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XML-based standards
for B2B Process Integration

          David Hollingsworth, ICL
          Mike Marin, FileNET Corp.
     Marc-Thomas Schmidt, IBM UK Ltd.
 Michael zur Muehlen, University of Muenster




                                         WfMC, September 2000, Slide 1
Overview

   Process Automation and the WfMC
   Standards
   Wf-XML
   Applications




                                      WfMC, September 2000, Slide 2
Process Automation and the WfMC

        David Hollingsworth




                              WfMC, September 2000, Slide 3
Agenda

 Workflow, Process Automation and business
  integration considerations
 Background on the Workflow Management
  Coalition
 Process Interoperability Models
 WfMC Standards & ongoing work




                                        WfMC, September 2000, Slide 4
What is Workflow

The automation of a business process, in whole
or part, during which documents, information or
tasks are passed from one participant* to
another for action, according to a set of
procedural rules.

*participant = resource (human or machine)




                                     WfMC, September 2000, Slide 5
Process Automation
                          Overview
          Process         Business Process Analysis,
          Designer       Modelling & Definition Tools
                                                                  Process Design
                                                                  & Definition
                                   Process
                                   Definition
Process Execution
                                          Process
                                          changes
    Administrator
    / Supervisor         Workflow Management System

                     Distributed Infrastructure Environment

                            Work            Application
                         Presentation        Launch




                      Users                     Applications
                                                & IT Tools
                                                               WfMC, September 2000, Slide 6
The Process Definition
 1. Activity Network - Nodes & Transitions
              A2

  A1
                        A6
         A3        A5             A8    A10   A11

                             A7



                   A4              A9

       • Options for Sequential, Parallel & Conditional paths

 2. Activity Definitions
     • Resource Requirement
       • Work Items
       • Applications

 3. Data Definitions
       • Workflow Relevant Data
       • (Application Specific Data)
                                                    WfMC, September 2000, Slide 7
Production & Ad-hoc Workflow

A loose distinction is sometimes drawn between
 Production Workflow
  – in which most of the procedural rules are defined in
    advance

and

 Ad-hoc workflow
  – in which the procedural rules may be modified or created
    during the operation of the process.




                                                   WfMC, September 2000, Slide 8
Autonomous & Embedded
               Workflow Products
 Autonomous
   – Freestanding independent software package providing workflow
     functionality
   – Integration with different application systems (desktop or server)
     which handle processing of the elementary workflow activities


 Embedded
   – Workflow-functionality is part of the (application) software system
     (ERP, DM, PPC etc.)
   – Controls the sequence of elementary functions of the system
     within the application


Differentiation: workflow-enabled versus workflow-based



                                                          WfMC, September 2000, Slide 9
Business Integration
             Requirements


                    Process

Business Support
    Systems                           Roles &
                                   Responsibilities




    Information                  Organisation

                    Access &
                    Ownership
                   Permissions
                                          WfMC, September 2000, Slide 10
Wider Integration Issues

                                 Process
                                  Model

 E-commerce                      Security
                                 & Audit
                     Information        Organisation
                        Model              Model


Legacy Systems




  Common             Directory       Distributed Systems
  desktop            Services           Infrastructure
   access                                    WfMC, September 2000, Slide 11
Workflow - Past & Future

 First generation - disjoint applications, human
  interface
   – Call Centre management
   – Correspondence handling
   – Claims authorisation, etc


 Second generation - infrastructure, broker /
  agent interfaces:
   – E-process support (B2Anything)
   – Enterprise Application Integration




                                          WfMC, September 2000, Slide 12
WfMC Background
          Founded in 1993, to develop & promote
             workflow integration capability
          Non profit-making, open to all
          Working arrangements with AIIM, OMG and IETF
          Current membership is c. 220, made up of:
                       User              S. America
                                       Japan / Asia
Analyst / Consultant
                                                                 US / Canada
    Academic &
    Research                           Europe

                              Vendor
    Integrator/VAR


                                                      WfMC, September 2000, Slide 13
The Workflow Reference Model

                                         Process
                                      Definition Tools

                                Interface 1      Process Definition Import/Export

         Interface 5                                                      Other Workflow
                           Workflow Enactment Service
                                                                          Enactment Service(s)
Administration
 & Monitoring
   Tools                               Workflow
                                                                                Workflow
                                       Engine(s)
                                                                                Engine(s)


                 Interface 2                  Interface 3                Interface 4
                                                                         - Interoperability
                       Client      Worklist           Tool Agent
                       Apps        Handler
                                                        Invoked      Legacy,
                                                      Applications   Desktop, etc

                                                                           WfMC, September 2000, Slide 14
Process Definition Interchange

 Purpose
   – Exchange of info between BPR tools, workflow systems, process
     definition repositories


 Process Definition Meta-Model
   – Defines objects, attributes & relationships
   – Core Set plus extensible attributes


 WPDL / XML
   – Syntax for encoding the process definition


 Process Definition Manipulation APIs
   – APIs for reading & writing object & attribute data


                                                          WfMC, September 2000, Slide 15
Client Application Interface

 Purpose
   – To allow applications portability & re-use

 APIs to support
   –   Process & Activity Control
   –   Worklist Handling
   –   Supervisory Process & Activity Control
   –   Process Definition manipulation

 Language Support
   – “C”, IDL & OLE (V2),

 WAPI Specification
   – V1 - Published Nov 95, now at V1.4
   – V2 - 1998 (joint OMG / WfMC spec)

                                                  WfMC, September 2000, Slide 16
Applications Invocation
 Purpose
   – To provide a common framework for 3rd parties to integrate other
     industry application APIs & services
   – To support an interface to access legacy applications


 APIs for use by Workflow Engine or Worklist Handler
   – Connect/Disconnect
   – Invoke Application, Request Status, Terminate


 Status
   – Included in WAPI V2




                                                      WfMC, September 2000, Slide 17
Applications Interoperability

 Purpose
   – To allow a business process to be implemented over two or more
     workflow systems

 Interchange protocol
   – Abstract (functional) specification in IDL for nested & chained
     subprocesses
   – Binding specification for Internet Mail using MIME
   – CORBA version included in OMG submission

 Status
   – Full Specification released Q1 97, now with abstract spec, MIME
     binding and Wf-XML versions all at current level.
   – IDL & CORBA version provided in OMG proposal
   – XML version released Q1 2000


                                                         WfMC, September 2000, Slide 18
Administration & Monitoring

 Purpose
   – To allow consistent administration across diverse systems

 Audit specifications
   – Audit event identification, formats & recording
   – Formal released as full specification Q1 97

 WAPI - Administrative APIs
   – Group operations on Processes & Activities Instances
   – Status retrieval - Process & Activity instances
   – Operations on Process Definitions

 Administration - wider aspects
   – - Draft spec of admin functions (audit retrieval APIs and
     monitoring policy controls)

                                                         WfMC, September 2000, Slide 19
Process Interoperability

 Scope may be:
   – Local / Departmental
   – Enterprise
   – Inter-Enterprise


 Style may be:
   – Sub-process - hierarchic or chained
   – Parallel synchronised


 Purpose:
   – EAI
   – Web integration, B2B, B2C, etc
   – Trading Frameworks / Hub


                                           WfMC, September 2000, Slide 20
Distributing the Business Process
                Definition                     Execution



