SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Daoud A.Hirad
11/10/2022
Building materials account for ~60 to 70% of the
cost of housing construction
A constant rise in cost of conventional building
materials
 Construction cost is way beyond the affordable
limits of the majority
Leading modern (conventional building ): cement,
concrete, steel,
bricks and wood
Affordability????
Alternative (low cost) materials and technologies
are sought for
 Low cost materials??
LECTURE 3.pptx
 Not sub-standard
 Materials available / developed locally
 Cost reducing modern materials with technologies
Energy efficient
Environment friendly
Employment generating
Traditional
Conventional / Modern
Serve the basic need of the majority of the population
 Have very useful properties – however, modification in
the production process and application technique is
needed – for better structural and functional acceptance.
 Obtained by using modern technologies
 Results of research but have to be adopted to
indigenous requirements
STRAW PANEL
 Cost of a Building = Material + Labor + Equipment/Machine/Tools +
Others (Overhead + profit)
 a systematic design and construction in usage of construction
materials used in a building without compromising quality,structural safety and
functional requirements of the building.
Building material cost:60-70%
Labour cost:25-35%
 Indigenous building materials have been used
extensively for building houses at affordable cost.
They are easily available locally at little or no cost
and local people are conversant with the
technology of using them for construction of houses
largely through self-help
Organic Materials Include widely used materials
such as grasses and leaves, husks, and straws,
reeds and bamboos, and wood and wood products
which are vulnerable to early decay and insect
attack.
 Inorganic materials include commonly used
materials like soils and laterite, burnt clay bricks
and tiles, building lime and clay pozzolana, stones,
and sands.
 As a result of research work done improved use of
these materials for construction of low-cost houses
has been made for achieving economy.
Includes buildings (or elements) where the
majority of the structural components are
standardized and produced in plants in a location
away from the building.
Manufactured by industrial methods based on
massproduction – shorter time – low cost
Direct
 Indirect
 Optimization of land use
 Functional design of buildings
 Optimum use of building materials
 Rationalization of specifications
 New construction materials and techniques
 location and access to services and facilities
LECTURE 3.pptx
LECTURE 3.pptx
 Aesthetics and luxury should be less.
 Simple rectangular plan
 Minimize staircase and circulation area
 Optimum storey height- building height
 Optimum opening areas- windows, doors ,skylights etc.
 Standard material dimensions and equipment
modules limit waste and labor, reducing costs by at
least 10 percent
minimum on-site modification and materials
wastage
LECTURE 3.pptx
Access to employment areas, services and facilities
within convenient walking distance of housing.
household expenditure on
electricity
 gas
 water
 Energy efficient housing designs can reduce
consumption of these utility services and thereby
household costs.
Modular construction is a process in which a
building is constructed off-site, under
controlled plant conditions, using the same
materials and designing to the same codes
and standards as conventionally built facilities
The factory-controlled process generates less
waste, creates fewer site disturbances and allows
for tighter construction
Improved Air Quality: Because the modular
structure is substantially completed in a factory-
controlled setting using dry materials
LECTURE 3.pptx
 The indoor construction environment reduces the
risks of accidents and related liabilities for
workers.
 VS
• load bearing structure cheaper for normal low rise
building as it requires lesser concrete and steel
rods
• thick wall provides thermal insulation
• easier and requires less time to construction
Low cost materials should be:
1. Locally available
2. Environmentally friendly
3. It should be non-toxic
4. Longer durability and longevity
5. Recyclable and re-usable
6. Biodegradability.
Stone
Plastic
Log
Bamboo
Metal
Thatch
Rammed earth
Natural Man made
 Logs plastics
 Bamboo
 Compressed Earth Block
 Straw and thatch
 Stone
LECTURE 3.pptx

More Related Content

Similar to LECTURE 3.pptx

Low cost building materials
Low cost building materials Low cost building materials
Low cost building materials
Soumitra Smart
 
Low cost building materials
Low cost building materialsLow cost building materials
Low cost building materials
Soumitra Smart
 
Low cost housing
Low cost housing Low cost housing
Low cost housing
Sayali Mosby
 
Green building construction and materials aayush kumar
Green building construction and materials  aayush kumarGreen building construction and materials  aayush kumar
Green building construction and materials aayush kumar
PresidencyUniversity
 
