s book
Register
patient
Unregister
patient
View
personal info
Transfer
data
Contact
patient
Medical
receptionist
Other use cases that involve the Medical receptionist:
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 77
Use case modelling
Adapted from Ian Sommerville’s book
Single use case of the Patient Management System:
Transfer
data
Medical
receptionist
Patient
record system
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Transfer
data
78
Use case modelling
Adapted from Ian Sommerville’s book
Medical
receptionist
Patient
record system
Message pass in both directions
but the Medical receptionist
initiates the transaction
Also used to represent external
systems and hardware (and not
only human interaction)
There are two actors that
interact with the system
This is the task that involves
the external interaction, i.e.,
the use case
Single use case of the Patient Management System:
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 79
Use case modelling
Adapted from Ian Sommerville’s book
Transfer
data
Medical
receptionist
Patient
record system
Name Transfer data
Description A receptionist may transfer data (patient’s personal information,
treatment summary) from the Patient Management System to a
general patient record database.
Actors Medical receptionist, Patient record system.
Frequency of use Every time the patient’s information is updated.
Triggers User command issued by medical receptionist.
… …
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 80
How to identify Use Cases?
 What functions will the actor want from the system?
 Does the system store information?
 Do the actors need to create, update, or delete information?
 Does the system need to notify an actor about changes in an
internal state?
 Are there any external events the system must know about?
 What is the actor’s overall job?
 What problems has the actor had in the past?
 What steps are manual today?
According to Joy Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 81
Use case scenario
 A scenario is “a real-life example of how a system can be
used.”
 …“an instance of a use case” (Wiegers & Beatty).
 …“a single thread through the use case.”
 …a normal flow but also alternative flows and exceptions.
 It should include:
- A description of the starting situation;
- A description of the normal flow of events;
- A description of what can go wrong;
- Information about other concurrent activities;
- A description of the state when the scenario finishes.
According to Ian Sommerville
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 82
Example of usage scenario
“Setup consultation allows two or more doctors, working in
different offices, to view the same record at the same time.
One doctor initiates the consultation by choosing the
people involved from a drop-down menu of doctors who
are on-line. The patient record is then displayed on their
screens but only the initiating doctor can edit the record. In
addition, a text chat window is created to help coordinate
actions. It is assumed that a phone conference for voice
communication will be separately set up.”
According to Ian Sommerville
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 83
Normal and alternative flows
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 3a
Step 3b
Step 3c
(use case preconditions)
(use case postconditions)
(branch condition)
(continuation condition)
Normal flow Alternative flow
Activitydiagram!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 84
How to identify alternatives?
 Is there some other action that can be chosen?
 If X does not happen, then what should happen?
 What if the actor cancels an operation (e.g., closes a
window)?
 What if the actor provides incomplete information?
 What might go wrong at this step?
 What if part of the system goes down or is unavailable?
 Are there any events (or interrupts) that might occur at any
time during the use case?
According to Joy Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 85
Active learning exercise
Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Quiz
86
(Taken from the public Examination Questionnaire Set © IREB,
International Requirements Engineering Board e.V.)
What is not depicted in a use case diagram?
(A) The actors of an application.
(B) The use cases of an application.
(C) An application’s functionality.
(D) The process steps of an application.
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 87
RML Systems Models
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 88
RML Systems Models
According to Beatty & Chen
O
P
S
D
OPSD classification of RML models
Systems themselves
“Describe what systems
exist, what the user
interface looks like, how
the systems interact, and
how they behave.”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 89
RML Systems Models
According to Beatty & Chen
 Ecosystem Map
 System Flow
 User Interface Flow
 Display-Action-Response
 Decision Table
 Decision Tree
 System Interface Table
O
P
S
D
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 90
User Interface Flow
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
User Interface Flow
91
“User Interface Flows show graphically how a
user will navigate a solution’s user interface.
They are system models that show how
different pages (screens) of a user interface
are connected and how a user can step
through various pages of the system
(navigation paths).”
According to Beatty & Chen:
(© Seilevel. See more at
http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual-
models/user-interface-flow/ )
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 92
User Interface Flow Template
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 93
User Interface Flow Template
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
Screens (UI pages)
Directional arrow that
orders the navigation
path between screens
Action
Smaller section to ease
readability when
common functionality
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 94
User Interface Flow Example
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
“UI flow for a trivia system in which users
take quizzes with trivia questions”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 95
Decision Tree
and Decision Table
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Decision Tree
96
“The Decision Tree shows complex logic,
allowing you to analyze a series of decisions. It
is significantly easier to validate the logic
visually in a Decision Tree than by describing
the logic in a list of statements.”
According to Beatty & Chen:
(© Seilevel. See more at
http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual-
models/8386-2/ )
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 97
Decision Tree Template
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 98
Decision Tree Template
Conditions, phrased
as questions
Possible values. Answers to the
questions asked in the decision
Expected outcomes
or behaviours of the
system. The result
of taking a decision
choice pathway
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 99
Decision Tree Example
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
“An insurance company’s process
to determine eligibility for home
insurance policies”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Decision Table
100
“A Decision Table helps you to analyze all the
permutations of complex logic in a
comprehensive way. They are used if there is
no specific order to evaluating the decisions. If
the decisions need to be made in any kind of
order, a Decision Tree should be used instead.”
According to Beatty & Chen:
(© Seilevel. See more at
http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual-
models/8445-2/ )
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 101
Decision Table Example
 It answers the question “Under what conditions will an outcome occur?”
 Or “Given these conditions, what outcome should I choose?”
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 102
Decision Table Example
This decision table shows the same logic as in the Decision Tree Example
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
Irrelevant outcome Outcome applies when
the choices are valid
Combination
of choices
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 103
RML Data Models
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 104
RML Data Models
According to Beatty & Chen
O
P
S
D
OPSD classification of RML models
Data that is being processed
“Describe the relationships
between business data
objects from an end-user
perspective, the life cycle of
the data, and how the data
is used to make decisions.”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 105
RML Data Models
According to Beatty & Chen
 Business Data Diagram
 Data Flow Diagram
 Data Dictionary
 State Table
 State Diagram
 Report Table
O
P
S
D
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 106
Data Flow Diagram
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Data Flow Diagram
107
“A Data Flow Diagram […] shows a visual
representation of the flow of information
through systems, data stores, and actors,
focusing on how data changes or is used
through processes.”