Sub-Process C      ?         Organisation C




                   C         Organisation A
Process A
                   B

                                  export


Sub-Process B                 Organisation B


                                                 WfMC, September 2000, Slide 21
1. Sub-Process Interoperability Model


       A2
 A1                    A5

       A3     A4
                                                    B2
                                             B1

                                                         B3
                                                               B4
                                                                          C1     C2   C3    C4


      WAPI                   Initiate
                             Sub-process
Workflow Enactment Service                   WAPI
           #1                                                             WAPI
                               Return      Workflow Enactment Service
                                                      #2
                                                                        Workflow Enactment Service
                                                                                   #3




                                                                        WfMC, September 2000, Slide 22
2. Parallel Synchronised
              Interoperability Model

                                                    Synchpoint across processes
                             A1      A2      A3     A4



                             B1      B2      B3     B4



                             C1      C2      C3      C4




• To support inter-process dependencies
• Uses Synch Event and optional Confirm

    WAPI                                            WAPI
                              Sync. Event
Workflow Enactment Service                        Workflow Enactment Service
           #1                                                #2
                                  optional
                                  Confirm


                                                                               WfMC, September 2000, Slide 23
Process Naming & Context

 Activities may be atomic, sub-process call, or in-line
    block
   A sub-process inherits characteristics from its process
    definition and has its own name space apart from “Root
    Process Id” (from initiating process)
   A sub-process call may be specified as synchronous or
    asynchronous, binding prefixed or late
   An in-line block operates within the name space and
    characteristics of its local process
   Activity and Transition Ids are unique within a process
    definition
   Resource naming may use an Organisational Model -
    typically unique to a workflow enactment service


                                                 WfMC, September 2000, Slide 24
The Supply Chain Process Model
  Manufacturer                                                                                Distributor

        Place                                                Receive              Order         Place
        Order                       MRP                       Order                             Order                           DRP

                                                                                 2
                                    QA                       Confirm           Order           Schedule                      Update           Update
                                                              Order        Acknowledgment       Receipt                     Inventory          DRP



                                Schedule                     Ship Order      Advance           Receive                      Ship Order
                                Shipment                                  Shipment Notice       Goods
                                                                                 5

        Transport           4                  Transport                                                     Advance                     1   Replenishment
        Request                               Confirmation                                                Shipment Notice

                Transportation Company
                                           Request           Confirm                           Receive          Update                       Replenish
                                            Vehicle          Transport                         Goods           Inventory     Inventory       Inventory



                     Determine                               Dispatch                          Release                                        Prepare
                    International                             Truck                            Payment                                        Payment
Order


                                                                               Advance
                                                                            Shipment Notice
                                                      Transportation                          Retailer                          A/P
                    Prepare Cross
                       Border
                    Documentation                     Company
                                International Documentation

    3

                       Receive              Update           Ship Order
                        Order              Inventory



                    Inventory                Third Party
                                     Warehouse Company
                                                                                                                 WfMC, September 2000, Slide 25
Specifications - Context Diagram
                                                                             Process Definition
                                         Resource Model                         Tool / Task                Process Definition
                                         Interface                                                         Interface
                                                                           creates /
                                                                           modifies
                                                                 may
                                 Organisational Model                        Process Definition
                                                               refer to
                                                                                                            inherits
                                                                              is instantiated by            properties               Audit Specifications
                                                           may
                                                         refer to

          External           create,                  Workflow                         create &                           maintain      Process Instance
                             destroy
                                                                                       destroy
                                                                                                      Process Instance     audit
         S/W object          modify                   Manager                                                                               History
                                                                                                                            trail
                                                     may use
  Process & Activity                                                             may invoke                  provides
                                  generates             Workflow                                             invocation
Control / Interoperability                                                                                   context
        Interface                                      Relevant Data
                                                                                                                                     Workflow Enactment
                                       Work Item
                                                                                                                                           Service

                         Worklist
                        Handler I/F                      may              Tool Agent
                                                         set
                                  processed by
                                                                                                   Application
                                        Worklist                                                   Invocation I/F
                                                                          Application
                                        Handler           may
                               presented                  invoke                        1. Workflow Manager may be distributed, but is
                               for action by                                               assumed to maintain consistent internal state

                                       Participant                                      2. Scope of a Process Definition is the enactment service
                                                                                                                  WfMC, September 2000, Slide 26
WfMC - Specifications

 Reference Model (1995)
 Glossary (1994, 1996, 1999)
 Workflow APIs
   – “C” (1995)
   – IDL / CORBA (1998)
 Interoperability Protocol & Bindings
   – MIME (Email) (1995)
   – IDL / CORBA (1998)
   – Wf-XML (April 2000)
 Audit specification (1997, 1999)
 Process Definition Import/Export Specification
   – WPDL (1999)
   – UML/XML (planned Q4 2000)
 OMG Submission (Object Model & IDL, 1998)
   – Ratified 1999

                                               WfMC, September 2000, Slide 27
Ongoing Work Areas

 Security
 Events & parallel synchronised interoperability
    standards
   Multiple concurrency workflows (EDI batches)
   XML integration (process definition,
    frameworks, data models, etc)




                                        WfMC, September 2000, Slide 28
Contacts & Further Information



       http://www.wfmc.org
      email: wfmc@wfmc.org


    david.hollingsworth@icl.com




                                  WfMC, September 2000, Slide 29
Process Integration
XML Standardization Initiatives

           Mike Marin
            FileNet




                          WfMC, September 2000, Slide 30
Introduction

 XML is the universal language of B2B
 Today ad-hoc implementations of B2B abound
   – Based on data interchange
   – High development cost
 Business start looking into standards
   – Decrease cost
   – Decrease risk
   – Increase potential partners




                                          WfMC, September 2000, Slide 31
XML Standards

 Explosion of XML standards
    – XML is becoming the language of standardization


 Overlapping functionality
    – Some industry segments have competing XML standards


 Emergence of for-profit standardization organizations

 It will take time for the dust to settle




                                                        WfMC, September 2000, Slide 32
Classifying B2B Standards

   Transport level
   Vertical market vocabularies
   Specific functionality area
   Framework based
   Process based




                                   WfMC, September 2000, Slide 33
Transport level

 Moving XML content around
 Examples
   – XML-RPC
      • Request/Response
   – Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
      • Unidirectional messages
   – Web Distributed Data Exchange (WDDX)
      • Exchanging structured data in a generic, cross-platform way




                                                      WfMC, September 2000, Slide 34
Vertical market vocabularies

 XML standardization for specific industries
 XML Repositories
   – XML.org
   – BizTalk.org
 Examples
   – Chemical Markup Language (CML)
   – Text Encoding Initiative (TEI)
   – Mathematical Markup Language (MathML)




                                                WfMC, September 2000, Slide 35
Specific functionality area

 XML standardization of specific business functions
 Examples
   – eBIS-XML
       • Order and invoice interchange
   – iCalendar
       • Calendaring and scheduling
   – Directory services markup language (DSML)
       • Based on LDAP




                                                 WfMC, September 2000, Slide 36
Framework based

 Formalized exchange of XML content
 Examples
   –   BizTalk
   –   RosettaNet
   –   ICE
   –   ebXML




                                       WfMC, September 2000, Slide 37
BizTalk

 Horizontally oriented
   – Works with vertical market vocabularies that adhere to the
     BizTalk conventions
 BizTalk framework is based on SOAP




                                                  WfMC, September 2000, Slide 38
RosettaNet

 Vertically oriented
   – Information technology (IT) supply chain standardization
   – Electronic components (EC) supply chain standardization
 Some process
   – Predefined partner interface process (PIP)




