SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 20
Piaget's
Theory of
Cognitive
Development
Prepared by :
Ayushi Gupta
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) : History
• Born: August 9, 1896, Switzerland
• Died: September 16,1980 (Age 84)
• Parents: Eldest son of Arthur Piaget
and Rebecca Jackson.
• Education: Received Ph.D. from
University of Neuchatel in 1918.
• Wife: Married to Valentine Chatenay
in 1923
• Children: 3 children namely
Jacqueline, Lucienne and Laurent
whose intellectual development from
infancy to language was studied by
Piaget.
Introduction
• Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was one of the 20th century's most influential researchers
in the area of developmental psychology.
• He was originally trained in the areas of biology and philosophy and considered
himself a "Genetic Epistemologist".
• Piaget wanted to know how children learned through their development in the
study of knowledge.
• He administered Binet's IQ test in Paris and observed that children's answers were
qualitatively different.
• Piaget's theory is based on the idea that the developing child builds cognitive
structures.
• He believes that the child's cognitive structure increases with the development.
• Piaget's Theory of infant development were based on his observations of his own
three children.
What is Cognition?
• The term cognition is
derived from the latin word
"cognoscere" which means
"to know" or "to recognise"
or "to conceptualise".
• Cognition is "the mental
action or process of
acquiring knowledge and
understanding through
thought, experience, and
the senses."
What is Cognitive Development?
• Cognitive Development is the emergence of the ability to think
and understand.
• The acquisition of the ability to think, reason and problem solve.
• It is the process by which people's thinking changes across the
life span.
• Piaget studied Cognitive Development by observing children in
particular, to examine how their thought processes changed with
age.
• It is the growing apprehension and adaptation to the physical and
social environment.
How Cognitive Development occurs?
• Cognitive Development is gradual and orderly
changes by which mental process becomes more
complex and sophisticated.
• The essential development of cognition is the
establishment of new schemes.
• Assimilation and Accommodation are both the
processes of the ways of Cognitive Development.
• The equilibration is the symbol of a new stage of the
Cognitive Development.
Key Concepts :
• Schema : Schema is an internal representation of the
world. It helps an individual understand the world
they inhabit. They are cognitive structures that
represent a certain aspect of the world, and can be
seen as categories which have certain pre-conceived
ideas in them. For example, my schema for
Christmas includes: Christmas trees, presents,
giving, money, green, red, gold, winter, Santa Claus
etc. Someone else may have an entirely different
schema, such as Jesus, birth, Church, holiday,
Christianity etc
• Assimilation :It is using
an existing schema to deal
with a new object or
situation.Here, the learner
fits the new idea into what
he already knows.In
Assimilation, the schema
is not changed, it is only
modified. Example : A 2
year old child sees a man
who is bald on top of his
head and has long frizzy
hair on the sides. To his
father’s horror, the
toddler shouts “Clown,
clown”
• Accommodation : This happens when the existing
schema (knowledge) does not work and needs to be
changed to deal with a new object or situation.In
Accommodation, the schema is altered; a new schema
may be developed. Example : In the “clown” incident,
the boy’s father explained to his son that the man was
not a clown and that even though his hair was like a
clown’s, he wasn’t wearing a funny costume and wasn’t
doing silly things to make people laugh.
• With this new knowledge, the boy was able to change
his schema of “clown” and make this idea fit better to a
standard concept of “clown”.
• Equilibration : Piaget believed that cognitive
development did not progress at a steady rate, but rather
in leaps and bounds. Equilibrium occurs when a child's
schemas can deal with most new information through
assimilation. As a child progresses through the stages of
cognitive development, it is important to maintain a
balance between applying previous knowledge (
assimilation) and changing behavior to account for new
knowledge (accommodation). Equilibrium helps
explain how children are able to move from one stage
of thought to the next.
The Sensorimotor Stage
(Birth to 2 yrs)
- Infancy
• Infants construct an understanding of the world by
coordinating sensory experiences (seeing, hearing) with
motor actions (reaching, touching).
• Develop Object Permanence (memory) - Realize that
objects exist even if they are out of sight.
• Infants progress from reflexive, instinctual actions at
birth to the beginning of problem solving (intellectual)
and symbolic abilities (language) toward the end of this
stage.
Preoperational Stage
(2-7 yrs)
-Toddler and Early Childhood
• This stage begins when the child starts to use symbols and language.
