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Mitosis
Mitosis – is a type of cell division involved in the development of a single
celled zygote into an adult organism, growth and repair of tissues and in
asexual reproduction. In mitosis the parent cell divides into two
daughter cells that are genetically identical to parent cell, i.e. the
chromosome number is same to parent cell.
Phasesofcellcycle
• The life of a cell from the time it is formed to its division
is called as cell cycle.
• The cell cycle consists of several well-coordinated phases –
growth of the cell, replication of DNA, distribution of replicated
chromosomes between the two daughter cells and cell
division.
• The entire cell cycle in a eukaryotic takes 24 hrs to complete.
• This is divided into a long interphase (23 hrs)(G1, S and G2)
and short divisional stage- mitosis (1 hr).
interphase
• The cell spends 95% of the time in this phase.
• Interphase is divided into G1, S and G2 phases.
• The G1 (Gap1) phase corresponds to the metabolically active stage with
abundant protein synthesis required for the subsequent S phase.
• The cell continues to grow throughout the interphase with the DNA replication
occurring in the S (synthetic phase).
• The replication of DNA in the S phase is followed by the G2 (Gap 2) phase in
which there is cell growth and proteins synthesized in preparation for the M
phase.
• Mitosis comes from a Greek word mitos meaning thread. The term was coined
in 1882 by Walther Flemming.
• Mitosis is divided in two phases:
 Karyokinesis- division of the nucleus involving the equal distribution of
replicated into two nuclei.
 Cytokinesis- partitioning of the cytoplasm into two daughter cells.
Mitosis results in formation of two daughter cells genetically identical to the
mother cell. The number of chromosomes remains the same (unlike meiosis
where the chromosome number is halved). Mitosis occurs in both the haploid cells
and diploid cells for the growth and maintenance of the organism.
mitosis
Karyokinesis is divided into several stages;
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Prophase
• The chromatin in the interphase occurs in a highly dispersed state, which is
important for the replication and transcription to occur.
• As the cell prepares to divide the chromatin undergoes compaction or
condensation to form chromosomes.
• During prophase the chromosomes become condensed and the preparation for
spindle attachment begins with key proteins binding to kinetochores.
• The condensation is mediated by two groups of proteins called topoisomerase
II and condensins.
• The topoisomerase II is a part of the nuclear matrix scaffold and uses the
energy from ATP to untangle and condense the two sister chromatids.
• Condensins bind the DNA of a chromatid at several sites and the coils and loops
are formed by the twisting of the DNA.
Prophase…
prometaphase
• During prometaphase the nuclear envelope completely breaks down and the mitotic
spindle is formed.
• The chromosomes attach to the microtubules in the spindle with their kinetochores.
• The segregation of chromosomes is carried out by mitotic spindle – made up of
microtubules that pulls the chromosomes towards the poles.
• There are three types of microtubules:
1. Astral microtubules- these are arranged around the centrosome and help in
positioning of the spindle apparatus in the cell and also in cytokinesis.
2. Chromosomal microtubules-these are a group of 20-30 microtubules that connect
each of the centrosomes with the kinetochore. During metaphase these help
positioning the chromosomes in between at the equatorial plane. In anaphase these
shorten and are responsible in pulling the two chromatids apart towards the poles.
3. Polar microtubules- these extend from the centrosomes in between the
chromosomes and overlap with their counterparts from the opposite poles,
Prometaphase…
• Prometaphase is marked by the completion of spindle assembly and the
movement of the chromosomes towards the center of the cell.
• The two sister chromatids are joined together at the centromere (primary
constriction).
• The centromere is rich in highly repetitive sequences and serves as the site of
attachment of spindle fibers.
• During prophase a group of proteins assembles at the centromere forming a
structure called kinetochore.
• They act as site of attachment of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the
spindle fibers.
• It also importantly controls the progression of cell cycle beyond the spindle
assembly checkpoint.
Prometaphase…
metaphase
• The chromosomes finally align themselves at the central metaphase plate with the two
chromatids attached via their kinetochores to the microtubules of the opposite pole.
anaphase
• Involves the separation of the two sister chromatids and their movement towards the poles.
• Early anaphase requires the dissolving of the connections between the two sister
chromatids.
• The microtubules gradually shorten and therefore pull the two chromatids apart.
• The movement of chromosomes in the direction of the poles is referred to as Anaphase A
and the movement of spindle poles apart is called Anaphase B.
telophase
cytokinesis
• After the nuclear material has been equally distributed between
the two daughter cells the cytoplasm divides in two by a process
called cytokinesis.
• The process is markedly different in animals and plants.
• In animals the cell gradually develops an indentation that
deepens and completely pinches the cell in two.
• The plasma membrane is formed by the cytoplasmic vesicles
that fuse with the cleavage furrow.
• The central portion of the mitotic spindle forms a cytoplasmic
bridge called the mid body between the two daughter cells.
• Finally the surfaces of the cleavage furrow fuses dividing the
cell in two (abscission).
Cytokinesis…
• In contrast the plant cells divides in two by laying down wall
materials in the center forming a phragmoplast.
• The phragmoplast consists of bundles of microtubules
(remnants of mitotic spindle) oriented at right angles to the
direction of the cell plate.
• It also has actin filaments, membranous vesicles and wall
material.
• The vesicles form the Golgi apparatus carrying the wall matrix
material is directed towards the site by the microtubules and
where they coalesce and add to the growing cell plate.
• Cellulose and other crosslinking polysaccharides are added to
these to make the framework of the mature cell wall.