                                                  WfMC, September 2000, Slide 39
ICE

 Horizontally oriented
   – Work with vertical market vocabularies
 Syndicator/Subscriber model
   – Request/Response model
 No process concept




                                              WfMC, September 2000, Slide 40
ebXML

 Horizontally oriented
    – Based on a repository
 Goal is to create a single global electronic
    market
   Compatible with EDI
   Some process concepts




                                         WfMC, September 2000, Slide 41
Process based

 Business process oriented
  – General workflow functionality is horizontal
 Example
  – Wf-XML




                                                   WfMC, September 2000, Slide 42
Summary

 A crowded field
 Research your vertical market first
 Talk with the partners you intent to engage




                                        WfMC, September 2000, Slide 43
Wf-XML Interoperability Standard


         Marc-Thomas Schmidt
IBM UK, Business Integration Architecture
           mts@uk.ibm.com




                                  WfMC, September 2000, Slide 44
Wf-XML Scenario


 Enable interaction between Requesters and Providers of
  ‘workflow-type’ Business Services
   – Standardise minimum set of operations for managing interactions
     with potentially long running services

 Service Requester
   – Requests service to be performed
   – Inquires about status of execution

 Service Provider
   – Processes service requests
   – Informs requester on status of the request

 One Party can play both roles
                                                      WfMC, September 2000, Slide 45
Wf-XML Scenario Illustrated
Requester                       Provider   Requester
                                                                  Provider
                     Do It




     Done It
                    Query &
                    Control




   Party A                    Party B                            Party C

                                                       WfMC, September 2000, Slide 46
Multi-Party Interactions




Party A                                  Party B




                           Party C



                                     WfMC, September 2000, Slide 47
Interaction Partner Checklist
                                                          Services Repository
 Provider advertises service
   – Service interface definition, including in/out data, potential
     transports, Quality of Service, service constraints, ...
 Requester selects service matching their needs
                                                   Trading Partner Agreement
   – Required business function, requested Quality of Service, ...

 Provider & Requester agree on interaction contract
   – Transport, Security, Quality of Service, Data Representation,
                                                             Wf-XML
     …
 Requester and Provider perform interaction
   –   Requester initialises and starts service
   –   Provider accepts request and initiates service
   –   Requester may query status or cancel service request
   –   Provider completes request and returns results
                                                       WfMC, September 2000, Slide 48
Trading Partner Agreements
                                  Examples
Overall properties         // Contract duration
Identification             // Business partner info.
Communication properties   // HTTP, SMTP, etc.
Security properties
                           // Authentication, non-repudiation
Roles                      // Buyer, seller, broker, etc.
  Actions                  // Reserve, modify, etc.
    Responsiveness         // Timeout
    Sequencing rules       // Modify after reserve
    Constraints            // Modify before 6 p.m
    Recourse actions       // Refund, etc.
Error handling             // Retries, actions invoked
Legal text                 // Penalty if unreachable


                                             WfMC, September 2000, Slide 49
Wf-XML Specification
 XML Message Set for Interactions between requesters and
  providers of Workflow Business Services
 Based on existing Workflow Interoperability Standards
  initiatives
   – WfMC Workflow Interoperability Specification, OMG Workflow
     Management Facility (a.k.a jointFlow), Simple Workflow Access
     Protocol (SWAP)
 Main Features
   –   A structured and well-formed XML message set encoding
   –   Synchronous or asynchronous message-handling capability
   –   Independence from transport mechanism
   –   Easy extensibility through the use of XML and dynamic workflow
       context data




                                                          WfMC, September 2000, Slide 50
Wf-XML Resource Model
                                                                             Observer
 Resources                                            Create
   – … are identified by URI-type keys                Instance
   – … provide a set of operations
 Process Definition                                                               Provide
                                                                                  Feedback
   – Factory for service providers
 Process Instance
   – Realises a workflow business service             Control &
   – Parametrised by workflow context                  Query
                                                                                  Context
     data                                                                          data
 Observer
   – Represents service requester
                                          Process
                                         Definition
                                                          Process
                                                          Instance

                                                                  WfMC, September 2000, Slide 51
Workflow Context Data

 Define the workflow relevant instance variables of a
  workflow process business service
   – Initialised during instantiation of the process
   – Provide context for tasks in a workflow process
   – Updated by workflow tasks


 Example
   – Process Product Order takes Order Request as input
   – Stepwise completion of the Order Request during process
     execution, documenting progress of the workflow process
   – Order Completion notice upon process termination




                                                       WfMC, September 2000, Slide 52
Process Definition Resource

 Resource used to instantiate a particular workflow
  business service
   – Represents particular workflow process template
   – May be located via Service Repository
   – Internals of workflow process realisation not exposed

 CreateProcessInstance Operation
   – Takes workflow context data for process instance as input
   – Optionally allws for registration of process instance observer
   – Returns Process Instance identifier for future reference

 Example
   – Process Product Order Process
   – Takes specific Order details as input



                                                         WfMC, September 2000, Slide 53
Process Instance

 Resource representing a particular instance of a workflow
  business process
   – Execution state - basic, extensible state model
   – Workflow context data - input data plus intermediary results
   – Informs its observer about state or context data changes
 GetProcessInstanceData operation
   – Retrieves current content of workflow context data set
   – Can be used to retrieve final or intermediary results of process
 ChangeProcessInstanceState operation
   – Changes the execution state of the process instance
   – Can be used to suspend or terminate process instance
 Example
   – Process Product Order of 42 pencils for Marc-Thomas Schmidt


                                                         WfMC, September 2000, Slide 54
Process Instance State Model

 Defines basic set of execution states
   – Nested states
   – Level 1 and 2 mandatory, level 3 optional


 Can be extended by workflow service specialisations

                                                      closed
                open
                                                 abnormalCompleted
              notRunning
                                                      aborted
              suspended
                                                     terminated


               running
                                                     completed


                                                            WfMC, September 2000, Slide 55
Observer

 Resource representing a service requester
   – Registered with process instance during creation
   – Receives notifications on change of execution state and changes
     in workflow context data of a process instance
   – Up to service provider to determine which status changes are
     propagated
   – Future extensions may extend role to represent any party
     interested in process instance

 ProcessInstanceStateChanged operation
   – Takes current execution status and workflow context data as
     input

 Example
   – Initiator of a workflow process; may be another process


                                                       WfMC, September 2000, Slide 56
Wf-XML Message Set

 Messages represent operations on Wf-XML resources
   – Message pairs representing request-response model
 XML encoding of message content
 Transport Header
   – For future use
 Message Header
   – Indicates message type (request or response) and identifies
     resource which is target of request or source of response
 Message Body
   – Identifies operation, provides operation-specific parameters and
     eventual error codes
   – Pattern: OperationName.Request or OperationName.Response




                                                        WfMC, September 2000, Slide 57
Workflow Context Data Encoding
 Context Data encoding outside of Wf-XML scope
   – Message definitions use placeholders for context data
   – ContextData tag in request, ResultData tag in response messages
     with content model ANY

 Examples
   – Name-value pairs
       <name>item01</name><value>foo</value>
   – Structured, tagged data
       <vehicle>
           <vType>Car</vType>
           <vMake>BMW</vMake>
       </vehicle>
   – XML Schema encoding
       <xs:complexType name="length2">
            <xs:element name="size" type="dt:non-positive-integer"/>
            <xs:element name="unit" type="dt:NMTOKEN"/>
       </xs:complexType>