According to Beatty & Chen:
(© Seilevel. See more at
http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual-
models/data-flow-diagrams/ )
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 108
Data Flow Diagram Template
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 109
Data Flow Diagram Template
Internal to and
manipulated
by the system
Data being
placed into
the store
A read
operation
How data
moves, flows
through the
system
Data flow
Processes
communicate
through data
stores
Also
terminator
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 110
Data Flow Diagram Example
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
“How data flows
in an order
placement
system”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 111
State-Transition Diagram
and State Table
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
State Diagram
112
“State Diagrams are data models that show
the changes between states of business data
objects in the system. They show the cycle of
an object’s states, including events that trigger
changes in state. They only show transitions,
triggers, and the flow of the changes.”
According to Beatty & Chen:
(© Seilevel. See more at
http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual-
models/state-diagrams/ )
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 113
State Diagram Template
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 114
State Diagram Template
Final state
Initial state
A possible
system state
Allowed state
change
Event or
condition that
causes a change
or transition
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 115
State Diagram Example
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
“A loan
application
system”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
State Table
116
“A State Table is a data model used to identify
all states and all possible single step changes
between the states for a business data object.
A state describes the stage of a business data
object’s lifecycle. Object’s states must be
unique and the object has to be in one of the
states at all times.”
According to Beatty & Chen:
(© Seilevel. See more at
http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual-
models/state-tables/ )
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 117
State Table Example
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 118
State Table Example
All possible transitions between states in the form of a matrix.
RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 119
So far…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Why using visual models?
 The Requirements Modelling Language (RML)
- Objectives, People, Systems and Data Models
 The Unified Modelling Language (UML)
- Most used UML diagrams
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 120
Active learning exercise
Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Quiz
121
Which RML models apply to the following definition:
“They describe who is using the system along with their
business processes and goals.”?
(A) People models.
(B) System models.
(C) Data models.
(D) Objectives models.
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 122
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Why using visual models?
 The Requirements Modelling Language (RML)
- Objectives, People, Systems and Data Models
 The Unified Modelling Language (UML)
- Most used UML diagrams
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 123
Unified Modelling Language
(UML)
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 124
“The Unified Modelling Language™ - UML - is OMG's
most-used specification, and the way the world models
not only application structure, behaviour, and architecture,
but also business process and data structure.”
OMG is a not-for-profit computer industry specifications consortium
UML® Resource Page: http://www.uml.org/
UML®
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 125
UML®
 Unified Modelling Language.
 The standard object-oriented modelling language.
 Current standard: v. 2.4.1 (August 2011)
 Originally, Unified Method (1995)
 Roots:
- OMT: Object-Modelling Technique (Booch)
- OODA: Object-Oriented Domain Analysis (Rumbaugh)
- OOSE: Object-oriented Software Engineering (Jacobson)
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 126
Most used UML diagrams
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 127
UML®
 Activity diagrams, which show the activities involved in a
process or in data processing.
 Use case diagrams, which show the interactions between a
system and its environment.
 Sequence diagrams, which show interactions between
actors and the system and between system components.
 Class diagrams, which show the object classes in the
system and the associations between these classes.
 State diagrams, which show how the system reacts to
internal and external events.
According to Ian Sommerville
Process model
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 128
Example of activity diagram
Adapted from Booch, Rumbaugh & Jacobson
set up
order
assign
seats
[single order]
[subscription]
assign
seats
debit
account
award
bonus
mail
packet
charge
credit card
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 129
Example of activity diagram
Adapted from Booch, Rumbaugh & Jacobson
set up
order
end of activity, completion
activity node
(action)
decision (branch)
assign
seats
[single order]
[subscription]
guard condition
synchronisation bar
(concurrent fork)
initiation
assign
seats
debit
account
award
bonus
mail
packet
charge
credit card
alternative threads
concurrent
threads
synchronisation bar
(concurrent join)
merge (unbranch)
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 130
UML®
 Activity diagrams, which show the activities involved in a
process or in data processing.
 Use case diagrams, which show the interactions between a
system and its environment.
 Sequence diagrams, which show interactions between
actors and the system and between system components.
 Class diagrams, which show the object classes in the
system and the associations between these classes.
 State diagrams, which show how the system reacts to
internal and external events.
According to Ian Sommerville
Interaction model
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 131
UML®
 Activity diagrams, which show the activities involved in a
process or in data processing.
 Use case diagrams, which show the interactions between a
system and its environment.
 Sequence diagrams, which show interactions between
actors and the system and between system components.
 Class diagrams, which show the object classes in the
system and the associations between these classes.
 State diagrams, which show how the system reacts to
internal and external events.
According to Ian Sommerville
Interaction model
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 132
Example of sequence diagram
Adapted from Booch, Rumbaugh & Jacobson
:Kiosk ticketServer:Server :CreditService
insertCard(customer)
pickDate(date)
offer(seatChoice)
select(seats)
submit(order) charge(customer,
amount)
authorise
ok
print(order)
sd BuyTickets
destroy()
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 133
Example of sequence diagram
Adapted from Booch, Rumbaugh & Jacobson
:Kiosk ticketServer:Server :CreditService
insertCard(customer)
pickDate(date)
offer(seatChoice)
select(seats)
submit(order) charge(customer,
amount)
authorise
ok
print(order)
return message,
dotted line
lifeline
time
sd BuyTickets
anonymous objectobject instance
execution
specification
parameter
synchronous
message
destroy()
asynchronous
message
outside
environment
object
destruction
externalmessage
point(gate)
name
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 134
UML®
 Activity diagrams, which show the activities involved in a
process or in data processing.
 Use case diagrams, which show the interactions between a
system and its environment.
 Sequence diagrams, which show interactions between
actors and the system and between system components.
 Class diagrams, which show the object classes in the
system and the associations between these classes.
 State diagrams, which show how the system reacts to
internal and external events.
