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D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Methods for Validating and
Testing Software Requirements
Prof. Dr. Dagmar Monett Díaz
Computer Science Dept.
Faculty of Cooperative Studies
Berlin School of Economics and Law
dagmar@monettdiaz.com
Europe Week, 2nd – 6th March 2015
60 Minutes
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Dilbert
 Scott Adams
At http://dilbert.com/strip/2014-02-25/
(Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved)
Different goals…
2
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 3
Main topics
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 4
Main topics
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements validation. Key actions
 Reviewing requirements
- Informal and formal approaches
 Testing requirements
- Validating with acceptance criteria
 Good practices in validation
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 5
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements validation. Key actions
 Reviewing requirements
- Informal and formal approaches
 Testing requirements
- Validating with acceptance criteria
 Good practices in validation
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 6
©
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Software Requirements
Karl Wiegers and Joy Beatty
3rd Edition, 672 pp.
Microsoft Press, 2013
ISBN-13: 978-0-7356-7966-5
(See more at
http://aka.ms/SoftwareReq3E/files)
7
Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Software Engineering
Ian Sommerville
9th Edition, 792 pp.
Addison-Wesley, 2010
ISBN-13: 978-0137035151
(10th Edition: April 2015. See more at
http://iansommerville.com/software-
engineering-book/)
8
Sommerville
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 9
The traditional software
development process:
Perceptions, communication patterns
and interests…
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 10Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 11Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 12
Requirements and
Requirements Engineering
– An Overview –
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 13
Requirement: A definition
According to Wiegers & Beatty:
“[A requirement is a] statement of a
customer need or objective, or of a condition
or capability that a product must possess to
satisfy such a need or objective. A property
that a product must have to provide value to
a stakeholder.”
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Requirements Engineering
Definition according to Wiegers & Beatty:
Requirements engineering is the subdiscipline of
systems engineering and software engineering that
encompasses all project activities associated with
understanding a product's necessary capabilities and
attributes. Includes both requirements development
and requirements management.
14
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 15
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Engineering
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 16
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Engineering
Requirements
Engineering
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 17
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Elicitation
Requirements
Engineering
Analysis Specification Validation
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 18
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Management
Tracking
Requirements
Engineering
Managing Controlling Tracing
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 19
Topics of other related lectures
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 20
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Engineering
Elicitation
Requirements
Engineering
Analysis Specification Validation
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
All are topics of lecture:
“A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 21
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Requirements
Engineering
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation
Topic of lecture
“Requirements Engineering Techniques for Eliciting Requirements”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 22
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Requirements
Engineering
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Elicitation Specification Validation
Topics of lecture
“Requirements Engineering Methods for Documenting Requirements”
Analysis
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 23
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Requirements
Engineering
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation
Also topic of lecture
“Modelling Software Requirements. Important diagrams and templates”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 24
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Requirements
Engineering
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation
Topic of (this) lecture
“Methods for Validating and Testing Software Requirements”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 25
A Requirements Development
process framework
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 26
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Elicitation
Requirements
Engineering
Analysis Specification Validation
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
RD process framework
27
Elicitation
Analysis
Specification
Validation
re-evaluate
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
identifying, discovering
evaluating,
verifying
documenting, SRS
classifying,
representing,
deriving,
negotiating
RD: Requirements Development
SRS: Software Requirements Specification
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for details!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 28
A structured approach to
Requirements Development
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 29
A structured approach to RD
(1) Define stakeholders!
 Who is interested in the system?
 Who makes decisions?
 Who are the users, managers, developers, etc.?
In other words, WHO has influence on the software requirements?
(2) Define goals!
 Stakeholders have goals (define coarse goals!)
 These goals can be divided into more specific goals (define granular goals!)
In other words, WHAT should be implemented or achieved?
(3) Define requirements!
 Goals can be derived into concrete requirements
 How to get to the requirements? (goal-based!)
 Model those requirements using diagrams, templates, etc.
In other words, HOW will the goals be achieved?