This is a period of developing language and concepts. So, the child is
capable of more complex mental representations (i.e, words and images).
He is still unable to use 'operations', i.e,logical mental rules, such as rules
of arithmetic. This stage is further divided into 2 sub-stages :
• Preconceptual stage (2-4 yrs) : Increased use of verbal representation
but speech is egocentric. The child uses symbols to stand for actions; a
toy doll stands for a real baby or the child role plays mummy or daddy.
• Intuitive stage (4-7 yrs) : Speech becomes more social, less egocentric.
Here the child base their knowledge on what they feel or sense to be
true, yet they cannot explain the underlying principles behind what they
feel or sense.
The following are the key features of this stage :
• Egocentrism: The child's thoughts and
communications are typically egocentric (i.e,
about themselves or their own point of view). Eg.:
"if i can't see you, you also can't see me". It is the
inability to see the world from anyone else's eyes.
It is well explained by Piaget as Three Mountain
Task.
• Animism: Treating inanimate objects as living
ones. Eg.: children dressing and feeding their
dolls as if they are alive.
• Concentration: The process of concentrating on
one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring
other aspects. It is noticed in Conservation.
Conservation on the other hand is the knowledge
that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and
physical appearance of objects. Children at this
stage are unaware of conseravtion.
Concrete Operational Stage
(7-12 yrs)
-Childhood and Early Adolescence
The concrete operational stage is characterized by the appropriate
use of logic. Important processes during this stage are :
• Seriation: The ability to sort objects in an order according to size, shape or
any other characterstic. Eg.: if given different-sized objects, they may place
them accordingly.
• Transitivity: The ability to recognize logical relationships among elements
in a serial order. Eg.: if A is taller than B and B is taller than C, then A
must be taller than C.
• Classification: The ability to group objects together on the basis of
common features. The child also begins to get the idea that one set can
include another. Eg.: there is a class of objects called dogs. There is also a
class called animals. But all dogs are also animals, so the class of animals
includes that of dogs.
• Decentring: The ability to take multiple adpects of a situation into
account. Eg.: the child will no longer perceive an exceptionally-
wide but short cup to contain less than a normally-wide, taller cup.
• Reversibility: The child understands that numbers or objects can
be changed, then returned to their original state. Eg.: the child will
rapidly determine that if 4+4=8 then 8-4=4, the original quantity.
• Conservation: Understanding that the quantity, length or number
of items is unrelated to the arrangement or appearance of the
object or item.
• Elimination of Egocentrism: The ability to view things from
another's perspective.
• The child performs operations: combining, separating,
multiplying, repeating, dividing etc
Formal Operational Stage
(12 yrs & above)
-Adolscence and Adulthood
• The thought becomes increasingly flexible and abstract, i.e, can carry out
systematic experiments.
• The ability to systematically solve a problem in a logical and
methodological way.
• Understands that nothing is absolute; everything is relative.
• Develops skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning as well as
inductive reasoning and sytematic planning etc.
• Understands that the rules of any game or social system are developed by
a man by mutual agreement and hence could be changed or modified.
• The child's way of thinking is at its most advanced, although the
knowledge it has to work with, will change.
Educational Implications
• Emphasis on discovery approach in learning.
• Curriculum should provide specific educational experience based on children's
developmental level.
• Arrange classroom activities so that they assist and encourage self learning.
• Social interactions have a great educational value for Piaget. Positive social
actions, therefore should be encouraged.
• Instruction should be geared to the level of the child. As the level of the child
changes at each stage, the level of instruction or exploratory activities should
also change.
• Simple to Complex and Project method of teaching.
• Co-curricular activities have equal importance as that of curricular experiences
in the cognitive development of children.
• Major Goals of education according to Piaget are critical and creative thinking.
Contribution to Education
• Piaget's theory helped educators, parents and investigators
to comprehend the capacity of children in their different
stages.
• He made us conscious with the way children and adults
think.
• A lot of school programs have been redesigned taking as
base Piaget's discoveries.
• Piaget made a revolution with the developmental
psychology concentrating all his attention to the mental
process and his role with behavior.
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development: Key Concepts and Stages

