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ALPHA UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE
Department of Hr&Leadership
Course:
Computer Concepts and Applications
Chapter two
History of computer
1
History of Computer
As early as the seventeenth century, mathematicians were trying to create a machine that could perform basic
mathematical functions such as, addition, subtraction, division and multiplication.
The Charles Babbage (1791-1871) The Father of Computer
An English mathematician, Professor Charles Babbage made a “difference Engine” in 1833, which was powered
by steam to solve mathematical equations.
After 10 years, in 1842, he made a general purpose computer named “Analytical Engine”.
This analytical engine could add, subtract, multiply and divide in automatic
Computer Generation :
today Computer has become a part of our life.
Here we will look
How the technology has developed and what its future course is.
To understand this first we should know about the different generation of computers.
2
 FIRST-GENERATION COMPUTER (1946-1959)
This was from the period of 1946 to 1959.
This was when machine language was developed for the use of computers.
They used vacuum tubes for the circuitry.
For the purpose of memory, they used magnetic drums.
Main Features
• Major Innovation - Vacuum Tubes
• Main Memory - Punched Cards
• Input Output Devices - Punched cards and papers
• Languages - Low level machine language
3
Advantage
Advantages of First Generation
 Vacuum tubes were used as electronic component.
 Electronic digital computers were developed for the first time.
 These computers were the fastest calculating devices of their time.
 Computations were performed in millisecond.
Disadvantage
Disadvantages of First Generation
 Too large in size.
They were unreliable.
Induce a large amount of heat due to the vacuum tubes.
 Not portable.
 Limited commercial use
4
SECOND-GENERATION COMPUTERS (1959-1965)
• Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers.
The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 50s.
• During this period transistor were used for internal logic circuits of computers.
These computers could execute 200000 instructions per second.
 Advantage
 Smaller in size as compares to 1st generation.
 Much more reliable.
 Less heat generated.
 Less hardware and maintenance problem.
 Could be used for commercial use.
 Disadvantage
 Disadvantages of Second Generation
 Very costly for commercial use.
 It still required frequent maintenance.
 Frequent cooling also required.
5
THIRD GENERATION COMPUTER (1965 – 1971) In the third generation of computers In this
generation the integrated circuits (IC) were used.
• Integrated circuits contain many electronic components on a single chip.
• The size of computer became very small with better performance and reliability.
Advantage
Advantages of Third Generation
Smaller in size as compared to second generation.
More reliable.
 Portable
 Less electricity consumption.
 Heat generation was rare.
 General purpose computer
Disadvantage
Disadvantages of Third Generation
1. Air conditioning was required in many cases due to ICs.
2. 2. Very advance technology was required to make the ICs.
6
Fourth Generation of Computers (1971-1981)
The Microprocessors brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits
were built on to a single silicon chip.
.The Integrated circuits were more developed and called Small scale integration (SSI)
• There was a great versatility of input/output devices.
Advantages
1. Smaller in size and much reliable.
2. 2. No cooling system required in many cases.
3. Much faster computation.
4. Portable and cheap.
Disadvantages
1. Very advanced technology was required to fabricate to the ICs.
2. The very advanced technology was required to fabricate to the ICs (Integrated Circuits)
3. Cooler is required (Fan)
7
Fifth Generation (1981-Onward)
Five generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there
are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today.
• This generation is started from 1981 and still continued, new technologies are adopted to fabricate IC
chips, such as electron beam, X-rays or laser rays.
 The Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) was developed, so the computer became much smaller than
ever before.
 New memory storage device like bubble memory, optical or memory are being designed.
 The new computer will be controlled by using human voice and will work by giving command in our
own language.
Advantage
Advantages of Fifth Generation
 Very large storage capacity.
 Long bit processor builds.
Artificial Intelligence Language developed.