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 30
A structured approach to RD
Granular goals
CG3
CG2
CG1
Coarse goals
Define
stakeholders
Define
goals
Define
requirements
Diagrams
Templates
Models
WHO
WHAT
HOW
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for details!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 31
So far…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements validation. Key actions
 Reviewing requirements
- Informal and formal approaches
 Testing requirements
- Validating with acceptance criteria
 Good practices in validation
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 32
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements validation. Key actions
 Reviewing requirements
- Informal and formal approaches
 Testing requirements
- Validating with acceptance criteria
 Good practices in validation
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 33
Requirements Validation
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
RD process framework
34
Elicitation
Analysis
Specification
Validation
re-evaluate
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
identifying, discovering
evaluating,
verifying
documenting, SRS
classifying,
representing,
deriving,
negotiating
RD: Requirements Development
SRS: Software Requirements Specification
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
RD process framework
35
Elicitation
Analysis
Specification
Validation
re-evaluate
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
identifying, discovering
evaluating,
verifying
documenting, SRS
classifying,
representing,
deriving,
negotiating
RD: Requirements Development
SRS: Software Requirements Specification
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Validation and verification
36
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
“[Validation is the] process of evaluating a project
deliverable to determine whether it satisfies
customer needs.”
‘Are we building the right product?’
“[Verification is the] process of evaluating a
project deliverable to determine whether it satisfies
the specifications on which it was based.”
‘Are we building the product right?’
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 37
Key actions in validation
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Key actions
38
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Validation
Reviewing the documented requirements to correct
any problems before the development group accepts
them.
According to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Key actions
39
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Validation
Reviewing the documented requirements to correct
any problems before the development group accepts
them.
Developing acceptance tests and criteria to confirm
that a product based on the requirements would
meet customer needs and achieve the business
objectives.
According to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 40
So far…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements validation. Key actions
 Reviewing requirements
- Informal and formal approaches
 Testing requirements
- Validating with acceptance criteria
 Good practices in validation
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 41
Active learning exercise
Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Quiz
42
Which is an activity in the validation process?
(A) Negotiating.
(B) Discovering.
(C) Evaluating.
(D) Classifying.
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 43
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements validation. Key actions
 Reviewing requirements
- Informal and formal approaches
 Testing requirements
- Validating with acceptance criteria
 Good practices in validation
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 44
Reviewing requirements
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Dilbert
 Scott Adams
At http://dilbert.com/strip/2013-02-25/
(Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved)
Failed feedback…
45
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Peer review
46
“[A peer review is an] activity in which one or
more persons other than the author of a work
product examine that product with the intent of
finding defects and improvement
opportunities.”
According to Wiegers & Beatty:
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Peer review approaches
47
Peer deskcheck: asking one colleague to look
over your own work product.
According to Wiegers & Beatty
Passaround: inviting several colleagues to
examine a deliverable concurrently.
Walkthrough: the author describes a
deliverable and solicits comments on it.
Informal peer reviews:
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 48
The inspection process
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 49
Inspection: A definition
According to Wiegers & Beatty:
“[Inspection is a] type of formal peer review
that involves a trained team of individuals
who follow a well-defined process to examine
a work product carefully for defects.”
 Originally developed by Michael Fagan at IBM (1976)
 Software industry best practice
 Best-established type of formal peer review
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 50
Inspection
The participants (<7)
The author of the work
product and perhaps
peers of the author
People who are the
sources of information
that fed into the item
being inspected
People who will do
work based on the
item being inspected
People who are responsible
for interfacing systems that
will be affected by the item
being inspected
According to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 51
Inspection roles
Author
They look for defects and improvement opportunities
- Plays passive role during inspection, listens to
comments, answers questions.
According to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 52
Inspection roles
Author
Moderator
They look for defects and improvement opportunities
- Plays passive role during inspection, listens to
comments, answers questions.
- Plans inspection with author, coordinates
activities, facilitates the inspection meeting.
According to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 53
Inspection roles
Author
Moderator
Reader
They look for defects and improvement opportunities
- Plays passive role during inspection, listens to
comments, answers questions.
- Plans inspection with author, coordinates
activities, facilitates the inspection meeting.
- Paraphrases requirements and model
elements. The other participants point out
potential defects and issues they see.
According to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 54
Inspection roles
Author
Moderator
Reader
Recorder
They look for defects and improvement opportunities
- Plays passive role during inspection, listens to
comments, answers questions.