More Related Content

What's hot

Theory of Operant Conditioning - B F Skinner
Theory  of Operant Conditioning - B F SkinnerTheory  of Operant Conditioning - B F Skinner
Theory of Operant Conditioning - B F SkinnerSuresh Babu
 
Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
Erikson's theory of psychosocial developmentErikson's theory of psychosocial development
Erikson's theory of psychosocial developmentArnie Carido
 
Spearman 2 factor theory
Spearman 2 factor theorySpearman 2 factor theory
Spearman 2 factor theoryAtul Thakur
 
Vygotsky Theory
Vygotsky Theory Vygotsky Theory
Vygotsky Theory jkravit
 
Skinner learning theory
Skinner learning theorySkinner learning theory
Skinner learning theoryAmna Abid
 
Lev Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Theory of Cognitive development
Lev Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Theory of Cognitive developmentLev Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Theory of Cognitive development
Lev Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Theory of Cognitive developmentLeizel Despi
 
Cognitive Development Theory - Piaget
Cognitive Development Theory - PiagetCognitive Development Theory - Piaget
Cognitive Development Theory - PiagetOrlando Pistan, MAEd
 
Cognitive theory of Jean Piaget
Cognitive theory of Jean PiagetCognitive theory of Jean Piaget
Cognitive theory of Jean PiagetJules Ivan Garay
 
Jerome bruner learning theory
Jerome bruner learning theoryJerome bruner learning theory
Jerome bruner learning theoryRN Yogendra Mehta
 
Thorndike multifactor theory
Thorndike  multifactor theoryThorndike  multifactor theory
Thorndike multifactor theoryAtul Thakur
 
Ppt Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud
Ppt Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund FreudPpt Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud
Ppt Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund FreudKamarina Tajuddin
 
Kohlberg's theory of moral development
Kohlberg's theory of moral developmentKohlberg's theory of moral development
Kohlberg's theory of moral developmentCharlene Buno
 
Stages of Cognitive Development - J. Piaget
Stages of Cognitive Development - J. PiagetStages of Cognitive Development - J. Piaget
Stages of Cognitive Development - J. PiagetMelvin Jacinto
 

What's hot (20)

Cognitive development Piaget
 Cognitive development   Piaget Cognitive development   Piaget
Cognitive development Piaget
 
Theory of Operant Conditioning - B F Skinner
Theory  of Operant Conditioning - B F SkinnerTheory  of Operant Conditioning - B F Skinner
Theory of Operant Conditioning - B F Skinner
 
PIAGET'S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY
PIAGET'S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORYPIAGET'S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY
PIAGET'S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY
 
Erik erikson stages of development
Erik erikson   stages of developmentErik erikson   stages of development
Erik erikson stages of development
 
Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
Erikson's theory of psychosocial developmentErikson's theory of psychosocial development
Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
 
Spearman 2 factor theory
Spearman 2 factor theorySpearman 2 factor theory
Spearman 2 factor theory
 
Vygotsky Theory
Vygotsky Theory Vygotsky Theory
Vygotsky Theory
 
Skinner learning theory
Skinner learning theorySkinner learning theory
Skinner learning theory
 
Gagne learning theory
Gagne learning theoryGagne learning theory
Gagne learning theory
 
Lev Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Theory of Cognitive development
Lev Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Theory of Cognitive developmentLev Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Theory of Cognitive development
Lev Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Theory of Cognitive development
 
Cognitive Development Theory - Piaget
Cognitive Development Theory - PiagetCognitive Development Theory - Piaget
Cognitive Development Theory - Piaget
 
Cognitive theory of Jean Piaget
Cognitive theory of Jean PiagetCognitive theory of Jean Piaget
Cognitive theory of Jean Piaget
 
Cognitive Theory
Cognitive Theory Cognitive Theory
Cognitive Theory
 
Jerome bruner learning theory
Jerome bruner learning theoryJerome bruner learning theory
Jerome bruner learning theory
 
Thorndike multifactor theory
Thorndike  multifactor theoryThorndike  multifactor theory
Thorndike multifactor theory
 
Operant conditioning
Operant conditioningOperant conditioning
Operant conditioning
 
Ppt Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud
Ppt Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund FreudPpt Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud
Ppt Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud
 
Introduction to educational psychology
Introduction to educational psychologyIntroduction to educational psychology
Introduction to educational psychology
 
