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Measuring Method Complexity of the Case Management Modeling & Notation 
Mike A. Marin, Hugo Lotriet, John A. Van Der Poll 
University of South Africa 
SAICSIT 2014 
October 1, 2014 
Leriba Lodge, Centurion, 
Gauteng, South Africa 
1 
SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
Outline 
•Motivation 
•Business Process Management (BPM) 
•Case Management Modeling and Notation 
•Methodology 
•Related Work 
•CMMN Analysis 
•Results 
•Summary 
•Future Work 
SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa 
2
Motivation 
•There are multiple process notations to choose from but which one should be used for a particular project is left to the user 
−Complexity of the notation method is just one factor to consider among others 
•Try to understand CMMN method complexity in the context of other process notations 
3 
SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
Business Process Management (BPM) 
•BPM technology is widely used by businesses 
−Describes how a business process should be executed 
−It automate business process in the enterprise 
•Several notations 
−Focused on three specific versions of 
•Business process management and notation (BPMN) 
−Multiple dialects 
•Unified modeling language (UML) Activity Diagrams 
•Event-driven process chain (EPC) 
4 
SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
The same process model in three notations 
BPMN UML Activity Diagram EPC 
Examples taken from Korherr, B. 
Business Process Modeling – Languages, 
Goals, and Variabilities. PhD thesis. 2008. 
SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa 5
Case Management Modeling and Notation (CMMN) 
•Version 1.0 released in May 2014 
−Created by the object management group (OMG) 
•Notation 
−Compatible with BPMN 
−Diamonds represent guards (pre-conditions) 
−Rounded rectangles represent tasks 
•Declarative 
−Notation based on business artifacts with guard-stage-milestone 
This model is semantically equivalent to the example in the previous slide. 
6 
SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
Differences between CMMN & BPMN 
Most BPM notations 
CMMN 
Procedural 
Declarative 
Process centric 
Data centric 
Arcs describe the sequence 
No predefined sequence 
Guided work 
(head down workers) 
Enables workers 
(knowledge workers) 
Everything is modeled 
Not everything is modeled 
Page 6 
CMMN was designed to be complementary to BPMN 
7 
SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
Methodology 
• Used the meta-model method complexity metrics introduces by 
Rossi and Brinkkemper in 1999. 
− The methods to be compared should be described by a meta-model 
• Rossi and Brinkkemper used the object, property, relationship, role (OPRR) 
modeling language as the base meta-model 
• All the other studies (including ours) used UML 
− Based on counting objects, properties, and relationships and using them as 
dimensions in a three dimensional space, the cumulative method complexity 
is calculated as a vector in that space 
• Requires a clear and consistent counting protocol 
− Developed a set of counting principles 
SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa 8
Related Work 
•Previous studies on process model method complexity have been conducted, including 
−Multiple dialects of BPMN 1.2 
•Indulska, Muehlen, & Recker (2009) Measuring Method Complexity: The Case of the Business Process Modeling Notation. 
−Compares UML Activity Diagrams to BPMN 1.2 
•Recker, zur Muehlen, Siau, Erickson, & Indulska (2009) Measuring method complexity: UML versus BPMN 
−UML 1.4 including Activity Diagrams 
•Siau, & Cao (2002) How Complex is the Unified Modeling Language? 
•All these studies used the meta-model method complexity metrics by Rossi and Brinkkemper in 1999 
9 
SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
Counting principles 
•Developed a set of counting principles for UML based on the work of Indulska, Muehlen, & Recker (2009), taking into account 
−Enumerations 
−Abstract classes 
−References between classes 
−Internal tool generated properties that are never observed by the users 
10 
SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
Relationships in CMMN 
•The notation provides a single connector (dashed line), which is used in two situations 
−Optionally to indicate event propagation 
•Represented in the meta-model by the onPart 
(one abstract class and two concrete classes) 
−Expanded planning table in a human task 
•With no clear meta-model representation, because planning tables can be associated with stages 
SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa 
11
CMMN analysis 
•Using the counting principles and the CMMN specification that describes its meta-model extracted 
−39 objects 
−4 relationships 
−28 properties 
•Removed from the counts 11 tool-generated properties 
•For example, Id, exporter, exporterVersion, expressionLanguage, etc. 
SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa 
12
Method Complexity Comparison 
Methods 
Objects 
Relationships 
Properties 
Cumulative Complexity 
BPMN 1.2 
90 
6 
143 
169.07 
BPMN 1.2 DoD 
59 
4 
112 
126.65 
BPMN 1.2 Case Study 
36 
5 
81 
88.78 
BPMN 1.2 Frequent Use 
21 
4 
59 
62.75 
CMMN 1.0 
39 
4 
28 
48.18 
EPC 
15 
5 
11 
19.26 
UML 1.4 Activity diagrams 
8 
5 
6 
11.18 
13 
SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
Future Work 
•The meta-model method complexity metrics introduces by Rossi and Brinkkemper in 1999 must be calibrated for UML 
−Rossi and Brinkkemper used OPRR, which is simpler than UML 
−UML is the most common modeling notation currently used to describe software standards 
−A comprehensive counting protocol for UML needs to be created 
•This study should be extended to the newer versions of BPMN, UML Activity Diagram, and EPC 
−BPMN 1.2 had a single technique while BPMN 2.0 introduces multiple techniques 
•Process diagrams, collaboration diagrams, conversation diagrams, and choreography diagrams 
•Empirical validation of this research should also be conducted 
14 
SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
Summary 
•Used the meta-model method complexity metrics introduces by Rossi and Brinkkemper to analyze CMMN 
•Compared the results to previous work on BPMN 1.2, UML 1.4, and EPC by Indulska, Muehlen, & Recker (2009), Recker, zur Muehlen, Siau, Erickson, & Indulska (2009), and Siau, & Cao (2002) 
•The results indicate that CMMN compares favorably to BPMN 
15 
SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
Questions & Comments 
16 
SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa

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Measuring method complexity of the case management modeling and notation (CMMN)

  • 1. Measuring Method Complexity of the Case Management Modeling & Notation Mike A. Marin, Hugo Lotriet, John A. Van Der Poll University of South Africa SAICSIT 2014 October 1, 2014 Leriba Lodge, Centurion, Gauteng, South Africa 1 SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
  • 2. Outline •Motivation •Business Process Management (BPM) •Case Management Modeling and Notation •Methodology •Related Work •CMMN Analysis •Results •Summary •Future Work SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa 2
  • 3. Motivation •There are multiple process notations to choose from but which one should be used for a particular project is left to the user −Complexity of the notation method is just one factor to consider among others •Try to understand CMMN method complexity in the context of other process notations 3 SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
  • 4. Business Process Management (BPM) •BPM technology is widely used by businesses −Describes how a business process should be executed −It automate business process in the enterprise •Several notations −Focused on three specific versions of •Business process management and notation (BPMN) −Multiple dialects •Unified modeling language (UML) Activity Diagrams •Event-driven process chain (EPC) 4 SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
  • 5. The same process model in three notations BPMN UML Activity Diagram EPC Examples taken from Korherr, B. Business Process Modeling – Languages, Goals, and Variabilities. PhD thesis. 2008. SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa 5
  • 6. Case Management Modeling and Notation (CMMN) •Version 1.0 released in May 2014 −Created by the object management group (OMG) •Notation −Compatible with BPMN −Diamonds represent guards (pre-conditions) −Rounded rectangles represent tasks •Declarative −Notation based on business artifacts with guard-stage-milestone This model is semantically equivalent to the example in the previous slide. 6 SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
  • 7. Differences between CMMN & BPMN Most BPM notations CMMN Procedural Declarative Process centric Data centric Arcs describe the sequence No predefined sequence Guided work (head down workers) Enables workers (knowledge workers) Everything is modeled Not everything is modeled Page 6 CMMN was designed to be complementary to BPMN 7 SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
  • 8. Methodology • Used the meta-model method complexity metrics introduces by Rossi and Brinkkemper in 1999. − The methods to be compared should be described by a meta-model • Rossi and Brinkkemper used the object, property, relationship, role (OPRR) modeling language as the base meta-model • All the other studies (including ours) used UML − Based on counting objects, properties, and relationships and using them as dimensions in a three dimensional space, the cumulative method complexity is calculated as a vector in that space • Requires a clear and consistent counting protocol − Developed a set of counting principles SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa 8
  • 9. Related Work •Previous studies on process model method complexity have been conducted, including −Multiple dialects of BPMN 1.2 •Indulska, Muehlen, & Recker (2009) Measuring Method Complexity: The Case of the Business Process Modeling Notation. −Compares UML Activity Diagrams to BPMN 1.2 •Recker, zur Muehlen, Siau, Erickson, & Indulska (2009) Measuring method complexity: UML versus BPMN −UML 1.4 including Activity Diagrams •Siau, & Cao (2002) How Complex is the Unified Modeling Language? •All these studies used the meta-model method complexity metrics by Rossi and Brinkkemper in 1999 9 SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
  • 10. Counting principles •Developed a set of counting principles for UML based on the work of Indulska, Muehlen, & Recker (2009), taking into account −Enumerations −Abstract classes −References between classes −Internal tool generated properties that are never observed by the users 10 SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
  • 11. Relationships in CMMN •The notation provides a single connector (dashed line), which is used in two situations −Optionally to indicate event propagation •Represented in the meta-model by the onPart (one abstract class and two concrete classes) −Expanded planning table in a human task •With no clear meta-model representation, because planning tables can be associated with stages SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa 11
  • 12. CMMN analysis •Using the counting principles and the CMMN specification that describes its meta-model extracted −39 objects −4 relationships −28 properties •Removed from the counts 11 tool-generated properties •For example, Id, exporter, exporterVersion, expressionLanguage, etc. SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa 12
  • 13. Method Complexity Comparison Methods Objects Relationships Properties Cumulative Complexity BPMN 1.2 90 6 143 169.07 BPMN 1.2 DoD 59 4 112 126.65 BPMN 1.2 Case Study 36 5 81 88.78 BPMN 1.2 Frequent Use 21 4 59 62.75 CMMN 1.0 39 4 28 48.18 EPC 15 5 11 19.26 UML 1.4 Activity diagrams 8 5 6 11.18 13 SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
  • 14. Future Work •The meta-model method complexity metrics introduces by Rossi and Brinkkemper in 1999 must be calibrated for UML −Rossi and Brinkkemper used OPRR, which is simpler than UML −UML is the most common modeling notation currently used to describe software standards −A comprehensive counting protocol for UML needs to be created •This study should be extended to the newer versions of BPMN, UML Activity Diagram, and EPC −BPMN 1.2 had a single technique while BPMN 2.0 introduces multiple techniques •Process diagrams, collaboration diagrams, conversation diagrams, and choreography diagrams •Empirical validation of this research should also be conducted 14 SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
  • 15. Summary •Used the meta-model method complexity metrics introduces by Rossi and Brinkkemper to analyze CMMN •Compared the results to previous work on BPMN 1.2, UML 1.4, and EPC by Indulska, Muehlen, & Recker (2009), Recker, zur Muehlen, Siau, Erickson, & Indulska (2009), and Siau, & Cao (2002) •The results indicate that CMMN compares favorably to BPMN 15 SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa
  • 16. Questions & Comments 16 SAICSIT 2014 Centurion, South Africa