- Plans inspection with author, coordinates
activities, facilitates the inspection meeting.
- Paraphrases requirements and model
elements. The other participants point out
potential defects and issues they see.
- Documents issues raised and defects found.
According to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
The inspection process
55
Initial
work
product
Planning Preparation
Inspection
meetingRework
Follow-up
Baselined
work
product
Entry
criteria
Exit
criteria
According to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Defect checklist
56
 Helps reviewers look for
typical kinds of errors.
According to Wiegers & Beatty
Image © Stuart Miles @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Defect checklist
57
Examples of topics to check out:
Completeness
 Do the requirements address all known customer or system
needs?
Correctness
 Do any requirements conflict with or duplicate other
requirements?
Organisation and traceability
 Is each requirement uniquely and correctly labelled?
According to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 58
So far…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements validation. Key actions
 Reviewing requirements
- Informal and formal approaches
 Testing requirements
- Validating with acceptance criteria
 Good practices in validation
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 59
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements validation. Key actions
 Reviewing requirements
- Informal and formal approaches
 Testing requirements
- Validating with acceptance criteria
 Good practices in validation
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 60
Testing requirements
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Tests
61
 Powerful tool for both validating and verifying
requirements.
 Evaluate functional requirements, analysis models,
and prototypes.
 Should cover normal and alternative flows
identified during elicitation and analysis.
According to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Example of conceptual test
62
Use case:
Test:
According to Wiegers & Beatty
“User enters order number to view, order exists,
user had placed the order.
Expected result: show order details.”
View a stored order
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 63
Validating with
acceptance criteria
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Acceptance criteria
64
According to Wiegers & Beatty:
“[Acceptance criteria are] conditions that a
software product must satisfy to be accepted
by a user, customer, or other stakeholder.”
 From “What do you need to do with the system?”…
 …to “How would you judge whether the solution meets
your needs?”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Acceptance Test
65
According to Wiegers & Beatty:
“[An acceptance test is a] test that evaluates
anticipated usage scenarios to determine the
software's acceptability. Used in agile
development both to express details about a
user story and to determine whether a user
story is fully and correctly implemented.”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 66
The front of a story card
Acc. to Cohn
Image © Stuart Miles @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
Conver-
sations
The
description
A company can pay for a job posting with a
credit card.
Note: Will we accept Discover cards?
Note for UI: Don’t have a field for card type
(it can be derived from first two digits on the
card)
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 67
The back of the story card
Image © Stuart Miles @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
How to
test the
user story
Test with Visa/MasterCard/American Express.
Acc. to Cohn
Test with Diner’s Club.
Test with good/bad/missing card ID numbers.
Test with expired cards.
Test with over $100 and under $100.
(fail)
(pass)
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 68
So far…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements validation. Key actions
 Reviewing requirements
- Informal and formal approaches
 Testing requirements
- Validating with acceptance criteria
 Good practices in validation
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 69
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements validation. Key actions
 Reviewing requirements
- Informal and formal approaches
 Testing requirements
- Validating with acceptance criteria
 Good practices in validation
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 70
Good practices:
Requirements validation
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Good practices
 Review the requirements (peer review, rigorous
inspection, etc.).
 Test the requirements for documenting the
expected behaviour under specified conditions.
 Define acceptance criteria together with users
and based on their requirements.
 Simulate the requirements (simulations with
mock-ups to validate requirements and make
design choices if necessary).
71
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 72
To take away…
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Key actions
73
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Validation
Reviewing the documented requirements to correct
any problems before the development group accepts
them.
Developing acceptance tests and criteria to confirm
that a product based on the requirements would
meet customer needs and achieve the business
objectives.
According to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
The inspection process
74
Initial
work
product
Planning Preparation
Inspection
meetingRework
Follow-up
Baselined
work
product
Entry
criteria
Exit
criteria
According to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 75
The back of the story card
Image © Stuart Miles @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
How to
test the
user story
Test with Visa/MasterCard/American Express.
Acc. to Cohn
Test with Diner’s Club.
Test with good/bad/missing card ID numbers.
Test with expired cards.