Kohlberg's theory of moral development
Kohlberg's theory of moral developmentKohlberg's theory of moral development
Kohlberg's theory of moral development
 
Stages of Cognitive Development - J. Piaget
Stages of Cognitive Development - J. PiagetStages of Cognitive Development - J. Piaget
Stages of Cognitive Development - J. Piaget
 

Similar to Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development: Key Concepts and Stages

jeanpiaget Theory of Cognitive Development.pptx
jeanpiaget  Theory of  Cognitive  Development.pptxjeanpiaget  Theory of  Cognitive  Development.pptx
jeanpiaget Theory of Cognitive Development.pptxsadiajabeen12
 
Cognitive DEvelopment Jean Piaget.pptx
Cognitive DEvelopment Jean Piaget.pptxCognitive DEvelopment Jean Piaget.pptx
Cognitive DEvelopment Jean Piaget.pptxsadiajabeen12
 
Cognitive Development jeanpiaget.pptx
Cognitive Development jeanpiaget.pptxCognitive Development jeanpiaget.pptx
Cognitive Development jeanpiaget.pptxsadiajabeen12
 
Piagets's theory of Cognitive development.pptx
Piagets's theory of Cognitive development.pptxPiagets's theory of Cognitive development.pptx
Piagets's theory of Cognitive development.pptxsarahfauzna
 
jeanpiagettheoryofcognitivedevelopment.pptx
jeanpiagettheoryofcognitivedevelopment.pptxjeanpiagettheoryofcognitivedevelopment.pptx
jeanpiagettheoryofcognitivedevelopment.pptxsarahfauzna
 
Unit-2 Theory of Cognitive Development.pptx
Unit-2 Theory of Cognitive Development.pptxUnit-2 Theory of Cognitive Development.pptx
Unit-2 Theory of Cognitive Development.pptxVipin Chandran
 
Piaget's theory of cognitive development
Piaget's theory of cognitive developmentPiaget's theory of cognitive development
Piaget's theory of cognitive developmentVandana Thakur
 
Piaget cognitive development theory
Piaget cognitive development theoryPiaget cognitive development theory
Piaget cognitive development theoryراضیه rahmani
 
Cognitive development
Cognitive developmentCognitive development
Cognitive developmentDr. Manju N D
 
Cognitive Developemnt.pptx
Cognitive Developemnt.pptxCognitive Developemnt.pptx
Cognitive Developemnt.pptxSaleem Ashraf
 
Piaget's cognitive development stages and maslow's hierarchy of needs
Piaget's cognitive development stages and maslow's hierarchy of needsPiaget's cognitive development stages and maslow's hierarchy of needs
Piaget's cognitive development stages and maslow's hierarchy of needslhizzious
 
Piaget's cognitive development stages and maslow's hierarchy of needs
Piaget's cognitive development stages and maslow's hierarchy of needsPiaget's cognitive development stages and maslow's hierarchy of needs
Piaget's cognitive development stages and maslow's hierarchy of needslhizzious
 
PIAGET COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY BY MASTERS IN PSYCHIATRIC NURSING STUDENT
PIAGET COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY BY MASTERS IN PSYCHIATRIC NURSING STUDENTPIAGET COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY BY MASTERS IN PSYCHIATRIC NURSING STUDENT
PIAGET COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY BY MASTERS IN PSYCHIATRIC NURSING STUDENTReejan Paudel
 
PIAGET COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
PIAGET COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PIAGET COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
PIAGET COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT dinamuslim
 
Piagets Cognitive learning theory
Piagets Cognitive learning theoryPiagets Cognitive learning theory
Piagets Cognitive learning theoryAmna Abid
 

Similar to Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development: Key Concepts and Stages (20)

jeanpiaget Theory of Cognitive Development.pptx
jeanpiaget  Theory of  Cognitive  Development.pptxjeanpiaget  Theory of  Cognitive  Development.pptx
jeanpiaget Theory of Cognitive Development.pptx
 
Cognitive DEvelopment Jean Piaget.pptx
Cognitive DEvelopment Jean Piaget.pptxCognitive DEvelopment Jean Piaget.pptx
Cognitive DEvelopment Jean Piaget.pptx
 
Cognitive Development jeanpiaget.pptx
Cognitive Development jeanpiaget.pptxCognitive Development jeanpiaget.pptx
Cognitive Development jeanpiaget.pptx
 