Thank you

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Mitosis...............................pptx

  • 1. Mitosis Mitosis – is a type of cell division involved in the development of a single celled zygote into an adult organism, growth and repair of tissues and in asexual reproduction. In mitosis the parent cell divides into two daughter cells that are genetically identical to parent cell, i.e. the chromosome number is same to parent cell.
  • 2. Phasesofcellcycle • The life of a cell from the time it is formed to its division is called as cell cycle. • The cell cycle consists of several well-coordinated phases – growth of the cell, replication of DNA, distribution of replicated chromosomes between the two daughter cells and cell division. • The entire cell cycle in a eukaryotic takes 24 hrs to complete. • This is divided into a long interphase (23 hrs)(G1, S and G2) and short divisional stage- mitosis (1 hr).
  • 3. interphase • The cell spends 95% of the time in this phase. • Interphase is divided into G1, S and G2 phases. • The G1 (Gap1) phase corresponds to the metabolically active stage with abundant protein synthesis required for the subsequent S phase. • The cell continues to grow throughout the interphase with the DNA replication occurring in the S (synthetic phase). • The replication of DNA in the S phase is followed by the G2 (Gap 2) phase in which there is cell growth and proteins synthesized in preparation for the M phase.
  • 4. • Mitosis comes from a Greek word mitos meaning thread. The term was coined in 1882 by Walther Flemming. • Mitosis is divided in two phases:  Karyokinesis- division of the nucleus involving the equal distribution of replicated into two nuclei.  Cytokinesis- partitioning of the cytoplasm into two daughter cells. Mitosis results in formation of two daughter cells genetically identical to the mother cell. The number of chromosomes remains the same (unlike meiosis where the chromosome number is halved). Mitosis occurs in both the haploid cells and diploid cells for the growth and maintenance of the organism. mitosis
  • 5. Karyokinesis is divided into several stages; Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase
  • 6. Prophase • The chromatin in the interphase occurs in a highly dispersed state, which is important for the replication and transcription to occur. • As the cell prepares to divide the chromatin undergoes compaction or condensation to form chromosomes. • During prophase the chromosomes become condensed and the preparation for spindle attachment begins with key proteins binding to kinetochores. • The condensation is mediated by two groups of proteins called topoisomerase II and condensins. • The topoisomerase II is a part of the nuclear matrix scaffold and uses the energy from ATP to untangle and condense the two sister chromatids. • Condensins bind the DNA of a chromatid at several sites and the coils and loops are formed by the twisting of the DNA.
  • 8. prometaphase • During prometaphase the nuclear envelope completely breaks down and the mitotic spindle is formed. • The chromosomes attach to the microtubules in the spindle with their kinetochores. • The segregation of chromosomes is carried out by mitotic spindle – made up of microtubules that pulls the chromosomes towards the poles. • There are three types of microtubules: 1. Astral microtubules- these are arranged around the centrosome and help in positioning of the spindle apparatus in the cell and also in cytokinesis. 2. Chromosomal microtubules-these are a group of 20-30 microtubules that connect each of the centrosomes with the kinetochore. During metaphase these help positioning the chromosomes in between at the equatorial plane. In anaphase these shorten and are responsible in pulling the two chromatids apart towards the poles. 3. Polar microtubules- these extend from the centrosomes in between the chromosomes and overlap with their counterparts from the opposite poles,
  • 9. Prometaphase… • Prometaphase is marked by the completion of spindle assembly and the movement of the chromosomes towards the center of the cell. • The two sister chromatids are joined together at the centromere (primary constriction). • The centromere is rich in highly repetitive sequences and serves as the site of attachment of spindle fibers. • During prophase a group of proteins assembles at the centromere forming a structure called kinetochore. • They act as site of attachment of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the spindle fibers. • It also importantly controls the progression of cell cycle beyond the spindle assembly checkpoint.
  • 11. metaphase • The chromosomes finally align themselves at the central metaphase plate with the two chromatids attached via their kinetochores to the microtubules of the opposite pole.
  • 12. anaphase • Involves the separation of the two sister chromatids and their movement towards the poles. • Early anaphase requires the dissolving of the connections between the two sister chromatids. • The microtubules gradually shorten and therefore pull the two chromatids apart. • The movement of chromosomes in the direction of the poles is referred to as Anaphase A and the movement of spindle poles apart is called Anaphase B.
  • 14.
  • 15. cytokinesis • After the nuclear material has been equally distributed between the two daughter cells the cytoplasm divides in two by a process called cytokinesis. • The process is markedly different in animals and plants. • In animals the cell gradually develops an indentation that deepens and completely pinches the cell in two. • The plasma membrane is formed by the cytoplasmic vesicles that fuse with the cleavage furrow. • The central portion of the mitotic spindle forms a cytoplasmic bridge called the mid body between the two daughter cells. • Finally the surfaces of the cleavage furrow fuses dividing the cell in two (abscission).
  • 16. Cytokinesis… • In contrast the plant cells divides in two by laying down wall materials in the center forming a phragmoplast. • The phragmoplast consists of bundles of microtubules (remnants of mitotic spindle) oriented at right angles to the direction of the cell plate. • It also has actin filaments, membranous vesicles and wall material. • The vesicles form the Golgi apparatus carrying the wall matrix material is directed towards the site by the microtubules and where they coalesce and add to the growing cell plate. • Cellulose and other crosslinking polysaccharides are added to these to make the framework of the mature cell wall.
  • 17.