Test with over $100 and under $100.
(fail)
(pass)
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 76
So far…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements validation. Key actions
 Reviewing requirements
- Informal and formal approaches
 Testing requirements
- Validating with acceptance criteria
 Good practices in validation
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 77
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements validation. Key actions
 Reviewing requirements
- Informal and formal approaches
 Testing requirements
- Validating with acceptance criteria
 Good practices in validation
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 78
What comes next?
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 79
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Management
Tracking
Requirements
Engineering
Managing Controlling Tracing
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 80
Other references
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Requirements-Engineering
und -Management: Aus der
Praxis von klassisch bis agil
Chris Rupp & die SOPHISTen
6th Edition, 570 pp.
Carl Hanser Verlag München, 2014
ISBN-13: 978-3-446-43893-4
In German
(Chapters and related topics in English are
available for free at https://www.sophist.de/)
81
Rupp & The SOPHISTs
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Other books
82
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Other books
83
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Further reading
 IREB - International Requirements Engineering
Board e.V.
http://www.ireb.org/en/service/downloads.html
84
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Conference sites…
 21st International Working Conference on
Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software
Quality (REFSQ 2015), Essen, Germany
http://refsq.org/2015/
85
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Conference sites…
 23rd IEEE International Requirements Engineering
Conference (RE’15), Ottawa, Canada
http://re15.org/
86
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 87
The traditional software
development process:
Perceptions, communication patterns
and interests…
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 88Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 89
The ideal, perfect, still possible
software development process:
Perceptions, communication patterns
and interests…
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 90Adapted from cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 91
Done!
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements validation. Key actions
 Reviewing requirements
- Informal and formal approaches
 Testing requirements
- Validating with acceptance criteria
 Good practices in validation
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Methods for Validating and
Testing Software Requirements
Prof. Dr. Dagmar Monett Díaz
Computer Science Dept.
Faculty of Cooperative Studies
Berlin School of Economics and Law
dagmar@monettdiaz.com
Europe Week, 2nd – 6th March 2015
monettdiaz@dmonett

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Methods for Validating and Testing Software Requirements (lecture slides)

  • 1. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Methods for Validating and Testing Software Requirements Prof. Dr. Dagmar Monett Díaz Computer Science Dept. Faculty of Cooperative Studies Berlin School of Economics and Law dagmar@monettdiaz.com Europe Week, 2nd – 6th March 2015 60 Minutes
  • 2. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Dilbert  Scott Adams At http://dilbert.com/strip/2014-02-25/ (Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved) Different goals… 2
  • 3. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 3 Main topics
  • 4. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 4 Main topics  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements validation. Key actions  Reviewing requirements - Informal and formal approaches  Testing requirements - Validating with acceptance criteria  Good practices in validation  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 5. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 5 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements validation. Key actions  Reviewing requirements - Informal and formal approaches  Testing requirements - Validating with acceptance criteria  Good practices in validation  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 6. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 6 ©
  • 7. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Software Requirements Karl Wiegers and Joy Beatty 3rd Edition, 672 pp. Microsoft Press, 2013 ISBN-13: 978-0-7356-7966-5 (See more at http://aka.ms/SoftwareReq3E/files) 7 Wiegers & Beatty
  • 8. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Software Engineering Ian Sommerville 9th Edition, 792 pp. Addison-Wesley, 2010 ISBN-13: 978-0137035151 (10th Edition: April 2015. See more at http://iansommerville.com/software- engineering-book/) 8 Sommerville
  • 9. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 9 The traditional software development process: Perceptions, communication patterns and interests…
  • 10. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 10Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
  • 11. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 11Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
  • 12. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 12 Requirements and Requirements Engineering – An Overview –
  • 13. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 13 Requirement: A definition According to Wiegers & Beatty: “[A requirement is a] statement of a customer need or objective, or of a condition or capability that a product must possess to satisfy such a need or objective. A property that a product must have to provide value to a stakeholder.” See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  • 14. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Requirements Engineering Definition according to Wiegers & Beatty: Requirements engineering is the subdiscipline of systems engineering and software engineering that encompasses all project activities associated with understanding a product's necessary capabilities and attributes. Includes both requirements development and requirements management. 14 See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  • 15. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 15 Subdisciplines of Requirements Engineering
  • 16. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 16 Subdisciplines of Requirements Engineering Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  • 17. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 17 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Elicitation Requirements Engineering Analysis Specification Validation Requirements Development Requirements Management Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  • 18. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 18 Subdisciplines of Requirements Management Tracking Requirements Engineering Managing Controlling Tracing Requirements Development Requirements Management Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  • 19. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 19 Topics of other related lectures