Green building construction and materials aayush kumar
Green building construction and materials  aayush kumarGreen building construction and materials  aayush kumar
Green building construction and materials aayush kumar
PresidencyUniversity
 
Decision making for selection of material for constructing “Green Building” ...
Decision making for selection of material for constructing  “Green Building” ...Decision making for selection of material for constructing  “Green Building” ...
Decision making for selection of material for constructing “Green Building” ...
Sadia Rahat
 
Green Buildings and Eco-friendlyssffd.ppt
Green Buildings and Eco-friendlyssffd.pptGreen Buildings and Eco-friendlyssffd.ppt
Green Buildings and Eco-friendlyssffd.ppt
PranavDevale2
 
Making Buildings Cost- Effective through Building Design
Making Buildings  Cost- Effective through  Building DesignMaking Buildings  Cost- Effective through  Building Design
Making Buildings Cost- Effective through Building Design
JIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
COST EFFECIENT CHAP 3 ppt.pptx
COST EFFECIENT CHAP 3 ppt.pptxCOST EFFECIENT CHAP 3 ppt.pptx
COST EFFECIENT CHAP 3 ppt.pptx
abedamtie
 
shubham.pptx
shubham.pptxshubham.pptx
shubham.pptx
ssuser3dead61
 
Presentation4
Presentation4Presentation4
Presentation4
Satyendra Patel
 
Low cost housing
Low cost housingLow cost housing
Low cost housing
Shashiraj Chougule
 
C25 wg1 dimitrios_bikas
C25 wg1 dimitrios_bikasC25 wg1 dimitrios_bikas
C25 wg1 dimitrios_bikas
Instituto de Ingeniería de la UNAM
 
PROMOTING GREEN BUILDINGS THROUGH BAMBOOS
PROMOTING GREEN BUILDINGS THROUGH BAMBOOSPROMOTING GREEN BUILDINGS THROUGH BAMBOOS
PROMOTING GREEN BUILDINGS THROUGH BAMBOOS
JIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Sustainability and Specifications
Sustainability and SpecificationsSustainability and Specifications
Sustainability and Specifications
Andrej_M
 
LEED India + Case Study : CII Sohrabji Godrej, ITC Green Center
LEED India + Case Study : CII Sohrabji Godrej, ITC Green CenterLEED India + Case Study : CII Sohrabji Godrej, ITC Green Center
LEED India + Case Study : CII Sohrabji Godrej, ITC Green Center
baburajiv2007
 
Green building
Green buildingGreen building
Green building
Prajwal Aradhya S
 
APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGIES.pptx
APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGIES.pptxAPPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGIES.pptx
APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGIES.pptx
JIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Green building materials
Green building materialsGreen building materials
Green building materials
chazza1234
 
Presentation1
Presentation1Presentation1
Presentation1
agraaditi
 

Similar to LECTURE 3.pptx (20)

Low cost building materials
Low cost building materials Low cost building materials
Low cost building materials
 
Low cost building materials
Low cost building materialsLow cost building materials
Low cost building materials
 
Low cost housing
Low cost housing Low cost housing
Low cost housing
 
Green building construction and materials aayush kumar
Green building construction and materials  aayush kumarGreen building construction and materials  aayush kumar
Green building construction and materials aayush kumar
 
Green building construction and materials aayush kumar
Green building construction and materials  aayush kumarGreen building construction and materials  aayush kumar
Green building construction and materials aayush kumar
 
Decision making for selection of material for constructing “Green Building” ...
Decision making for selection of material for constructing  “Green Building” ...Decision making for selection of material for constructing  “Green Building” ...
Decision making for selection of material for constructing “Green Building” ...
 
Green Buildings and Eco-friendlyssffd.ppt
Green Buildings and Eco-friendlyssffd.pptGreen Buildings and Eco-friendlyssffd.ppt
Green Buildings and Eco-friendlyssffd.ppt
 
Making Buildings Cost- Effective through Building Design
Making Buildings  Cost- Effective through  Building DesignMaking Buildings  Cost- Effective through  Building Design
Making Buildings Cost- Effective through Building Design
 