Disadvantage
 They tend to be sophisticated and complex tools. » they can give more power to companies to watch
what you are doing and even allow them to infect your computer.
casod050@gmail.com
8
END
GOOD WILLING
9

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chapter 2 histo.pdf

  • 1. ALPHA UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE Department of Hr&Leadership Course: Computer Concepts and Applications Chapter two History of computer 1
  • 2. History of Computer As early as the seventeenth century, mathematicians were trying to create a machine that could perform basic mathematical functions such as, addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. The Charles Babbage (1791-1871) The Father of Computer An English mathematician, Professor Charles Babbage made a “difference Engine” in 1833, which was powered by steam to solve mathematical equations. After 10 years, in 1842, he made a general purpose computer named “Analytical Engine”. This analytical engine could add, subtract, multiply and divide in automatic Computer Generation : today Computer has become a part of our life. Here we will look How the technology has developed and what its future course is. To understand this first we should know about the different generation of computers. 2
  • 3.  FIRST-GENERATION COMPUTER (1946-1959) This was from the period of 1946 to 1959. This was when machine language was developed for the use of computers. They used vacuum tubes for the circuitry. For the purpose of memory, they used magnetic drums. Main Features • Major Innovation - Vacuum Tubes • Main Memory - Punched Cards • Input Output Devices - Punched cards and papers • Languages - Low level machine language 3
  • 4. Advantage Advantages of First Generation  Vacuum tubes were used as electronic component.  Electronic digital computers were developed for the first time.  These computers were the fastest calculating devices of their time.  Computations were performed in millisecond. Disadvantage Disadvantages of First Generation  Too large in size. They were unreliable. Induce a large amount of heat due to the vacuum tubes.  Not portable.  Limited commercial use 4
  • 5. SECOND-GENERATION COMPUTERS (1959-1965) • Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 50s. • During this period transistor were used for internal logic circuits of computers. These computers could execute 200000 instructions per second.  Advantage  Smaller in size as compares to 1st generation.  Much more reliable.  Less heat generated.  Less hardware and maintenance problem.  Could be used for commercial use.  Disadvantage  Disadvantages of Second Generation  Very costly for commercial use.  It still required frequent maintenance.  Frequent cooling also required. 5
  • 6. THIRD GENERATION COMPUTER (1965 – 1971) In the third generation of computers In this generation the integrated circuits (IC) were used. • Integrated circuits contain many electronic components on a single chip. • The size of computer became very small with better performance and reliability. Advantage Advantages of Third Generation Smaller in size as compared to second generation. More reliable.  Portable  Less electricity consumption.  Heat generation was rare.  General purpose computer Disadvantage Disadvantages of Third Generation 1. Air conditioning was required in many cases due to ICs. 2. 2. Very advance technology was required to make the ICs. 6
  • 7. Fourth Generation of Computers (1971-1981) The Microprocessors brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built on to a single silicon chip. .The Integrated circuits were more developed and called Small scale integration (SSI) • There was a great versatility of input/output devices. Advantages 1. Smaller in size and much reliable. 2. 2. No cooling system required in many cases. 3. Much faster computation. 4. Portable and cheap. Disadvantages 1. Very advanced technology was required to fabricate to the ICs. 2. The very advanced technology was required to fabricate to the ICs (Integrated Circuits) 3. Cooler is required (Fan) 7
  • 8. Fifth Generation (1981-Onward) Five generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. • This generation is started from 1981 and still continued, new technologies are adopted to fabricate IC chips, such as electron beam, X-rays or laser rays.  The Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) was developed, so the computer became much smaller than ever before.  New memory storage device like bubble memory, optical or memory are being designed.  The new computer will be controlled by using human voice and will work by giving command in our own language. Advantage Advantages of Fifth Generation  Very large storage capacity.  Long bit processor builds. Artificial Intelligence Language developed. Disadvantage  They tend to be sophisticated and complex tools. » they can give more power to companies to watch what you are doing and even allow them to infect your computer. casod050@gmail.com 8