According to Ian Sommerville
Structural model
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 135
UML®
 Activity diagrams, which show the activities involved in a
process or in data processing.
 Use case diagrams, which show the interactions between a
system and its environment.
 Sequence diagrams, which show interactions between
actors and the system and between system components.
 Class diagrams, which show the object classes in the
system and the associations between these classes.
 State diagrams, which show how the system reacts to
internal and external events.
According to Ian Sommerville
Event-driven model
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 136
Example of state diagram
Adapted from Booch, Rumbaugh & Jacobson
set
Idle
Confirming
Selling
entry / sell ()
identifyUser: Identifying
Selecting
pick(seat) / add to selection (seat)
Purchasing
exit / eject card
insert card
push “cancel”
push “resume” push “buy”
push “confirm”
/ reset selection
fail
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 137
Example of state diagram
Adapted from Booch, Rumbaugh & Jacobson
set
Idle
Confirming
Selling
entry / sell ()
identifyUser: Identifying
Selecting
pick(seat) / add to selection (seat)
Purchasing
exit / eject card
insert card
push “cancel”
push “resume” push “buy”
push “confirm”
/ reset selection
failinitial
state
internal
transition
final
state
explicit
exit
normal
exit
event
entry
activity
completion
transition
completion
transition
parameter
event
outer
transition
aborts
internal
activity
simple state
action
composite
state
transition
submachine state reference
exit point
exit
activity
state name
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 138
So far…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Why using visual models?
 The Requirements Modelling Language (RML)
- Objectives, People, Systems and Data Models
 The Unified Modelling Language (UML)
- Most used UML diagrams
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 139
Active learning exercise
Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Quiz
140
(Adapted from the public Examination Questionnaire Set © IREB,
International Requirements Engineering Board e.V.)
The management of a company hires a software engineer (you) to
specify and develop a new e-commerce system. During initial
discussions with different representatives of the customer you find the
following: your main contact person described her ideas by telling you
the expected interactions between specialists and the e-commerce
system in the form of different flows of user actions and system
reactions. Which approach is particularly well suited to elicit and
document the requirements in this case?
(A) Creating an organisation model.
(B) Creating a use case diagram and documenting the use cases.
(C) Creating a data flow model.
(D) Creating a features tree.
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 141
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Why using visual models?
 The Requirements Modelling Language (RML)
- Objectives, People, Systems and Data Models
 The Unified Modelling Language (UML)
- Most used UML diagrams
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 142
To take away…
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 143
Why using visual models?
 A picture is worth a thousand word!
 Communicating certain type of information more efficiently.
 As a means of facilitating discussion about an existing or
proposed system
- Incomplete and incorrect models are OK as their role is to support
discussion.
 As a way of documenting an existing system
- Models should be an accurate representation of the system but need
not be complete.
 As a detailed system description that can be used to generate
a system implementation
- Models have to be both correct and complete.
Acc. to Sommerville
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 144
RML Model categorisation
According to Beatty & Chen
O
P
S
D
OPSD classification of RML models
Objectives of the solution
People who are using the solution
Systems themselves
Data that is being processed
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 145
Use case modelling
Adapted from Ian Sommerville’s book
Transfer
data
Medical
receptionist
Patient
record system
Name Transfer data
Description A receptionist may transfer data (patient’s personal information,
treatment summary) from the Patient Management System to a
general patient record database.
Actors Medical receptionist, Patient record system.
Frequency of use Every time the patient’s information is updated.
Triggers User command issued by medical receptionist.
… …
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 146
What comes next?
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 147
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Requirements
Engineering
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation
Topic of lecture
“Methods for Validating and Testing Software Requirements”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
RD process framework
148
Elicitation
Analysis
Specification
Validation
re-evaluate
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
identifying, discovering
evaluating,
verifying
documenting, SRS
classifying,
representing,
deriving,
negotiating
RD: Requirements Development
SRS: Software Requirements Specification
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 149
A structured approach to RD
Granular goals
CG3
CG2
CG1
Coarse goals
Define
stakeholders
Define
goals
Define
requirements
Diagrams
Templates
Models
WHO
WHAT
HOW
classifying,
representing,
deriving,
negotiating
identifying, discovering
documenting, SRS
+
+
evaluating, verifying
+
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 150
Other references
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Booch, Rumbaugh & Jacobson
151
The Unified Modeling
Language User Guide
Grady Booch, James Rumbaugh
and Ivar Jacobson
2nd Edition, 496 pp.
Addison-Wesley Professional, 2005
ISBN-13: 978-0321267979
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Rumbaugh, Jacobson & Booch
152
The Unified Modeling
Language Reference Manual
James Rumbaugh, Ivar Jacobson
and Grady Booch
2nd Edition, 721 pp.
Addison-Wesley Professional, 2004
ISBN-13: 978-0321718952
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Cockburn
153
Writing Effective Use Cases
Alistair Cockburn
1st Edition, 304 pp.
Addison-Wesley Professional, 2000
ISBN-13: 978-0201702255
(See http://alistair.cockburn.us/get/2465)
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Bittner & Spence
154
Use Case Modeling
Kurt Bittner, Ian Spence
1st Edition, 368 pp.
Addison-Wesley Professional, 2002
ISBN-13: 978-0201709131
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Requirements-Engineering
und -Management: Aus der
Praxis von klassisch bis agil
Chris Rupp & die SOPHISTen
6th Edition, 570 pp.
Carl Hanser Verlag München, 2014
ISBN-13: 978-3-446-43893-4
In German
(Chapters and related topics in English are
available for free at https://www.sophist.de/)
155
Rupp & The SOPHISTs
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Further reading
 IREB - International Requirements Engineering
Board e.V.
http://www.ireb.org/en/service/downloads.html
156
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Conference sites…
 21st International Working Conference on
Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software
Quality (REFSQ 2015), Essen, Germany
http://refsq.org/2015/
157
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Conference sites…
 23rd IEEE International Requirements Engineering
Conference (RE’15), Ottawa, Canada
http://re15.org/
158
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 159
Homework:
“Model software requirements
of your current course projects
using visual models from RML !”
Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 160
The traditional software
development process:
Perceptions, communication patterns
and interests…
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 161Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 162
The ideal, perfect, still possible
software development process:
Perceptions, communication patterns
and interests…
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 163Adapted from cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 164
Done!
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Why using visual models?
 The Requirements Modelling Language (RML)
- Objectives, People, Systems and Data Models
 The Unified Modelling Language (UML)
- Most used UML diagrams
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Modelling Software
Requirements
–Important diagrams and templates–
Prof. Dr. Dagmar Monett Díaz
Computer Science Dept.
Faculty of Cooperative Studies
Berlin School of Economics and Law
dagmar@monettdiaz.com
Europe Week, 2nd – 6th March 2015
monettdiaz@dmonett

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Modelling Software Requirements: Important diagrams and templates (lecture slides)

  • 1. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Modelling Software Requirements –Important diagrams and templates– Prof. Dr. Dagmar Monett Díaz Computer Science Dept. Faculty of Cooperative Studies Berlin School of Economics and Law dagmar@monettdiaz.com Europe Week, 2nd – 6th March 2015 120 Minutes
  • 2. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Dilbert  Scott Adams At http://dilbert.com/strip/2000-02-27/ (Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved) Oh, my, diagrams… 2
  • 3. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 3 Main topics
  • 4. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 4 Main topics  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Why using visual models?  The Requirements Modelling Language (RML) - Objectives, People, Systems and Data Models  The Unified Modelling Language (UML) - Most used UML diagrams  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 5. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 5 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Why using visual models?  The Requirements Modelling Language (RML) - Objectives, People, Systems and Data Models  The Unified Modelling Language (UML) - Most used UML diagrams  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 6. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 6 ©
  • 7. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Visual Models for Software Requirements Joy Beatty and Anthony Chen 1st Edition, 480 pp. Microsoft Press, 2012 ISBN-13: 978-0-7356-6772-3 (See more at https://www.microsoftpressstore.com/store/vis ual-models-for-software-requirements- 9780735667723) 7 Wiegers & Beatty
  • 8. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Software Requirements Karl Wiegers and Joy Beatty 3rd Edition, 672 pp. Microsoft Press, 2013 ISBN-13: 978-0-7356-7966-5 (See more at http://aka.ms/SoftwareReq3E/files) 8 Wiegers & Beatty
  • 9. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Software Engineering Ian Sommerville 9th Edition, 792 pp. Addison-Wesley, 2010 ISBN-13: 978-0137035151 (10th Edition: April 2015. See more at http://iansommerville.com/software- engineering-book/) 9 Sommerville
  • 10. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 10 The traditional software development process: Perceptions, communication patterns and interests…
  • 11. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 11Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
  • 12. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 12Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
  • 13. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 13 Requirements and Requirements Engineering – An Overview –
  • 14. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 14 A requirement is… According to Wiegers & Beatty: “[A requirement is a] statement of a customer need or objective, or of a condition or capability that a product must possess to satisfy such a need or objective. A property that a product must have to provide value to a stakeholder.” See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  • 15. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Requirements Engineering Definition according to Wiegers & Beatty: Requirements engineering is the subdiscipline of systems engineering and software engineering that encompasses all project activities associated with understanding a product's necessary capabilities and attributes. Includes both requirements development and requirements management. 15 See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  • 16. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 16 Subdisciplines of Requirements Engineering
  • 17. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 17 Subdisciplines of Requirements Engineering Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  • 18. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 18 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Elicitation Requirements Engineering Analysis Specification Validation Requirements Development Requirements Management Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  • 19. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 19 Subdisciplines of Requirements Management Tracking Requirements Engineering Managing Controlling Tracing Requirements Development Requirements Management Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  • 20. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 20 Topics of other related lectures
  • 21. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 21 Subdisciplines of Requirements Engineering Elicitation Requirements Engineering Analysis Specification Validation Requirements Development Requirements Management All are topics of lecture: “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis”
  • 22. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 22 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation Topic of lecture “Requirements Engineering Techniques for Eliciting Requirements”
  • 23. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 23 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Elicitation Specification Validation Topics of lecture “Requirements Engineering Methods for Documenting Requirements” Analysis
  • 24. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 24 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation Topic of (this) lecture “Modelling Software Requirements. Important diagrams and templates”
  • 25. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 25 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation Topic of lecture “Methods for Validating and Testing Software Requirements”
  • 26. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 26 A Requirements Development process framework
  • 27. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 27 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Elicitation Requirements Engineering Analysis Specification Validation Requirements Development Requirements Management Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 28. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield RD process framework 28 Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation re-evaluate Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty identifying, discovering evaluating, verifying documenting, SRS classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating RD: Requirements Development SRS: Software Requirements Specification See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for details!
  • 29. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 29 A structured approach to Requirements Development
  • 30. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 30 A structured approach to RD (1) Define stakeholders!  Who is interested in the system?  Who makes decisions?  Who are the users, managers, developers, etc.? In other words, WHO has influence on the software requirements? (2) Define goals!  Stakeholders have goals (define coarse goals!)  These goals can be divided into more specific goals (define granular goals!) In other words, WHAT should be implemented or achieved? (3) Define requirements!  Goals can be derived into concrete requirements  How to get to the requirements? (goal-based!)  Model those requirements using diagrams, templates, etc. In other words, HOW will the goals be achieved?
  • 31. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 31 A structured approach to RD Granular goals CG3 CG2 CG1 Coarse goals Define stakeholders Define goals Define requirements Diagrams Templates Models WHO WHAT HOW See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for details!
  • 32. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 32 Requirements Specification
  • 33. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield RD process framework 33 Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation re-evaluate Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty identifying, discovering evaluating, verifying documenting, SRS classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating RD: Requirements Development SRS: Software Requirements Specification
  • 34. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield RD process framework 34 Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation re-evaluate Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty identifying, discovering evaluating, verifying documenting, SRS classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating RD: Requirements Development SRS: Software Requirements Specification
  • 35. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Specification: Definition 35 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Specification “[Specification is the] process of documenting a software application's requirements in a structured, shareable, and manageable form. Also, the product from this process.”