COST EFFECIENT CHAP 3 ppt.pptx
COST EFFECIENT CHAP 3 ppt.pptxCOST EFFECIENT CHAP 3 ppt.pptx
COST EFFECIENT CHAP 3 ppt.pptx
 
shubham.pptx
shubham.pptxshubham.pptx
shubham.pptx
 
Presentation4
Presentation4Presentation4
Presentation4
 
Low cost housing
Low cost housingLow cost housing
Low cost housing
 
C25 wg1 dimitrios_bikas
C25 wg1 dimitrios_bikasC25 wg1 dimitrios_bikas
C25 wg1 dimitrios_bikas
 
PROMOTING GREEN BUILDINGS THROUGH BAMBOOS
PROMOTING GREEN BUILDINGS THROUGH BAMBOOSPROMOTING GREEN BUILDINGS THROUGH BAMBOOS
PROMOTING GREEN BUILDINGS THROUGH BAMBOOS
 
Sustainability and Specifications
Sustainability and SpecificationsSustainability and Specifications
Sustainability and Specifications
 
LEED India + Case Study : CII Sohrabji Godrej, ITC Green Center
LEED India + Case Study : CII Sohrabji Godrej, ITC Green CenterLEED India + Case Study : CII Sohrabji Godrej, ITC Green Center
LEED India + Case Study : CII Sohrabji Godrej, ITC Green Center
 
Green building
Green buildingGreen building
Green building
 
APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGIES.pptx
APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGIES.pptxAPPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGIES.pptx
APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGIES.pptx
 
Green building materials
Green building materialsGreen building materials
Green building materials
 
Presentation1
Presentation1Presentation1
Presentation1
 

More from AbdihakiimMohamed3

chapter 2 histo.pdf
chapter 2 histo.pdfchapter 2 histo.pdf
chapter 2 histo.pdf
AbdihakiimMohamed3
 
planning.pptx
planning.pptxplanning.pptx
planning.pptx
AbdihakiimMohamed3
 
public speaking.pptx
public speaking.pptxpublic speaking.pptx
public speaking.pptx
AbdihakiimMohamed3
 
what is urban design concept in architecture.pptx
what is urban design concept in architecture.pptxwhat is urban design concept in architecture.pptx
what is urban design concept in architecture.pptx
AbdihakiimMohamed3
 
Urban design Lecture 1.pptx
Urban design Lecture 1.pptxUrban design Lecture 1.pptx
Urban design Lecture 1.pptx
AbdihakiimMohamed3
 
CHAPTER 1.pptx
CHAPTER 1.pptxCHAPTER 1.pptx
CHAPTER 1.pptx
AbdihakiimMohamed3
 
ch06.ppt
ch06.pptch06.ppt
casestudy-jaipurcity-191010194318.pptx
casestudy-jaipurcity-191010194318.pptxcasestudy-jaipurcity-191010194318.pptx
casestudy-jaipurcity-191010194318.pptx
AbdihakiimMohamed3
 
D. Case Study.pptx
D. Case Study.pptxD. Case Study.pptx
D. Case Study.pptx
AbdihakiimMohamed3
 
Case study Design.pptx
Case study Design.pptxCase study Design.pptx
Case study Design.pptx
AbdihakiimMohamed3
 
History-of-Architecture-I.pptx greek.pptx
History-of-Architecture-I.pptx greek.pptxHistory-of-Architecture-I.pptx greek.pptx
History-of-Architecture-I.pptx greek.pptx
AbdihakiimMohamed3
 
roman architecture.ppt
roman architecture.pptroman architecture.ppt
roman architecture.ppt
AbdihakiimMohamed3
 
Somaliland Modern Architecture 666.pptx
Somaliland Modern Architecture 666.pptxSomaliland Modern Architecture 666.pptx
Somaliland Modern Architecture 666.pptx
AbdihakiimMohamed3
 
San Lin Yan Residential Complex.pptx
San Lin Yan Residential Complex.pptxSan Lin Yan Residential Complex.pptx
San Lin Yan Residential Complex.pptx
AbdihakiimMohamed3
 
4_6037372250234031441.pptx
4_6037372250234031441.pptx4_6037372250234031441.pptx
4_6037372250234031441.pptx
AbdihakiimMohamed3
 
case study project.pptx
case study project.pptxcase study project.pptx
case study project.pptx
AbdihakiimMohamed3
 