EDUC-1-MIDTERM-PROJECT.pptx
EDUC-1-MIDTERM-PROJECT.pptxEDUC-1-MIDTERM-PROJECT.pptx
EDUC-1-MIDTERM-PROJECT.pptx
 
Piagets's theory of Cognitive development.pptx
Piagets's theory of Cognitive development.pptxPiagets's theory of Cognitive development.pptx
Piagets's theory of Cognitive development.pptx
 
jeanpiagettheoryofcognitivedevelopment.pptx
jeanpiagettheoryofcognitivedevelopment.pptxjeanpiagettheoryofcognitivedevelopment.pptx
jeanpiagettheoryofcognitivedevelopment.pptx
 
Piaget Theory
Piaget TheoryPiaget Theory
Piaget Theory
 
Unit-2 Theory of Cognitive Development.pptx
Unit-2 Theory of Cognitive Development.pptxUnit-2 Theory of Cognitive Development.pptx
Unit-2 Theory of Cognitive Development.pptx
 
Piaget's theory of cognitive development
Piaget's theory of cognitive developmentPiaget's theory of cognitive development
Piaget's theory of cognitive development
 
Piaget cognitive development theory
Piaget cognitive development theoryPiaget cognitive development theory
Piaget cognitive development theory
 
Cognitive development
Cognitive developmentCognitive development
Cognitive development
 
Piaget cognitive development theory
Piaget cognitive development theoryPiaget cognitive development theory
Piaget cognitive development theory
 
Piaget
PiagetPiaget
Piaget
 
Cognitive Developemnt.pptx
Cognitive Developemnt.pptxCognitive Developemnt.pptx
Cognitive Developemnt.pptx
 
Piaget's cognitive development stages and maslow's hierarchy of needs
Piaget's cognitive development stages and maslow's hierarchy of needsPiaget's cognitive development stages and maslow's hierarchy of needs
Piaget's cognitive development stages and maslow's hierarchy of needs
 
Piaget's cognitive development stages and maslow's hierarchy of needs
Piaget's cognitive development stages and maslow's hierarchy of needsPiaget's cognitive development stages and maslow's hierarchy of needs
Piaget's cognitive development stages and maslow's hierarchy of needs
 
Group 3
Group 3Group 3
Group 3
 
PIAGET COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY BY MASTERS IN PSYCHIATRIC NURSING STUDENT
PIAGET COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY BY MASTERS IN PSYCHIATRIC NURSING STUDENTPIAGET COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY BY MASTERS IN PSYCHIATRIC NURSING STUDENT
PIAGET COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY BY MASTERS IN PSYCHIATRIC NURSING STUDENT
 
PIAGET COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
PIAGET COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PIAGET COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
PIAGET COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
 
Piagets Cognitive learning theory
Piagets Cognitive learning theoryPiagets Cognitive learning theory
Piagets Cognitive learning theory
 

Recently uploaded

Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.pptIntegumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.pptshraddhaparab530
 
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfVirtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfErwinPantujan2
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfJemuel Francisco
 
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)Mark Reed
 
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4MiaBumagat1
 
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfInclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfTechSoup
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfVanessa Camilleri
 
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Seán Kennedy
 
EmpTech Lesson 18 - ICT Project for Website Traffic Statistics and Performanc...
EmpTech Lesson 18 - ICT Project for Website Traffic Statistics and Performanc...EmpTech Lesson 18 - ICT Project for Website Traffic Statistics and Performanc...
EmpTech Lesson 18 - ICT Project for Website Traffic Statistics and Performanc...liera silvan
 
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxVanesaIglesias10
 
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designKeynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designMIPLM
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Projectjordimapav
 
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17Celine George
 
Expanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operationalExpanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operationalssuser3e220a
 
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONHumphrey A Beña
 
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxQ4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxlancelewisportillo
 
Presentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptx
Presentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptxPresentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptx
Presentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptxRosabel UA
 

Recently uploaded (20)

LEFT_ON_C'N_ PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
LEFT_ON_C'N_ PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptxLEFT_ON_C'N_ PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
LEFT_ON_C'N_ PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
 
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.pptIntegumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
 
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfVirtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
 
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
 
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
 
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptxINCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
 
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfInclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
 
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
 
EmpTech Lesson 18 - ICT Project for Website Traffic Statistics and Performanc...
EmpTech Lesson 18 - ICT Project for Website Traffic Statistics and Performanc...EmpTech Lesson 18 - ICT Project for Website Traffic Statistics and Performanc...
EmpTech Lesson 18 - ICT Project for Website Traffic Statistics and Performanc...
 