  • 36. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 36 A structured approach to RD Granular goals CG3 CG2 CG1 Coarse goals Define stakeholders Define goals Define requirements Diagrams Templates Models WHO WHAT HOW classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating identifying, discovering documenting, SRS + + evaluating, verifying +
  • 37. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 37 Key actions in specification
  • 38. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Key action 38 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Specification Translating the collected user needs into written requirements and diagrams suitable for comprehension, review, and use by their intended audiences.
  • 39. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 39 So far…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Why using visual models?  The Requirements Modelling Language (RML) - Objectives, People, Systems and Data Models  The Unified Modelling Language (UML) - Most used UML diagrams  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 40. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 40 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Why using visual models?  The Requirements Modelling Language (RML) - Objectives, People, Systems and Data Models  The Unified Modelling Language (UML) - Most used UML diagrams  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 41. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 41 Why using visual models?
  • 42. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 42 Why using visual models?  A picture is worth a thousand word!  Communicating certain type of information more efficiently.  As a means of facilitating discussion about an existing or proposed system - Incomplete and incorrect models are OK as their role is to support discussion.  As a way of documenting an existing system - Models should be an accurate representation of the system but need not be complete.  As a detailed system description that can be used to generate a system implementation - Models have to be both correct and complete. Acc. to Sommerville
  • 43. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 43 Requirements Modelling Language (RML)
  • 44. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 44 Requirements Modelling Language  RML® – to visually model requirements  RML focuses on specifying needs, rather than solution designs.  It looks at a project’s goals and objectives.  It uses models to break down these objectives into requirements which are easily understood by both business stakeholders and developers.  The RML models can be used as a starting point for many of the models within UML and SysML. According to Seilevel @ http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual-models/
  • 45. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 45 RML classification of models
  • 46. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 46 RML Model categorisation According to Beatty & Chen O P S D OPSD classification of RML models Objectives of the solution People who are using the solution Systems themselves Data that is being processed
  • 47. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 47 RML Objectives Models
  • 48. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 48 RML Objectives Models According to Beatty & Chen O P S D OPSD classification of RML models Objectives of the solution “Describe the business value of the system and help prioritise features and requirements based on their value.”
  • 49. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 49 RML Objectives Models According to Beatty & Chen O P S D  Business Objectives Model  Objective Chain  Key Performance Indicator Model  Feature Tree  Requirements Mapping Matrix
  • 50. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 50 Business Objective Model
  • 51. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Business Objective Model 51 “The Business Objective Model (BOM) is created to document a project’s value [for the end users and] for the company creating it.” According to Beatty & Chen: (© Seilevel. See more at http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual- models/business-objective-model/ )
  • 52. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 52 BOM Template RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
  • 53. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 53 BOM Template RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/ Measurable target that specifies when the business problem is solved Vision, product concept to solve the business problem It measures whether the business objective or the solution is successful or not Issue preventing the business from achieving its goals pair
  • 54. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 54 BOM Example RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/ “Executives at a printer company evaluate their financial success”
  • 55. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 55 Feature Tree
  • 56. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Feature Tree 56 “Feature Trees are high-level models organizing features into feature groups, capturing the entire scope of a project into a single model. They show the relationships between features” According to Beatty & Chen: (© Seilevel. See more at http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual- models/feature-tree/)
  • 57. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 57 Feature Tree Template RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
  • 58. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 58 Feature Tree Template RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/ Levels of detail: highest level features (L1), mid-level features (L2), and low-level features (L3) This is a subfeature This is a main feature A “fishbone” diagram The product concept being developed
  • 59. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 59 Feature Tree Example RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/ “Content access at a training organisation’s portal”
  • 60. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Dilbert  Scott Adams At http://dilbert.com/strip/2013-02-25/ (Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved) Features in teamwork… 60
  • 61. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 61 RML People Models
  • 62. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 62 RML People Models According to Beatty & Chen O P S D OPSD classification of RML models People who are using the solution “Describe who is using the system along with their business processes and goals.”
  • 63. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 63 RML People Models According to Beatty & Chen  Organisation Chart  Process Flow  Use Case  Roles and Permissions Matrix O P S D
  • 64. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 64 Organisation Chart
  • 65. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Organisation Chart 65 “An Org Chart is a collection of boxes connected by lines with a hierarchical structure.” According to Beatty & Chen: (© Seilevel. See more at http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual- models/organization-charts/ )
  • 66. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 66 Organisation Chart Template RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
  • 67. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 67 Organisation Chart Template RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/ Organizational group name, role or individual person Hierarchical reporting relationships within the organisation
  • 68. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 68 Organisation Chart Example RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/ “Individual Org Chart for an automobile manufacturing organisation” VP: Vice-President; IT: Information Technology; QA: Quality-Assurance; BA: Business Analyst
  • 69. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 69 Use Case template, use case diagram, and use case scenario
  • 70. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Use Case 70 “A Use Case is a people model that describes the interactions between the actors and a system. The value of a use case is that it helps users picture themselves executing a task, allowing them to identify the features that might be required to support each step.” According to Beatty & Chen: (© Seilevel. See more at http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual- models/use-cases/ )
  • 71. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 71 Use Case Template RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
  • 72. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 72 Use Case Template RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/ Headerfields Userinteractions withthesystem
  • 73. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 73 How to identify actors?  Who (or what) is notified when something occurs within the system?  Who (or what) provides information or services to the system?  Who (or what) helps the system respond to and complete a task? According to Joy Beatty Actors: persons, actual people (stakeholders), but also another software system, or a hardware device.