                                                                       WfMC, September 2000, Slide 58
CreateProcessInstance.Request
<?xml version=“1.0”?>
    <WfMessage Version=“1.0”>                                    Identifies process
    <WfTransport/>                                                   definition
    <WfMessageHeader>
          <Request ResponseRequired =”Yes”/>
          <Key>http://www.compInc.com/WfSrv?id=1199827</Key>
    </WfMessageHeader>                                                           Request to create
    <WfMessageBody>                                                               process instance
          <CreateProcessInstance.Request StartImmediately =”true”>
                   <ObserverKey>http://www.Acme.com/wfx456</ObserverKey>
                   <ContextData>
                            <Computer>
                                    <Type>thinkpad</Type>                        Observer to be
  Context data for
                                    <Series>600X</Series>                      notified of process
   this process
                                    <Option>DVD</Option>                             updates
     instance
                            </Computer>
                   </ContextData>
          </CreateProcessInstance.Request>
    </WfMessageBody>
</WfMessage>



                                                                            WfMC, September 2000, Slide 59
CreateProcessInstance.Response -
                     Success
<?xml version=“1.0”?>
   <WfMessage Version=“1.0”>                                               Identifies process
   <WfTransport/>                                                            definition that
   <WfMessageHeader>                                                       performed request
         <Response/>
         <Key>http://www.computerInc.com/WfSrv?id=1199827</Key>
   </WfMessageHeader>
   <WfMessageBody>
         <CreateProcessInstance.Response>
            <ProcessInstanceKey>http://www.compInc.com/pi42</ProcessInstanceKey>
         </CreateProcessInstance.Response>
   </WfMessageBody>
</WfMessage>




                                                                      Identifier of newly
                                                                        created process
                                                                           instance



                                                                         WfMC, September 2000, Slide 60
CreateProcessInstance.Response -
                    Errors
<?xml version=“1.0”?>
    <WfMessage Version=“1.0”>
          <WfTransport/>
          <WfMessageHeader>
                  <Response/>
                  <Key>http://www.comInccom/WfSrv?id=1199827</Key>
          </WfMessageHeader>
          <WfMessageBody>
                  <CreateProcessInstance.Response>
                  <Exception>
                           <MainCode>502</MainCode>
                           <Type>F</Type>
                           <Subject>Invalid Process Definition</Subject>
  Exception                <Description>Can not create instance</Description>
 information      </Exception>
                  </CreateProcessInstance.Response>
          </WfMessageBody>
    </WfMessage>




                                                                       WfMC, September 2000, Slide 61
GetProcessInstanceData.Request
<?xml version=“1.0”?>
   <WfMessage Version=“1.0”>
         <WfTransport/>                                         Process Instance ID
         <WfMessageHeader>                                        (from previous
                                                                  create request)
                  <Request ResponseRequired =”Yes”/>
                  <Key>http://www.compInc.com/pi42</Key>
         </WfMessageHeader>
         <WfMessageBody>                                        Identifies context
                  <GetProcessInstanceData.Request>               data we want to
                                                                   know about
                           <ResultDataAttributes>
                                    <Priority/>
                           </ResultDataAttributes>
                  </GetProcessInstanceData.Request>
         </WfMessageBody>
   </WfMessage>




                                                           WfMC, September 2000, Slide 62
GetProcessInstanceData.Response
<?xml version=“1.0”?>
   <WfMessage Version=“1.0”>
         <WfTransport/>                                           Process Instance ID
         <WfMessageHeader>                                        we send the request
                                                                           to
                  <Response/>
                  <Key>http://www.compInc.com/pi42</Key>
         </WfMessageHeader>
         <WfMessageBody>                                          Returns only the
                  <GetProcessInstanceData.Response>              properties we asked
                                                                         for
                           <ResultDataAttributes>
                                    <Priority>5</Priority>
                           </ResultDataAttributes>
                  </GetProcessInstanceData.Response>
         </WfMessageBody>
   </WfMessage>




                                                             WfMC, September 2000, Slide 63
ChangeProcessInstanceState.Request

<?xml version=“1.0”?>                                                     Process Instance ID
   <WfMessage Version=“1.0”>                                                (from previous
         <WfTransport/>                                                      create request)
         <WfMessageHeader>
                  <Request ResponseRequired =”Yes”/>
                  <Key>http://www.compInc.com/pi42</Key>                This is the state we
         </WfMessageHeader>                                               want the process
         <WfMessageBody>                                                 instance to take on
                  <ChangeProcessInstanceState.Request>
                           <State>closed.abnormalCompleted.terminated</State>
                  </ChangeProcessInstanceState.Request>
         </WfMessageBody>
   </WfMessage>




                                                                      WfMC, September 2000, Slide 64
ProcessInstanceStateChanged
                            Message
<?xml version=“1.0”?>
                                                                            Observer ID
   <WfMessage Version=“1.0”>                                              (registered with
       <WfTransport/>                                                     process instance
       <WfMessageHeader>                                                   during create)
          <Request ResponseRequired =”No”/>
          <Key>http://www.Acme.com/wfx456</Key>                                      Process Instance
       </WfMessageHeader>                                                             that sends the
       <WfMessageBody>                                                                 notification
          <ProcessInstanceStateChanged.Request>
          <ProcessInstanceKey>http://www.compInc.com/pi42</ProcessInstanceKey>
             <State>closed.abnormalCompleted.terminated</State>
             <ResultData>
               <Order>ACM00456</Order>
               <Account>ACM-400-2460</Account>                                            State of the
               <Amount>150.00</Amount>                                                  process instance
                                                            Context data of
             </ResultData>                                 process instance
             <LastModified>1999-12-25T15:10:35Z</LastModified>
          </ProcessInstanceStateChanged.Request>
       </WfMessageBody>
   </WfMessage>



                                                                                WfMC, September 2000, Slide 65
Transport Bindings

 Wf-XML does not mandate binding to a particular
  transport protocol
   – Potential transport protocols include HTTP, SMTP, MOM
 HTTP binding
   – Operations map to HTTP POST
   – Resource key is the URI to which a Post method is directed
   – The Wf-XML request is the request message body for input
   – The Wf-XML response is the response message body for output
   – Both request and response specify “Content-type: text/xml” in the
     HTTP message header.
   – Authentication is accomplished through the standard HTTP
     mechanisms




                                                       WfMC, September 2000, Slide 66
Summary


       Michael zur Muehlen
      University of Muenster
Department of Information Systems
   ismizu@wi.uni-muenster.de


                             WfMC, September 2000, Slide 67
Use of Wf-XML

 (Currently) Peer-to-Peer Communication
 Encapsulation of local process logic
   – Observe ACID Principles of Database Management
   – Syntactic abort of remote process may not equal a
     semantic abort
   – Change of local process logic may lead to global
     deadlocks: Observe partial serialization of process
     interfaces
 Wf-XML is very suitable for Service Outsourcing
  approaches
   – Academic research: WISE, CrossFlow
   – Commercial projects


                                                  WfMC, September 2000, Slide 68
Wf-XML in the Business Scenario

 Prerequisites
   – HTTP is initial transport binding, but Wf-XML is not limited
     to this
   – Workflow Management System is not necessarily required
       • Wf-XML Adapters for ERP systems
       • Wf-XML Adapters for Web Application Servers
       • Wf-XML Adapters for EJB Services
   – Few operations, well defined API – (relatively) little
     implementation effort
   – Wf-XML workflow-enables existing business infrastructure