Plan Hall.pdf
Plan Hall.pdfPlan Hall.pdf
Plan Hall.pdf
AbdihakiimMohamed3
 
My HALL Project.pdf
My HALL Project.pdfMy HALL Project.pdf
My HALL Project.pdf
AbdihakiimMohamed3
 
assignment one history two.pptx
assignment one history two.pptxassignment one history two.pptx
assignment one history two.pptx
AbdihakiimMohamed3
 
architecture in the 20th century.pptx1.pptx
architecture in the 20th century.pptx1.pptxarchitecture in the 20th century.pptx1.pptx
architecture in the 20th century.pptx1.pptx
AbdihakiimMohamed3
 

More from AbdihakiimMohamed3 (20)

chapter 2 histo.pdf
chapter 2 histo.pdfchapter 2 histo.pdf
chapter 2 histo.pdf
 
planning.pptx
planning.pptxplanning.pptx
planning.pptx
 
public speaking.pptx
public speaking.pptxpublic speaking.pptx
public speaking.pptx
 
what is urban design concept in architecture.pptx
what is urban design concept in architecture.pptxwhat is urban design concept in architecture.pptx
what is urban design concept in architecture.pptx
 
Urban design Lecture 1.pptx
Urban design Lecture 1.pptxUrban design Lecture 1.pptx
Urban design Lecture 1.pptx
 
CHAPTER 1.pptx
CHAPTER 1.pptxCHAPTER 1.pptx
CHAPTER 1.pptx
 
ch06.ppt
ch06.pptch06.ppt
ch06.ppt
 
casestudy-jaipurcity-191010194318.pptx
casestudy-jaipurcity-191010194318.pptxcasestudy-jaipurcity-191010194318.pptx
casestudy-jaipurcity-191010194318.pptx
 
D. Case Study.pptx
D. Case Study.pptxD. Case Study.pptx
D. Case Study.pptx
 
Case study Design.pptx
Case study Design.pptxCase study Design.pptx
Case study Design.pptx
 
History-of-Architecture-I.pptx greek.pptx
History-of-Architecture-I.pptx greek.pptxHistory-of-Architecture-I.pptx greek.pptx
History-of-Architecture-I.pptx greek.pptx
 
roman architecture.ppt
roman architecture.pptroman architecture.ppt
roman architecture.ppt
 
Somaliland Modern Architecture 666.pptx
Somaliland Modern Architecture 666.pptxSomaliland Modern Architecture 666.pptx
Somaliland Modern Architecture 666.pptx
 
San Lin Yan Residential Complex.pptx
San Lin Yan Residential Complex.pptxSan Lin Yan Residential Complex.pptx
San Lin Yan Residential Complex.pptx
 
4_6037372250234031441.pptx
4_6037372250234031441.pptx4_6037372250234031441.pptx
4_6037372250234031441.pptx
 
case study project.pptx
case study project.pptxcase study project.pptx
case study project.pptx
 
Plan Hall.pdf
Plan Hall.pdfPlan Hall.pdf
Plan Hall.pdf
 
My HALL Project.pdf
My HALL Project.pdfMy HALL Project.pdf
My HALL Project.pdf
 
assignment one history two.pptx
assignment one history two.pptxassignment one history two.pptx
assignment one history two.pptx
 
architecture in the 20th century.pptx1.pptx
architecture in the 20th century.pptx1.pptxarchitecture in the 20th century.pptx1.pptx
architecture in the 20th century.pptx1.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequenceSEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
Murugan Solaiyappan
 
C# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
C# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdfC# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
C# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
Scholarhat
 
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 WebsiteHow to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
Celine George
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
NurFitriah45
 
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan BapatH. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
Niranjan Bapat
 
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal HygieneEdukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
MJDuyan
 
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
Celine George
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource BookNAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
lakitawilson
 
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.docBài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
PhngThLmHnh
 
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Murugan Solaiyappan
 
How to Handle the Separate Discount Account on Invoice in Odoo 17
How to Handle the Separate Discount Account on Invoice in Odoo 17How to Handle the Separate Discount Account on Invoice in Odoo 17
How to Handle the Separate Discount Account on Invoice in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 SlidesNew Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Webinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional Skills
Webinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional SkillsWebinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional Skills
Webinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional Skills
EduSkills OECD
 
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
NC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline Partnership
NC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline PartnershipNC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline Partnership
NC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline Partnership
Mebane Rash
 
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 SlidesWhat is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)
Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)
Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)
Liyana Rozaini
 
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUMENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
HappieMontevirgenCas
 

Recently uploaded (20)

SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequenceSEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
 
C# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
C# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdfC# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
C# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
 
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 WebsiteHow to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
 
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan BapatH. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
 
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal HygieneEdukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
 
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
 
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource BookNAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
 
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.docBài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
 
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
 
How to Handle the Separate Discount Account on Invoice in Odoo 17
How to Handle the Separate Discount Account on Invoice in Odoo 17How to Handle the Separate Discount Account on Invoice in Odoo 17
How to Handle the Separate Discount Account on Invoice in Odoo 17
 
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 SlidesNew Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
 
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
 
Webinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional Skills
Webinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional SkillsWebinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional Skills
Webinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional Skills
 
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
 
NC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline Partnership
NC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline PartnershipNC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline Partnership
NC Public Schools Involved in NCDPI, Zipline Partnership
 
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 SlidesWhat is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
 
Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)
Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)
Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)
 
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUMENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
 

LECTURE 3.pptx

  • 2. Building materials account for ~60 to 70% of the cost of housing construction A constant rise in cost of conventional building materials  Construction cost is way beyond the affordable limits of the majority
  • 3. Leading modern (conventional building ): cement, concrete, steel, bricks and wood Affordability???? Alternative (low cost) materials and technologies are sought for  Low cost materials??
  • 5.  Not sub-standard  Materials available / developed locally  Cost reducing modern materials with technologies Energy efficient Environment friendly Employment generating
  • 7. Serve the basic need of the majority of the population  Have very useful properties – however, modification in the production process and application technique is needed – for better structural and functional acceptance.
  • 8.  Obtained by using modern technologies  Results of research but have to be adopted to indigenous requirements
  • 10.  Cost of a Building = Material + Labor + Equipment/Machine/Tools + Others (Overhead + profit)  a systematic design and construction in usage of construction materials used in a building without compromising quality,structural safety and functional requirements of the building. Building material cost:60-70% Labour cost:25-35%
  • 11.  Indigenous building materials have been used extensively for building houses at affordable cost. They are easily available locally at little or no cost and local people are conversant with the technology of using them for construction of houses largely through self-help
  • 12. Organic Materials Include widely used materials such as grasses and leaves, husks, and straws, reeds and bamboos, and wood and wood products which are vulnerable to early decay and insect attack.
  • 13.  Inorganic materials include commonly used materials like soils and laterite, burnt clay bricks and tiles, building lime and clay pozzolana, stones, and sands.  As a result of research work done improved use of these materials for construction of low-cost houses has been made for achieving economy.
  • 14. Includes buildings (or elements) where the majority of the structural components are standardized and produced in plants in a location away from the building. Manufactured by industrial methods based on massproduction – shorter time – low cost
  • 16.  Optimization of land use  Functional design of buildings  Optimum use of building materials  Rationalization of specifications  New construction materials and techniques
  • 17.  location and access to services and facilities
  • 20.  Aesthetics and luxury should be less.  Simple rectangular plan  Minimize staircase and circulation area  Optimum storey height- building height  Optimum opening areas- windows, doors ,skylights etc.
  • 21.  Standard material dimensions and equipment modules limit waste and labor, reducing costs by at least 10 percent
  • 22. minimum on-site modification and materials wastage
  • 24. Access to employment areas, services and facilities within convenient walking distance of housing.
  • 25. household expenditure on electricity  gas  water  Energy efficient housing designs can reduce consumption of these utility services and thereby household costs.
  • 26. Modular construction is a process in which a building is constructed off-site, under controlled plant conditions, using the same materials and designing to the same codes and standards as conventionally built facilities
  • 27. The factory-controlled process generates less waste, creates fewer site disturbances and allows for tighter construction Improved Air Quality: Because the modular structure is substantially completed in a factory- controlled setting using dry materials
  • 29.  The indoor construction environment reduces the risks of accidents and related liabilities for workers.
  • 31. • load bearing structure cheaper for normal low rise building as it requires lesser concrete and steel rods • thick wall provides thermal insulation • easier and requires less time to construction
  • 32. Low cost materials should be: 1. Locally available 2. Environmentally friendly 3. It should be non-toxic 4. Longer durability and longevity 5. Recyclable and re-usable 6. Biodegradability.
  • 34. Natural Man made  Logs plastics  Bamboo  Compressed Earth Block  Straw and thatch  Stone