  • 74. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 74 Sample Use Cases According to Joy Beatty Application: Airport check-in kiosk Check in for a flight Print boarding passes Change seats Check luggage Purchase an upgrade Application: Online bookstore Update customer profile Search for an item Buy an item Track a shipped package Cancel an unshipped order <action> + <object>
  • 75. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 75 Example: Patient information system Adapted from Ian Sommerville’s book Register patient View personal info View record Edit record Setup consultation Export statistics Generate reportMedical receptionist Nurse Manager Doctor
  • 76. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 76 Example: Patient information system Adapted from Ian Sommerville’s book Register patient Unregister patient View personal info Transfer data Contact patient Medical receptionist Other use cases that involve the Medical receptionist:
  • 77. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 77 Use case modelling Adapted from Ian Sommerville’s book Single use case of the Patient Management System: Transfer data Medical receptionist Patient record system
  • 78. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Transfer data 78 Use case modelling Adapted from Ian Sommerville’s book Medical receptionist Patient record system Message pass in both directions but the Medical receptionist initiates the transaction Also used to represent external systems and hardware (and not only human interaction) There are two actors that interact with the system This is the task that involves the external interaction, i.e., the use case Single use case of the Patient Management System:
  • 79. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 79 Use case modelling Adapted from Ian Sommerville’s book Transfer data Medical receptionist Patient record system Name Transfer data Description A receptionist may transfer data (patient’s personal information, treatment summary) from the Patient Management System to a general patient record database. Actors Medical receptionist, Patient record system. Frequency of use Every time the patient’s information is updated. Triggers User command issued by medical receptionist. … …
  • 80. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 80 How to identify Use Cases?  What functions will the actor want from the system?  Does the system store information?  Do the actors need to create, update, or delete information?  Does the system need to notify an actor about changes in an internal state?  Are there any external events the system must know about?  What is the actor’s overall job?  What problems has the actor had in the past?  What steps are manual today? According to Joy Beatty
  • 81. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 81 Use case scenario  A scenario is “a real-life example of how a system can be used.”  …“an instance of a use case” (Wiegers & Beatty).  …“a single thread through the use case.”  …a normal flow but also alternative flows and exceptions.  It should include: - A description of the starting situation; - A description of the normal flow of events; - A description of what can go wrong; - Information about other concurrent activities; - A description of the state when the scenario finishes. According to Ian Sommerville
  • 82. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 82 Example of usage scenario “Setup consultation allows two or more doctors, working in different offices, to view the same record at the same time. One doctor initiates the consultation by choosing the people involved from a drop-down menu of doctors who are on-line. The patient record is then displayed on their screens but only the initiating doctor can edit the record. In addition, a text chat window is created to help coordinate actions. It is assumed that a phone conference for voice communication will be separately set up.” According to Ian Sommerville
  • 83. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 83 Normal and alternative flows Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 3a Step 3b Step 3c (use case preconditions) (use case postconditions) (branch condition) (continuation condition) Normal flow Alternative flow Activitydiagram!
  • 84. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 84 How to identify alternatives?  Is there some other action that can be chosen?  If X does not happen, then what should happen?  What if the actor cancels an operation (e.g., closes a window)?  What if the actor provides incomplete information?  What might go wrong at this step?  What if part of the system goes down or is unavailable?  Are there any events (or interrupts) that might occur at any time during the use case? According to Joy Beatty
  • 85. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 85 Active learning exercise Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  • 86. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Quiz 86 (Taken from the public Examination Questionnaire Set © IREB, International Requirements Engineering Board e.V.) What is not depicted in a use case diagram? (A) The actors of an application. (B) The use cases of an application. (C) An application’s functionality. (D) The process steps of an application.
  • 87. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 87 RML Systems Models
  • 88. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 88 RML Systems Models According to Beatty & Chen O P S D OPSD classification of RML models Systems themselves “Describe what systems exist, what the user interface looks like, how the systems interact, and how they behave.”
  • 89. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 89 RML Systems Models According to Beatty & Chen  Ecosystem Map  System Flow  User Interface Flow  Display-Action-Response  Decision Table  Decision Tree  System Interface Table O P S D
  • 90. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 90 User Interface Flow
  • 91. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield User Interface Flow 91 “User Interface Flows show graphically how a user will navigate a solution’s user interface. They are system models that show how different pages (screens) of a user interface are connected and how a user can step through various pages of the system (navigation paths).” According to Beatty & Chen: (© Seilevel. See more at http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual- models/user-interface-flow/ )
  • 92. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 92 User Interface Flow Template RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
  • 93. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 93 User Interface Flow Template RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/ Screens (UI pages) Directional arrow that orders the navigation path between screens Action Smaller section to ease readability when common functionality
  • 94. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 94 User Interface Flow Example RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/ “UI flow for a trivia system in which users take quizzes with trivia questions”
  • 95. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 95 Decision Tree and Decision Table
  • 96. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Decision Tree 96 “The Decision Tree shows complex logic, allowing you to analyze a series of decisions. It is significantly easier to validate the logic visually in a Decision Tree than by describing the logic in a list of statements.” According to Beatty & Chen: (© Seilevel. See more at http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual- models/8386-2/ )
  • 97. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 97 Decision Tree Template RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
  • 98. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 98 Decision Tree Template Conditions, phrased as questions Possible values. Answers to the questions asked in the decision Expected outcomes or behaviours of the system. The result of taking a decision choice pathway RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
  • 99. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 99 Decision Tree Example RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/ “An insurance company’s process to determine eligibility for home insurance policies”
  • 100. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Decision Table 100 “A Decision Table helps you to analyze all the permutations of complex logic in a comprehensive way. They are used if there is no specific order to evaluating the decisions. If the decisions need to be made in any kind of order, a Decision Tree should be used instead.” According to Beatty & Chen: (© Seilevel. See more at http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual- models/8445-2/ )
  • 101. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 101 Decision Table Example  It answers the question “Under what conditions will an outcome occur?”  Or “Given these conditions, what outcome should I choose?” RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
  • 102. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 102 Decision Table Example This decision table shows the same logic as in the Decision Tree Example RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/ Irrelevant outcome Outcome applies when the choices are valid Combination of choices
  • 103. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 103 RML Data Models
  • 104. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 104 RML Data Models According to Beatty & Chen O P S D OPSD classification of RML models Data that is being processed “Describe the relationships between business data objects from an end-user perspective, the life cycle of the data, and how the data is used to make decisions.”