                                                    WfMC, September 2000, Slide 69
Wf-XML Status and Outlook

 First version of the standard published by
  WfMC May 2000
   – Basic set of Interoperablity messages
   – HTTP binding available
 Future work areas
   – Additional bindings
   – Generalisation of Observer role
   – Process Definition introspection and link to Service
     Repositories
   – Process Instance update operations and execution
     monitoring
   – Link to Trading Partner Agreements and similar interaction
     contract definitions


                                                  WfMC, September 2000, Slide 70
Process Instance Update
  Operations and Execution Monitoring
 Re-send (additional) context data during remote
  process execution
 Monitoring of fine-grain process structure
   – Currently only coarse granularity of state changes
   – Filtering and/or translation of monitoring data
   – Integration of monitoring data from different sources
     (cascaded monitoring)
   – WfMC Interface 5 as a starting point for monitoring data
     specification




                                                   WfMC, September 2000, Slide 71
Execution Monitoring

 Currently: “push“ of coarse state change
  information to observer

                                     Process
        Observer
                                     Instance


 Future: Integration of fine grain monitoring data
  over several involved parties

                       Process                  Process
   Observer
                       Instance                 Instance


                                         WfMC, September 2000, Slide 72
Example: Web-based Helpdesk




                      WfMC, September 2000, Slide 73
Observer for User Monitoring Data




                          WfMC, September 2000, Slide 74
Details of Cascaded Processes




                       WfMC, September 2000, Slide 75
Re-Querying of Process Context Data




                          WfMC, September 2000, Slide 76
Workflow Standards Timeline

                                          Keith      SWAP
                                        Swenson                            IETF Standardization
                                           et al.   Initiative
           WfMC
          Reference            WfMC                  (1998) SWAP
           Model             IF 4 V 1.0                   Working                    Wf-XML
                                                                                      V 1.0
                                                           Group
           WfMC
          founded
                                                                                        WfMC
           (1993)                           jointFlow                                 IF 4 V 2.0
                                          Working Group           Interoperability
                                                                     Challenge
  OMG                                                                        Resource Ass. Int. RFP
founded                                                                      Process Modeling RFP
 (1989)          OMG                         OMG                     OMG
                Object                    CORBA 2.0                Workflow
              Management                  Specification          Facility (8/98)
              Architecture
                 1993
   1989




                                 1995




                                                          1999

                                                                    2000
                                                                 WfMC, September 2000, Slide 77
Wf-XML

 Adds the process dimension
 Has evolved from a solid foundation
   – WfMC
   – OMG
 Does not overlap with other XML standards
 Is complementary to most XML standards
 Has industry support




                                        WfMC, September 2000, Slide 78
Wf-XML Future

 Establish a dialog with other XML standards
   – Context data providers
   – Process providers/users
 Show how it complements other XML standards
   – Integration of vertical data sets as context data
   – Analysis of requirements of standards with process
     components (e. g. RosettaNet PIPs)




                                                 WfMC, September 2000, Slide 79

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2000 09 dh,mm,mts,mz m (xml world 2000) wf-xml tutorial