  • 20. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 20 Subdisciplines of Requirements Engineering Elicitation Requirements Engineering Analysis Specification Validation Requirements Development Requirements Management All are topics of lecture: “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis”
  • 21. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 21 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation Topic of lecture “Requirements Engineering Techniques for Eliciting Requirements”
  • 22. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 22 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Elicitation Specification Validation Topics of lecture “Requirements Engineering Methods for Documenting Requirements” Analysis
  • 23. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 23 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation Also topic of lecture “Modelling Software Requirements. Important diagrams and templates”
  • 24. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 24 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation Topic of (this) lecture “Methods for Validating and Testing Software Requirements”
  • 25. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 25 A Requirements Development process framework
  • 26. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 26 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Elicitation Requirements Engineering Analysis Specification Validation Requirements Development Requirements Management Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 27. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield RD process framework 27 Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation re-evaluate Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty identifying, discovering evaluating, verifying documenting, SRS classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating RD: Requirements Development SRS: Software Requirements Specification See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for details!
  • 28. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 28 A structured approach to Requirements Development
  • 29. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 29 A structured approach to RD (1) Define stakeholders!  Who is interested in the system?  Who makes decisions?  Who are the users, managers, developers, etc.? In other words, WHO has influence on the software requirements? (2) Define goals!  Stakeholders have goals (define coarse goals!)  These goals can be divided into more specific goals (define granular goals!) In other words, WHAT should be implemented or achieved? (3) Define requirements!  Goals can be derived into concrete requirements  How to get to the requirements? (goal-based!)  Model those requirements using diagrams, templates, etc. In other words, HOW will the goals be achieved?
  • 30. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 30 A structured approach to RD Granular goals CG3 CG2 CG1 Coarse goals Define stakeholders Define goals Define requirements Diagrams Templates Models WHO WHAT HOW See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for details!
  • 31. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 31 So far…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements validation. Key actions  Reviewing requirements - Informal and formal approaches  Testing requirements - Validating with acceptance criteria  Good practices in validation  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 32. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 32 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements validation. Key actions  Reviewing requirements - Informal and formal approaches  Testing requirements - Validating with acceptance criteria  Good practices in validation  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 33. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 33 Requirements Validation
  • 34. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield RD process framework 34 Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation re-evaluate Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty identifying, discovering evaluating, verifying documenting, SRS classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating RD: Requirements Development SRS: Software Requirements Specification
  • 35. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield RD process framework 35 Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation re-evaluate Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty identifying, discovering evaluating, verifying documenting, SRS classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating RD: Requirements Development SRS: Software Requirements Specification
  • 36. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Validation and verification 36 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty “[Validation is the] process of evaluating a project deliverable to determine whether it satisfies customer needs.” ‘Are we building the right product?’ “[Verification is the] process of evaluating a project deliverable to determine whether it satisfies the specifications on which it was based.” ‘Are we building the product right?’
  • 37. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 37 Key actions in validation
  • 38. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Key actions 38 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Validation Reviewing the documented requirements to correct any problems before the development group accepts them. According to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 39. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Key actions 39 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Validation Reviewing the documented requirements to correct any problems before the development group accepts them. Developing acceptance tests and criteria to confirm that a product based on the requirements would meet customer needs and achieve the business objectives. According to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 40. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 40 So far…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements validation. Key actions  Reviewing requirements - Informal and formal approaches  Testing requirements - Validating with acceptance criteria  Good practices in validation  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 41. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 41 Active learning exercise Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  • 42. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Quiz 42 Which is an activity in the validation process? (A) Negotiating. (B) Discovering. (C) Evaluating. (D) Classifying.