  • 105. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 105 RML Data Models According to Beatty & Chen  Business Data Diagram  Data Flow Diagram  Data Dictionary  State Table  State Diagram  Report Table O P S D
  • 106. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 106 Data Flow Diagram
  • 107. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Data Flow Diagram 107 “A Data Flow Diagram […] shows a visual representation of the flow of information through systems, data stores, and actors, focusing on how data changes or is used through processes.” According to Beatty & Chen: (© Seilevel. See more at http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual- models/data-flow-diagrams/ )
  • 108. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 108 Data Flow Diagram Template RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
  • 109. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 109 Data Flow Diagram Template Internal to and manipulated by the system Data being placed into the store A read operation How data moves, flows through the system Data flow Processes communicate through data stores Also terminator RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
  • 110. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 110 Data Flow Diagram Example RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/ “How data flows in an order placement system”
  • 111. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 111 State-Transition Diagram and State Table
  • 112. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield State Diagram 112 “State Diagrams are data models that show the changes between states of business data objects in the system. They show the cycle of an object’s states, including events that trigger changes in state. They only show transitions, triggers, and the flow of the changes.” According to Beatty & Chen: (© Seilevel. See more at http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual- models/state-diagrams/ )
  • 113. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 113 State Diagram Template RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
  • 114. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 114 State Diagram Template Final state Initial state A possible system state Allowed state change Event or condition that causes a change or transition RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
  • 115. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 115 State Diagram Example RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/ “A loan application system”
  • 116. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield State Table 116 “A State Table is a data model used to identify all states and all possible single step changes between the states for a business data object. A state describes the stage of a business data object’s lifecycle. Object’s states must be unique and the object has to be in one of the states at all times.” According to Beatty & Chen: (© Seilevel. See more at http://www.seilevel.com/ba-resources/rml-requirements-visual- models/state-tables/ )
  • 117. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 117 State Table Example RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
  • 118. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 118 State Table Example All possible transitions between states in the form of a matrix. RML® model created by Seilevel http://www.seilevel.com/
  • 119. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 119 So far…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Why using visual models?  The Requirements Modelling Language (RML) - Objectives, People, Systems and Data Models  The Unified Modelling Language (UML) - Most used UML diagrams  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 120. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 120 Active learning exercise Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  • 121. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Quiz 121 Which RML models apply to the following definition: “They describe who is using the system along with their business processes and goals.”? (A) People models. (B) System models. (C) Data models. (D) Objectives models.
  • 122. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 122 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Why using visual models?  The Requirements Modelling Language (RML) - Objectives, People, Systems and Data Models  The Unified Modelling Language (UML) - Most used UML diagrams  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 123. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 123 Unified Modelling Language (UML)
  • 124. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 124 “The Unified Modelling Language™ - UML - is OMG's most-used specification, and the way the world models not only application structure, behaviour, and architecture, but also business process and data structure.” OMG is a not-for-profit computer industry specifications consortium UML® Resource Page: http://www.uml.org/ UML®
  • 125. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 125 UML®  Unified Modelling Language.  The standard object-oriented modelling language.  Current standard: v. 2.4.1 (August 2011)  Originally, Unified Method (1995)  Roots: - OMT: Object-Modelling Technique (Booch) - OODA: Object-Oriented Domain Analysis (Rumbaugh) - OOSE: Object-oriented Software Engineering (Jacobson)
  • 126. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 126 Most used UML diagrams
  • 127. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 127 UML®  Activity diagrams, which show the activities involved in a process or in data processing.  Use case diagrams, which show the interactions between a system and its environment.  Sequence diagrams, which show interactions between actors and the system and between system components.  Class diagrams, which show the object classes in the system and the associations between these classes.  State diagrams, which show how the system reacts to internal and external events. According to Ian Sommerville Process model
  • 128. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 128 Example of activity diagram Adapted from Booch, Rumbaugh & Jacobson set up order assign seats [single order] [subscription] assign seats debit account award bonus mail packet charge credit card
  • 129. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 129 Example of activity diagram Adapted from Booch, Rumbaugh & Jacobson set up order end of activity, completion activity node (action) decision (branch) assign seats [single order] [subscription] guard condition synchronisation bar (concurrent fork) initiation assign seats debit account award bonus mail packet charge credit card alternative threads concurrent threads synchronisation bar (concurrent join) merge (unbranch)
  • 130. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 130 UML®  Activity diagrams, which show the activities involved in a process or in data processing.  Use case diagrams, which show the interactions between a system and its environment.  Sequence diagrams, which show interactions between actors and the system and between system components.  Class diagrams, which show the object classes in the system and the associations between these classes.  State diagrams, which show how the system reacts to internal and external events. According to Ian Sommerville Interaction model
  • 131. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 131 UML®  Activity diagrams, which show the activities involved in a process or in data processing.  Use case diagrams, which show the interactions between a system and its environment.  Sequence diagrams, which show interactions between actors and the system and between system components.  Class diagrams, which show the object classes in the system and the associations between these classes.  State diagrams, which show how the system reacts to internal and external events. According to Ian Sommerville Interaction model
  • 132. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 132 Example of sequence diagram Adapted from Booch, Rumbaugh & Jacobson :Kiosk ticketServer:Server :CreditService insertCard(customer) pickDate(date) offer(seatChoice) select(seats) submit(order) charge(customer, amount) authorise ok print(order) sd BuyTickets destroy()
  • 133. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 133 Example of sequence diagram Adapted from Booch, Rumbaugh & Jacobson :Kiosk ticketServer:Server :CreditService insertCard(customer) pickDate(date) offer(seatChoice) select(seats) submit(order) charge(customer, amount) authorise ok print(order) return message, dotted line lifeline time sd BuyTickets anonymous objectobject instance execution specification parameter synchronous message destroy() asynchronous message outside environment object destruction externalmessage point(gate) name
  • 134. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 134 UML®  Activity diagrams, which show the activities involved in a process or in data processing.  Use case diagrams, which show the interactions between a system and its environment.  Sequence diagrams, which show interactions between actors and the system and between system components.  Class diagrams, which show the object classes in the system and the associations between these classes.  State diagrams, which show how the system reacts to internal and external events. According to Ian Sommerville Structural model
  • 135. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 135 UML®  Activity diagrams, which show the activities involved in a process or in data processing.  Use case diagrams, which show the interactions between a system and its environment.  Sequence diagrams, which show interactions between actors and the system and between system components.  Class diagrams, which show the object classes in the system and the associations between these classes.  State diagrams, which show how the system reacts to internal and external events. According to Ian Sommerville Event-driven model
  • 136. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 136 Example of state diagram Adapted from Booch, Rumbaugh & Jacobson set Idle Confirming Selling entry / sell () identifyUser: Identifying Selecting pick(seat) / add to selection (seat) Purchasing exit / eject card insert card push “cancel” push “resume” push “buy” push “confirm” / reset selection fail
  • 137. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 137 Example of state diagram Adapted from Booch, Rumbaugh & Jacobson set Idle Confirming Selling entry / sell () identifyUser: Identifying Selecting pick(seat) / add to selection (seat) Purchasing exit / eject card insert card push “cancel” push “resume” push “buy” push “confirm” / reset selection failinitial state internal transition final state explicit exit normal exit event entry activity completion transition completion transition parameter event outer transition aborts internal activity simple state action composite state transition submachine state reference exit point exit activity state name
  • 138. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 138 So far…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Why using visual models?  The Requirements Modelling Language (RML) - Objectives, People, Systems and Data Models  The Unified Modelling Language (UML) - Most used UML diagrams  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 139. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 139 Active learning exercise Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  • 140. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Quiz 140 (Adapted from the public Examination Questionnaire Set © IREB, International Requirements Engineering Board e.V.) The management of a company hires a software engineer (you) to specify and develop a new e-commerce system. During initial discussions with different representatives of the customer you find the following: your main contact person described her ideas by telling you the expected interactions between specialists and the e-commerce system in the form of different flows of user actions and system reactions. Which approach is particularly well suited to elicit and document the requirements in this case? (A) Creating an organisation model. (B) Creating a use case diagram and documenting the use cases. (C) Creating a data flow model. (D) Creating a features tree.