  • 1. XML-based standards for B2B Process Integration David Hollingsworth, ICL Mike Marin, FileNET Corp. Marc-Thomas Schmidt, IBM UK Ltd. Michael zur Muehlen, University of Muenster WfMC, September 2000, Slide 1
  • 2. Overview  Process Automation and the WfMC  Standards  Wf-XML  Applications WfMC, September 2000, Slide 2
  • 3. Process Automation and the WfMC David Hollingsworth WfMC, September 2000, Slide 3
  • 4. Agenda  Workflow, Process Automation and business integration considerations  Background on the Workflow Management Coalition  Process Interoperability Models  WfMC Standards & ongoing work WfMC, September 2000, Slide 4
  • 5. What is Workflow The automation of a business process, in whole or part, during which documents, information or tasks are passed from one participant* to another for action, according to a set of procedural rules. *participant = resource (human or machine) WfMC, September 2000, Slide 5
  • 6. Process Automation Overview Process Business Process Analysis, Designer Modelling & Definition Tools Process Design & Definition Process Definition Process Execution Process changes Administrator / Supervisor Workflow Management System Distributed Infrastructure Environment Work Application Presentation Launch Users Applications & IT Tools WfMC, September 2000, Slide 6
  • 7. The Process Definition 1. Activity Network - Nodes & Transitions A2 A1 A6 A3 A5 A8 A10 A11 A7 A4 A9 • Options for Sequential, Parallel & Conditional paths 2. Activity Definitions • Resource Requirement • Work Items • Applications 3. Data Definitions • Workflow Relevant Data • (Application Specific Data) WfMC, September 2000, Slide 7
  • 8. Production & Ad-hoc Workflow A loose distinction is sometimes drawn between  Production Workflow – in which most of the procedural rules are defined in advance and  Ad-hoc workflow – in which the procedural rules may be modified or created during the operation of the process. WfMC, September 2000, Slide 8
  • 9. Autonomous & Embedded Workflow Products  Autonomous – Freestanding independent software package providing workflow functionality – Integration with different application systems (desktop or server) which handle processing of the elementary workflow activities  Embedded – Workflow-functionality is part of the (application) software system (ERP, DM, PPC etc.) – Controls the sequence of elementary functions of the system within the application Differentiation: workflow-enabled versus workflow-based WfMC, September 2000, Slide 9
  • 10. Business Integration Requirements Process Business Support Systems Roles & Responsibilities Information Organisation Access & Ownership Permissions WfMC, September 2000, Slide 10
  • 11. Wider Integration Issues Process Model E-commerce Security & Audit Information Organisation Model Model Legacy Systems Common Directory Distributed Systems desktop Services Infrastructure access WfMC, September 2000, Slide 11
  • 12. Workflow - Past & Future  First generation - disjoint applications, human interface – Call Centre management – Correspondence handling – Claims authorisation, etc  Second generation - infrastructure, broker / agent interfaces: – E-process support (B2Anything) – Enterprise Application Integration WfMC, September 2000, Slide 12
  • 13. WfMC Background  Founded in 1993, to develop & promote workflow integration capability  Non profit-making, open to all  Working arrangements with AIIM, OMG and IETF  Current membership is c. 220, made up of: User S. America Japan / Asia Analyst / Consultant US / Canada Academic & Research Europe Vendor Integrator/VAR WfMC, September 2000, Slide 13
  • 14. The Workflow Reference Model Process Definition Tools Interface 1 Process Definition Import/Export Interface 5 Other Workflow Workflow Enactment Service Enactment Service(s) Administration & Monitoring Tools Workflow Workflow Engine(s) Engine(s) Interface 2 Interface 3 Interface 4 - Interoperability Client Worklist Tool Agent Apps Handler Invoked Legacy, Applications Desktop, etc WfMC, September 2000, Slide 14
  • 15. Process Definition Interchange  Purpose – Exchange of info between BPR tools, workflow systems, process definition repositories  Process Definition Meta-Model – Defines objects, attributes & relationships – Core Set plus extensible attributes  WPDL / XML – Syntax for encoding the process definition  Process Definition Manipulation APIs – APIs for reading & writing object & attribute data WfMC, September 2000, Slide 15
  • 16. Client Application Interface  Purpose – To allow applications portability & re-use  APIs to support – Process & Activity Control – Worklist Handling – Supervisory Process & Activity Control – Process Definition manipulation  Language Support – “C”, IDL & OLE (V2),  WAPI Specification – V1 - Published Nov 95, now at V1.4 – V2 - 1998 (joint OMG / WfMC spec) WfMC, September 2000, Slide 16
  • 17. Applications Invocation  Purpose – To provide a common framework for 3rd parties to integrate other industry application APIs & services – To support an interface to access legacy applications  APIs for use by Workflow Engine or Worklist Handler – Connect/Disconnect – Invoke Application, Request Status, Terminate  Status – Included in WAPI V2 WfMC, September 2000, Slide 17
  • 18. Applications Interoperability  Purpose – To allow a business process to be implemented over two or more workflow systems  Interchange protocol – Abstract (functional) specification in IDL for nested & chained subprocesses – Binding specification for Internet Mail using MIME – CORBA version included in OMG submission  Status – Full Specification released Q1 97, now with abstract spec, MIME binding and Wf-XML versions all at current level. – IDL & CORBA version provided in OMG proposal – XML version released Q1 2000 WfMC, September 2000, Slide 18
  • 19. Administration & Monitoring  Purpose – To allow consistent administration across diverse systems  Audit specifications – Audit event identification, formats & recording – Formal released as full specification Q1 97  WAPI - Administrative APIs – Group operations on Processes & Activities Instances – Status retrieval - Process & Activity instances – Operations on Process Definitions  Administration - wider aspects – - Draft spec of admin functions (audit retrieval APIs and monitoring policy controls) WfMC, September 2000, Slide 19
  • 20. Process Interoperability  Scope may be: – Local / Departmental – Enterprise – Inter-Enterprise  Style may be: – Sub-process - hierarchic or chained – Parallel synchronised  Purpose: – EAI – Web integration, B2B, B2C, etc – Trading Frameworks / Hub WfMC, September 2000, Slide 20
  • 21. Distributing the Business Process Definition Execution Sub-Process C ? Organisation C C Organisation A Process A B export Sub-Process B Organisation B WfMC, September 2000, Slide 21
  • 22. 1. Sub-Process Interoperability Model A2 A1 A5 A3 A4 B2 B1 B3 B4 C1 C2 C3 C4 WAPI Initiate Sub-process Workflow Enactment Service WAPI #1 WAPI Return Workflow Enactment Service #2 Workflow Enactment Service #3 WfMC, September 2000, Slide 22
  • 23. 2. Parallel Synchronised Interoperability Model Synchpoint across processes A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2 B3 B4 C1 C2 C3 C4 • To support inter-process dependencies • Uses Synch Event and optional Confirm WAPI WAPI Sync. Event Workflow Enactment Service Workflow Enactment Service #1 #2 optional Confirm WfMC, September 2000, Slide 23
  • 24. Process Naming & Context  Activities may be atomic, sub-process call, or in-line block  A sub-process inherits characteristics from its process definition and has its own name space apart from “Root Process Id” (from initiating process)  A sub-process call may be specified as synchronous or asynchronous, binding prefixed or late  An in-line block operates within the name space and characteristics of its local process  Activity and Transition Ids are unique within a process definition  Resource naming may use an Organisational Model - typically unique to a workflow enactment service WfMC, September 2000, Slide 24
  • 25. The Supply Chain Process Model Manufacturer Distributor Place Receive Order Place Order MRP Order Order DRP 2 QA Confirm Order Schedule Update Update Order Acknowledgment Receipt Inventory DRP Schedule Ship Order Advance Receive Ship Order Shipment Shipment Notice Goods 5 Transport 4 Transport Advance 1 Replenishment Request Confirmation Shipment Notice Transportation Company Request Confirm Receive Update Replenish Vehicle Transport Goods Inventory Inventory Inventory Determine Dispatch Release Prepare International Truck Payment Payment Order Advance Shipment Notice Transportation Retailer A/P Prepare Cross Border Documentation Company International Documentation 3 Receive Update Ship Order Order Inventory Inventory Third Party Warehouse Company WfMC, September 2000, Slide 25
  • 26. Specifications - Context Diagram Process Definition Resource Model Tool / Task Process Definition Interface Interface creates / modifies may Organisational Model Process Definition refer to inherits is instantiated by properties Audit Specifications may refer to External create, Workflow create & maintain Process Instance destroy destroy Process Instance audit S/W object modify Manager History trail may use Process & Activity may invoke provides generates Workflow invocation Control / Interoperability context Interface Relevant Data Workflow Enactment Work Item Service Worklist Handler I/F may Tool Agent set processed by Application Worklist Invocation I/F Application Handler may presented invoke 1. Workflow Manager may be distributed, but is for action by assumed to maintain consistent internal state Participant 2. Scope of a Process Definition is the enactment service WfMC, September 2000, Slide 26