  • 43. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 43 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements validation. Key actions  Reviewing requirements - Informal and formal approaches  Testing requirements - Validating with acceptance criteria  Good practices in validation  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 44. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 44 Reviewing requirements
  • 45. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Dilbert  Scott Adams At http://dilbert.com/strip/2013-02-25/ (Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved) Failed feedback… 45
  • 46. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Peer review 46 “[A peer review is an] activity in which one or more persons other than the author of a work product examine that product with the intent of finding defects and improvement opportunities.” According to Wiegers & Beatty:
  • 47. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Peer review approaches 47 Peer deskcheck: asking one colleague to look over your own work product. According to Wiegers & Beatty Passaround: inviting several colleagues to examine a deliverable concurrently. Walkthrough: the author describes a deliverable and solicits comments on it. Informal peer reviews:
  • 48. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 48 The inspection process
  • 49. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 49 Inspection: A definition According to Wiegers & Beatty: “[Inspection is a] type of formal peer review that involves a trained team of individuals who follow a well-defined process to examine a work product carefully for defects.”  Originally developed by Michael Fagan at IBM (1976)  Software industry best practice  Best-established type of formal peer review
  • 50. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 50 Inspection The participants (<7) The author of the work product and perhaps peers of the author People who are the sources of information that fed into the item being inspected People who will do work based on the item being inspected People who are responsible for interfacing systems that will be affected by the item being inspected According to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 51. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 51 Inspection roles Author They look for defects and improvement opportunities - Plays passive role during inspection, listens to comments, answers questions. According to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 52. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 52 Inspection roles Author Moderator They look for defects and improvement opportunities - Plays passive role during inspection, listens to comments, answers questions. - Plans inspection with author, coordinates activities, facilitates the inspection meeting. According to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 53. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 53 Inspection roles Author Moderator Reader They look for defects and improvement opportunities - Plays passive role during inspection, listens to comments, answers questions. - Plans inspection with author, coordinates activities, facilitates the inspection meeting. - Paraphrases requirements and model elements. The other participants point out potential defects and issues they see. According to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 54. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 54 Inspection roles Author Moderator Reader Recorder They look for defects and improvement opportunities - Plays passive role during inspection, listens to comments, answers questions. - Plans inspection with author, coordinates activities, facilitates the inspection meeting. - Paraphrases requirements and model elements. The other participants point out potential defects and issues they see. - Documents issues raised and defects found. According to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 55. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield The inspection process 55 Initial work product Planning Preparation Inspection meetingRework Follow-up Baselined work product Entry criteria Exit criteria According to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 56. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Defect checklist 56  Helps reviewers look for typical kinds of errors. According to Wiegers & Beatty Image © Stuart Miles @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  • 57. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Defect checklist 57 Examples of topics to check out: Completeness  Do the requirements address all known customer or system needs? Correctness  Do any requirements conflict with or duplicate other requirements? Organisation and traceability  Is each requirement uniquely and correctly labelled? According to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 58. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 58 So far…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements validation. Key actions  Reviewing requirements - Informal and formal approaches  Testing requirements - Validating with acceptance criteria  Good practices in validation  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 59. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 59 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements validation. Key actions  Reviewing requirements - Informal and formal approaches  Testing requirements - Validating with acceptance criteria  Good practices in validation  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 60. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 60 Testing requirements
  • 61. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Tests 61  Powerful tool for both validating and verifying requirements.  Evaluate functional requirements, analysis models, and prototypes.  Should cover normal and alternative flows identified during elicitation and analysis. According to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 62. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Example of conceptual test 62 Use case: Test: According to Wiegers & Beatty “User enters order number to view, order exists, user had placed the order. Expected result: show order details.” View a stored order
  • 63. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 63 Validating with acceptance criteria
  • 64. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Acceptance criteria 64 According to Wiegers & Beatty: “[Acceptance criteria are] conditions that a software product must satisfy to be accepted by a user, customer, or other stakeholder.”  From “What do you need to do with the system?”…  …to “How would you judge whether the solution meets your needs?”
  • 65. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Acceptance Test 65 According to Wiegers & Beatty: “[An acceptance test is a] test that evaluates anticipated usage scenarios to determine the software's acceptability. Used in agile development both to express details about a user story and to determine whether a user story is fully and correctly implemented.”