  • 141. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 141 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Why using visual models?  The Requirements Modelling Language (RML) - Objectives, People, Systems and Data Models  The Unified Modelling Language (UML) - Most used UML diagrams  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 142. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 142 To take away…
  • 143. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 143 Why using visual models?  A picture is worth a thousand word!  Communicating certain type of information more efficiently.  As a means of facilitating discussion about an existing or proposed system - Incomplete and incorrect models are OK as their role is to support discussion.  As a way of documenting an existing system - Models should be an accurate representation of the system but need not be complete.  As a detailed system description that can be used to generate a system implementation - Models have to be both correct and complete. Acc. to Sommerville
  • 144. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 144 RML Model categorisation According to Beatty & Chen O P S D OPSD classification of RML models Objectives of the solution People who are using the solution Systems themselves Data that is being processed
  • 145. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 145 Use case modelling Adapted from Ian Sommerville’s book Transfer data Medical receptionist Patient record system Name Transfer data Description A receptionist may transfer data (patient’s personal information, treatment summary) from the Patient Management System to a general patient record database. Actors Medical receptionist, Patient record system. Frequency of use Every time the patient’s information is updated. Triggers User command issued by medical receptionist. … …
  • 146. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 146 What comes next?
  • 147. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 147 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation Topic of lecture “Methods for Validating and Testing Software Requirements”
  • 148. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield RD process framework 148 Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation re-evaluate Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty identifying, discovering evaluating, verifying documenting, SRS classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating RD: Requirements Development SRS: Software Requirements Specification
  • 149. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 149 A structured approach to RD Granular goals CG3 CG2 CG1 Coarse goals Define stakeholders Define goals Define requirements Diagrams Templates Models WHO WHAT HOW classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating identifying, discovering documenting, SRS + + evaluating, verifying +
  • 150. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 150 Other references
  • 151. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Booch, Rumbaugh & Jacobson 151 The Unified Modeling Language User Guide Grady Booch, James Rumbaugh and Ivar Jacobson 2nd Edition, 496 pp. Addison-Wesley Professional, 2005 ISBN-13: 978-0321267979
  • 152. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Rumbaugh, Jacobson & Booch 152 The Unified Modeling Language Reference Manual James Rumbaugh, Ivar Jacobson and Grady Booch 2nd Edition, 721 pp. Addison-Wesley Professional, 2004 ISBN-13: 978-0321718952
  • 153. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Cockburn 153 Writing Effective Use Cases Alistair Cockburn 1st Edition, 304 pp. Addison-Wesley Professional, 2000 ISBN-13: 978-0201702255 (See http://alistair.cockburn.us/get/2465)
  • 154. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Bittner & Spence 154 Use Case Modeling Kurt Bittner, Ian Spence 1st Edition, 368 pp. Addison-Wesley Professional, 2002 ISBN-13: 978-0201709131
  • 155. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Requirements-Engineering und -Management: Aus der Praxis von klassisch bis agil Chris Rupp & die SOPHISTen 6th Edition, 570 pp. Carl Hanser Verlag München, 2014 ISBN-13: 978-3-446-43893-4 In German (Chapters and related topics in English are available for free at https://www.sophist.de/) 155 Rupp & The SOPHISTs
  • 156. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Further reading  IREB - International Requirements Engineering Board e.V. http://www.ireb.org/en/service/downloads.html 156
  • 157. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Conference sites…  21st International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality (REFSQ 2015), Essen, Germany http://refsq.org/2015/ 157
  • 158. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Conference sites…  23rd IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE’15), Ottawa, Canada http://re15.org/ 158
  • 159. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 159 Homework: “Model software requirements of your current course projects using visual models from RML !” Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  • 160. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 160 The traditional software development process: Perceptions, communication patterns and interests…
  • 161. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 161Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
  • 162. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 162 The ideal, perfect, still possible software development process: Perceptions, communication patterns and interests…
  • 163. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 163Adapted from cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
  • 164. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 164 Done!  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Why using visual models?  The Requirements Modelling Language (RML) - Objectives, People, Systems and Data Models  The Unified Modelling Language (UML) - Most used UML diagrams  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 165. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Modelling Software Requirements –Important diagrams and templates– Prof. Dr. Dagmar Monett Díaz Computer Science Dept. Faculty of Cooperative Studies Berlin School of Economics and Law dagmar@monettdiaz.com Europe Week, 2nd – 6th March 2015 monettdiaz@dmonett