  • 27. WfMC - Specifications  Reference Model (1995)  Glossary (1994, 1996, 1999)  Workflow APIs – “C” (1995) – IDL / CORBA (1998)  Interoperability Protocol & Bindings – MIME (Email) (1995) – IDL / CORBA (1998) – Wf-XML (April 2000)  Audit specification (1997, 1999)  Process Definition Import/Export Specification – WPDL (1999) – UML/XML (planned Q4 2000)  OMG Submission (Object Model & IDL, 1998) – Ratified 1999 WfMC, September 2000, Slide 27
  • 28. Ongoing Work Areas  Security  Events & parallel synchronised interoperability standards  Multiple concurrency workflows (EDI batches)  XML integration (process definition, frameworks, data models, etc) WfMC, September 2000, Slide 28
  • 29. Contacts & Further Information http://www.wfmc.org email: wfmc@wfmc.org david.hollingsworth@icl.com WfMC, September 2000, Slide 29
  • 30. Process Integration XML Standardization Initiatives Mike Marin FileNet WfMC, September 2000, Slide 30
  • 31. Introduction  XML is the universal language of B2B  Today ad-hoc implementations of B2B abound – Based on data interchange – High development cost  Business start looking into standards – Decrease cost – Decrease risk – Increase potential partners WfMC, September 2000, Slide 31
  • 32. XML Standards  Explosion of XML standards – XML is becoming the language of standardization  Overlapping functionality – Some industry segments have competing XML standards  Emergence of for-profit standardization organizations  It will take time for the dust to settle WfMC, September 2000, Slide 32
  • 33. Classifying B2B Standards  Transport level  Vertical market vocabularies  Specific functionality area  Framework based  Process based WfMC, September 2000, Slide 33
  • 34. Transport level  Moving XML content around  Examples – XML-RPC • Request/Response – Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) • Unidirectional messages – Web Distributed Data Exchange (WDDX) • Exchanging structured data in a generic, cross-platform way WfMC, September 2000, Slide 34
  • 35. Vertical market vocabularies  XML standardization for specific industries  XML Repositories – XML.org – BizTalk.org  Examples – Chemical Markup Language (CML) – Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) – Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) WfMC, September 2000, Slide 35
  • 36. Specific functionality area  XML standardization of specific business functions  Examples – eBIS-XML • Order and invoice interchange – iCalendar • Calendaring and scheduling – Directory services markup language (DSML) • Based on LDAP WfMC, September 2000, Slide 36
  • 37. Framework based  Formalized exchange of XML content  Examples – BizTalk – RosettaNet – ICE – ebXML WfMC, September 2000, Slide 37
  • 38. BizTalk  Horizontally oriented – Works with vertical market vocabularies that adhere to the BizTalk conventions  BizTalk framework is based on SOAP WfMC, September 2000, Slide 38
  • 39. RosettaNet  Vertically oriented – Information technology (IT) supply chain standardization – Electronic components (EC) supply chain standardization  Some process – Predefined partner interface process (PIP) WfMC, September 2000, Slide 39
  • 40. ICE  Horizontally oriented – Work with vertical market vocabularies  Syndicator/Subscriber model – Request/Response model  No process concept WfMC, September 2000, Slide 40
  • 41. ebXML  Horizontally oriented – Based on a repository  Goal is to create a single global electronic market  Compatible with EDI  Some process concepts WfMC, September 2000, Slide 41
  • 42. Process based  Business process oriented – General workflow functionality is horizontal  Example – Wf-XML WfMC, September 2000, Slide 42
  • 43. Summary  A crowded field  Research your vertical market first  Talk with the partners you intent to engage WfMC, September 2000, Slide 43
  • 44. Wf-XML Interoperability Standard Marc-Thomas Schmidt IBM UK, Business Integration Architecture mts@uk.ibm.com WfMC, September 2000, Slide 44
  • 45. Wf-XML Scenario  Enable interaction between Requesters and Providers of ‘workflow-type’ Business Services – Standardise minimum set of operations for managing interactions with potentially long running services  Service Requester – Requests service to be performed – Inquires about status of execution  Service Provider – Processes service requests – Informs requester on status of the request  One Party can play both roles WfMC, September 2000, Slide 45
  • 46. Wf-XML Scenario Illustrated Requester Provider Requester Provider Do It Done It Query & Control Party A Party B Party C WfMC, September 2000, Slide 46
  • 47. Multi-Party Interactions Party A Party B Party C WfMC, September 2000, Slide 47
  • 48. Interaction Partner Checklist Services Repository  Provider advertises service – Service interface definition, including in/out data, potential transports, Quality of Service, service constraints, ...  Requester selects service matching their needs Trading Partner Agreement – Required business function, requested Quality of Service, ...  Provider & Requester agree on interaction contract – Transport, Security, Quality of Service, Data Representation, Wf-XML …  Requester and Provider perform interaction – Requester initialises and starts service – Provider accepts request and initiates service – Requester may query status or cancel service request – Provider completes request and returns results WfMC, September 2000, Slide 48
  • 49. Trading Partner Agreements Examples Overall properties // Contract duration Identification // Business partner info. Communication properties // HTTP, SMTP, etc. Security properties // Authentication, non-repudiation Roles // Buyer, seller, broker, etc. Actions // Reserve, modify, etc. Responsiveness // Timeout Sequencing rules // Modify after reserve Constraints // Modify before 6 p.m Recourse actions // Refund, etc. Error handling // Retries, actions invoked Legal text // Penalty if unreachable WfMC, September 2000, Slide 49
  • 50. Wf-XML Specification  XML Message Set for Interactions between requesters and providers of Workflow Business Services  Based on existing Workflow Interoperability Standards initiatives – WfMC Workflow Interoperability Specification, OMG Workflow Management Facility (a.k.a jointFlow), Simple Workflow Access Protocol (SWAP)  Main Features – A structured and well-formed XML message set encoding – Synchronous or asynchronous message-handling capability – Independence from transport mechanism – Easy extensibility through the use of XML and dynamic workflow context data WfMC, September 2000, Slide 50
  • 51. Wf-XML Resource Model Observer  Resources Create – … are identified by URI-type keys Instance – … provide a set of operations  Process Definition Provide Feedback – Factory for service providers  Process Instance – Realises a workflow business service Control & – Parametrised by workflow context Query Context data data  Observer – Represents service requester Process Definition Process Instance WfMC, September 2000, Slide 51
  • 52. Workflow Context Data  Define the workflow relevant instance variables of a workflow process business service – Initialised during instantiation of the process – Provide context for tasks in a workflow process – Updated by workflow tasks  Example – Process Product Order takes Order Request as input – Stepwise completion of the Order Request during process execution, documenting progress of the workflow process – Order Completion notice upon process termination WfMC, September 2000, Slide 52
  • 53. Process Definition Resource  Resource used to instantiate a particular workflow business service – Represents particular workflow process template – May be located via Service Repository – Internals of workflow process realisation not exposed  CreateProcessInstance Operation – Takes workflow context data for process instance as input – Optionally allws for registration of process instance observer – Returns Process Instance identifier for future reference  Example – Process Product Order Process – Takes specific Order details as input WfMC, September 2000, Slide 53
  • 54. Process Instance  Resource representing a particular instance of a workflow business process – Execution state - basic, extensible state model – Workflow context data - input data plus intermediary results – Informs its observer about state or context data changes  GetProcessInstanceData operation – Retrieves current content of workflow context data set – Can be used to retrieve final or intermediary results of process  ChangeProcessInstanceState operation – Changes the execution state of the process instance – Can be used to suspend or terminate process instance  Example – Process Product Order of 42 pencils for Marc-Thomas Schmidt WfMC, September 2000, Slide 54
  • 55. Process Instance State Model  Defines basic set of execution states – Nested states – Level 1 and 2 mandatory, level 3 optional  Can be extended by workflow service specialisations closed open abnormalCompleted notRunning aborted suspended terminated running completed WfMC, September 2000, Slide 55
  • 56. Observer  Resource representing a service requester – Registered with process instance during creation – Receives notifications on change of execution state and changes in workflow context data of a process instance – Up to service provider to determine which status changes are propagated – Future extensions may extend role to represent any party interested in process instance  ProcessInstanceStateChanged operation – Takes current execution status and workflow context data as input  Example – Initiator of a workflow process; may be another process WfMC, September 2000, Slide 56