  • 66. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 66 The front of a story card Acc. to Cohn Image © Stuart Miles @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/ Conver- sations The description A company can pay for a job posting with a credit card. Note: Will we accept Discover cards? Note for UI: Don’t have a field for card type (it can be derived from first two digits on the card)
  • 67. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 67 The back of the story card Image © Stuart Miles @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/ How to test the user story Test with Visa/MasterCard/American Express. Acc. to Cohn Test with Diner’s Club. Test with good/bad/missing card ID numbers. Test with expired cards. Test with over $100 and under $100. (fail) (pass)
  • 68. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 68 So far…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements validation. Key actions  Reviewing requirements - Informal and formal approaches  Testing requirements - Validating with acceptance criteria  Good practices in validation  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 69. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 69 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements validation. Key actions  Reviewing requirements - Informal and formal approaches  Testing requirements - Validating with acceptance criteria  Good practices in validation  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 70. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 70 Good practices: Requirements validation
  • 71. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Good practices  Review the requirements (peer review, rigorous inspection, etc.).  Test the requirements for documenting the expected behaviour under specified conditions.  Define acceptance criteria together with users and based on their requirements.  Simulate the requirements (simulations with mock-ups to validate requirements and make design choices if necessary). 71 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 72. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 72 To take away…
  • 73. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Key actions 73 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Validation Reviewing the documented requirements to correct any problems before the development group accepts them. Developing acceptance tests and criteria to confirm that a product based on the requirements would meet customer needs and achieve the business objectives. According to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 74. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield The inspection process 74 Initial work product Planning Preparation Inspection meetingRework Follow-up Baselined work product Entry criteria Exit criteria According to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 75. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 75 The back of the story card Image © Stuart Miles @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/ How to test the user story Test with Visa/MasterCard/American Express. Acc. to Cohn Test with Diner’s Club. Test with good/bad/missing card ID numbers. Test with expired cards. Test with over $100 and under $100. (fail) (pass)
  • 76. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 76 So far…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements validation. Key actions  Reviewing requirements - Informal and formal approaches  Testing requirements - Validating with acceptance criteria  Good practices in validation  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 77. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 77 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements validation. Key actions  Reviewing requirements - Informal and formal approaches  Testing requirements - Validating with acceptance criteria  Good practices in validation  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 78. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 78 What comes next?
  • 79. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 79 Subdisciplines of Requirements Management Tracking Requirements Engineering Managing Controlling Tracing Requirements Development Requirements Management Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  • 80. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 80 Other references
  • 81. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Requirements-Engineering und -Management: Aus der Praxis von klassisch bis agil Chris Rupp & die SOPHISTen 6th Edition, 570 pp. Carl Hanser Verlag München, 2014 ISBN-13: 978-3-446-43893-4 In German (Chapters and related topics in English are available for free at https://www.sophist.de/) 81 Rupp & The SOPHISTs
  • 82. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Other books 82
  • 83. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Other books 83
  • 84. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Further reading  IREB - International Requirements Engineering Board e.V. http://www.ireb.org/en/service/downloads.html 84
  • 85. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Conference sites…  21st International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality (REFSQ 2015), Essen, Germany http://refsq.org/2015/ 85
  • 86. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Conference sites…  23rd IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE’15), Ottawa, Canada http://re15.org/ 86
  • 87. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 87 The traditional software development process: Perceptions, communication patterns and interests…
  • 88. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 88Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
  • 89. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 89 The ideal, perfect, still possible software development process: Perceptions, communication patterns and interests…
  • 90. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 90Adapted from cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
  • 91. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 91 Done!  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements validation. Key actions  Reviewing requirements - Informal and formal approaches  Testing requirements - Validating with acceptance criteria  Good practices in validation  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 92. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Methods for Validating and Testing Software Requirements Prof. Dr. Dagmar Monett Díaz Computer Science Dept. Faculty of Cooperative Studies Berlin School of Economics and Law dagmar@monettdiaz.com Europe Week, 2nd – 6th March 2015 monettdiaz@dmonett