  • 57. Wf-XML Message Set  Messages represent operations on Wf-XML resources – Message pairs representing request-response model  XML encoding of message content  Transport Header – For future use  Message Header – Indicates message type (request or response) and identifies resource which is target of request or source of response  Message Body – Identifies operation, provides operation-specific parameters and eventual error codes – Pattern: OperationName.Request or OperationName.Response WfMC, September 2000, Slide 57
  • 58. Workflow Context Data Encoding  Context Data encoding outside of Wf-XML scope – Message definitions use placeholders for context data – ContextData tag in request, ResultData tag in response messages with content model ANY  Examples – Name-value pairs <name>item01</name><value>foo</value> – Structured, tagged data <vehicle> <vType>Car</vType> <vMake>BMW</vMake> </vehicle> – XML Schema encoding <xs:complexType name="length2"> <xs:element name="size" type="dt:non-positive-integer"/> <xs:element name="unit" type="dt:NMTOKEN"/> </xs:complexType> WfMC, September 2000, Slide 58
  • 59. CreateProcessInstance.Request <?xml version=“1.0”?> <WfMessage Version=“1.0”> Identifies process <WfTransport/> definition <WfMessageHeader> <Request ResponseRequired =”Yes”/> <Key>http://www.compInc.com/WfSrv?id=1199827</Key> </WfMessageHeader> Request to create <WfMessageBody> process instance <CreateProcessInstance.Request StartImmediately =”true”> <ObserverKey>http://www.Acme.com/wfx456</ObserverKey> <ContextData> <Computer> <Type>thinkpad</Type> Observer to be Context data for <Series>600X</Series> notified of process this process <Option>DVD</Option> updates instance </Computer> </ContextData> </CreateProcessInstance.Request> </WfMessageBody> </WfMessage> WfMC, September 2000, Slide 59
  • 60. CreateProcessInstance.Response - Success <?xml version=“1.0”?> <WfMessage Version=“1.0”> Identifies process <WfTransport/> definition that <WfMessageHeader> performed request <Response/> <Key>http://www.computerInc.com/WfSrv?id=1199827</Key> </WfMessageHeader> <WfMessageBody> <CreateProcessInstance.Response> <ProcessInstanceKey>http://www.compInc.com/pi42</ProcessInstanceKey> </CreateProcessInstance.Response> </WfMessageBody> </WfMessage> Identifier of newly created process instance WfMC, September 2000, Slide 60
  • 61. CreateProcessInstance.Response - Errors <?xml version=“1.0”?> <WfMessage Version=“1.0”> <WfTransport/> <WfMessageHeader> <Response/> <Key>http://www.comInccom/WfSrv?id=1199827</Key> </WfMessageHeader> <WfMessageBody> <CreateProcessInstance.Response> <Exception> <MainCode>502</MainCode> <Type>F</Type> <Subject>Invalid Process Definition</Subject> Exception <Description>Can not create instance</Description> information </Exception> </CreateProcessInstance.Response> </WfMessageBody> </WfMessage> WfMC, September 2000, Slide 61
  • 62. GetProcessInstanceData.Request <?xml version=“1.0”?> <WfMessage Version=“1.0”> <WfTransport/> Process Instance ID <WfMessageHeader> (from previous create request) <Request ResponseRequired =”Yes”/> <Key>http://www.compInc.com/pi42</Key> </WfMessageHeader> <WfMessageBody> Identifies context <GetProcessInstanceData.Request> data we want to know about <ResultDataAttributes> <Priority/> </ResultDataAttributes> </GetProcessInstanceData.Request> </WfMessageBody> </WfMessage> WfMC, September 2000, Slide 62
  • 63. GetProcessInstanceData.Response <?xml version=“1.0”?> <WfMessage Version=“1.0”> <WfTransport/> Process Instance ID <WfMessageHeader> we send the request to <Response/> <Key>http://www.compInc.com/pi42</Key> </WfMessageHeader> <WfMessageBody> Returns only the <GetProcessInstanceData.Response> properties we asked for <ResultDataAttributes> <Priority>5</Priority> </ResultDataAttributes> </GetProcessInstanceData.Response> </WfMessageBody> </WfMessage> WfMC, September 2000, Slide 63
  • 64. ChangeProcessInstanceState.Request <?xml version=“1.0”?> Process Instance ID <WfMessage Version=“1.0”> (from previous <WfTransport/> create request) <WfMessageHeader> <Request ResponseRequired =”Yes”/> <Key>http://www.compInc.com/pi42</Key> This is the state we </WfMessageHeader> want the process <WfMessageBody> instance to take on <ChangeProcessInstanceState.Request> <State>closed.abnormalCompleted.terminated</State> </ChangeProcessInstanceState.Request> </WfMessageBody> </WfMessage> WfMC, September 2000, Slide 64
  • 65. ProcessInstanceStateChanged Message <?xml version=“1.0”?> Observer ID <WfMessage Version=“1.0”> (registered with <WfTransport/> process instance <WfMessageHeader> during create) <Request ResponseRequired =”No”/> <Key>http://www.Acme.com/wfx456</Key> Process Instance </WfMessageHeader> that sends the <WfMessageBody> notification <ProcessInstanceStateChanged.Request> <ProcessInstanceKey>http://www.compInc.com/pi42</ProcessInstanceKey> <State>closed.abnormalCompleted.terminated</State> <ResultData> <Order>ACM00456</Order> <Account>ACM-400-2460</Account> State of the <Amount>150.00</Amount> process instance Context data of </ResultData> process instance <LastModified>1999-12-25T15:10:35Z</LastModified> </ProcessInstanceStateChanged.Request> </WfMessageBody> </WfMessage> WfMC, September 2000, Slide 65
  • 66. Transport Bindings  Wf-XML does not mandate binding to a particular transport protocol – Potential transport protocols include HTTP, SMTP, MOM  HTTP binding – Operations map to HTTP POST – Resource key is the URI to which a Post method is directed – The Wf-XML request is the request message body for input – The Wf-XML response is the response message body for output – Both request and response specify “Content-type: text/xml” in the HTTP message header. – Authentication is accomplished through the standard HTTP mechanisms WfMC, September 2000, Slide 66
  • 67. Summary Michael zur Muehlen University of Muenster Department of Information Systems ismizu@wi.uni-muenster.de WfMC, September 2000, Slide 67
  • 68. Use of Wf-XML  (Currently) Peer-to-Peer Communication  Encapsulation of local process logic – Observe ACID Principles of Database Management – Syntactic abort of remote process may not equal a semantic abort – Change of local process logic may lead to global deadlocks: Observe partial serialization of process interfaces  Wf-XML is very suitable for Service Outsourcing approaches – Academic research: WISE, CrossFlow – Commercial projects WfMC, September 2000, Slide 68
  • 69. Wf-XML in the Business Scenario  Prerequisites – HTTP is initial transport binding, but Wf-XML is not limited to this – Workflow Management System is not necessarily required • Wf-XML Adapters for ERP systems • Wf-XML Adapters for Web Application Servers • Wf-XML Adapters for EJB Services – Few operations, well defined API – (relatively) little implementation effort – Wf-XML workflow-enables existing business infrastructure WfMC, September 2000, Slide 69
  • 70. Wf-XML Status and Outlook  First version of the standard published by WfMC May 2000 – Basic set of Interoperablity messages – HTTP binding available  Future work areas – Additional bindings – Generalisation of Observer role – Process Definition introspection and link to Service Repositories – Process Instance update operations and execution monitoring – Link to Trading Partner Agreements and similar interaction contract definitions WfMC, September 2000, Slide 70
  • 71. Process Instance Update Operations and Execution Monitoring  Re-send (additional) context data during remote process execution  Monitoring of fine-grain process structure – Currently only coarse granularity of state changes – Filtering and/or translation of monitoring data – Integration of monitoring data from different sources (cascaded monitoring) – WfMC Interface 5 as a starting point for monitoring data specification WfMC, September 2000, Slide 71
  • 72. Execution Monitoring  Currently: “push“ of coarse state change information to observer Process Observer Instance  Future: Integration of fine grain monitoring data over several involved parties Process Process Observer Instance Instance WfMC, September 2000, Slide 72
  • 73. Example: Web-based Helpdesk WfMC, September 2000, Slide 73
  • 74. Observer for User Monitoring Data WfMC, September 2000, Slide 74
  • 75. Details of Cascaded Processes WfMC, September 2000, Slide 75
  • 76. Re-Querying of Process Context Data WfMC, September 2000, Slide 76
  • 77. Workflow Standards Timeline Keith SWAP Swenson IETF Standardization et al. Initiative WfMC Reference WfMC (1998) SWAP Model IF 4 V 1.0 Working Wf-XML V 1.0 Group WfMC founded WfMC (1993) jointFlow IF 4 V 2.0 Working Group Interoperability Challenge OMG Resource Ass. Int. RFP founded Process Modeling RFP (1989) OMG OMG OMG Object CORBA 2.0 Workflow Management Specification Facility (8/98) Architecture 1993 1989 1995 1999 2000 WfMC, September 2000, Slide 77
  • 78. Wf-XML  Adds the process dimension  Has evolved from a solid foundation – WfMC – OMG  Does not overlap with other XML standards  Is complementary to most XML standards  Has industry support WfMC, September 2000, Slide 78
  • 79. Wf-XML Future  Establish a dialog with other XML standards – Context data providers – Process providers/users  Show how it complements other XML standards – Integration of vertical data sets as context data – Analysis of requirements of standards with process components (e. g. RosettaNet PIPs) WfMC, September 2000, Slide 79