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
 
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designKeynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
 
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
 
Expanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operationalExpanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operational
 
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
 
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxQ4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
 
YOUVE GOT EMAIL_FINALS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
YOUVE GOT EMAIL_FINALS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptxYOUVE GOT EMAIL_FINALS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
YOUVE GOT EMAIL_FINALS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
 
Presentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptx
Presentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptxPresentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptx
Presentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptx
 

Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development: Key Concepts and Stages

  • 2. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) : History • Born: August 9, 1896, Switzerland • Died: September 16,1980 (Age 84) • Parents: Eldest son of Arthur Piaget and Rebecca Jackson. • Education: Received Ph.D. from University of Neuchatel in 1918. • Wife: Married to Valentine Chatenay in 1923 • Children: 3 children namely Jacqueline, Lucienne and Laurent whose intellectual development from infancy to language was studied by Piaget.
  • 3. Introduction • Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was one of the 20th century's most influential researchers in the area of developmental psychology. • He was originally trained in the areas of biology and philosophy and considered himself a "Genetic Epistemologist". • Piaget wanted to know how children learned through their development in the study of knowledge. • He administered Binet's IQ test in Paris and observed that children's answers were qualitatively different. • Piaget's theory is based on the idea that the developing child builds cognitive structures. • He believes that the child's cognitive structure increases with the development. • Piaget's Theory of infant development were based on his observations of his own three children.
  • 4. What is Cognition? • The term cognition is derived from the latin word "cognoscere" which means "to know" or "to recognise" or "to conceptualise". • Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses."
  • 5. What is Cognitive Development? • Cognitive Development is the emergence of the ability to think and understand. • The acquisition of the ability to think, reason and problem solve. • It is the process by which people's thinking changes across the life span. • Piaget studied Cognitive Development by observing children in particular, to examine how their thought processes changed with age. • It is the growing apprehension and adaptation to the physical and social environment.
  • 6. How Cognitive Development occurs? • Cognitive Development is gradual and orderly changes by which mental process becomes more complex and sophisticated. • The essential development of cognition is the establishment of new schemes. • Assimilation and Accommodation are both the processes of the ways of Cognitive Development. • The equilibration is the symbol of a new stage of the Cognitive Development.
  • 7. Key Concepts : • Schema : Schema is an internal representation of the world. It helps an individual understand the world they inhabit. They are cognitive structures that represent a certain aspect of the world, and can be seen as categories which have certain pre-conceived ideas in them. For example, my schema for Christmas includes: Christmas trees, presents, giving, money, green, red, gold, winter, Santa Claus etc. Someone else may have an entirely different schema, such as Jesus, birth, Church, holiday, Christianity etc
  • 8. • Assimilation :It is using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation.Here, the learner fits the new idea into what he already knows.In Assimilation, the schema is not changed, it is only modified. Example : A 2 year old child sees a man who is bald on top of his head and has long frizzy hair on the sides. To his father’s horror, the toddler shouts “Clown, clown”
  • 9. • Accommodation : This happens when the existing schema (knowledge) does not work and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation.In Accommodation, the schema is altered; a new schema may be developed. Example : In the “clown” incident, the boy’s father explained to his son that the man was not a clown and that even though his hair was like a clown’s, he wasn’t wearing a funny costume and wasn’t doing silly things to make people laugh. • With this new knowledge, the boy was able to change his schema of “clown” and make this idea fit better to a standard concept of “clown”.
  • 10. • Equilibration : Piaget believed that cognitive development did not progress at a steady rate, but rather in leaps and bounds. Equilibrium occurs when a child's schemas can deal with most new information through assimilation. As a child progresses through the stages of cognitive development, it is important to maintain a balance between applying previous knowledge ( assimilation) and changing behavior to account for new knowledge (accommodation). Equilibrium helps explain how children are able to move from one stage of thought to the next.
  • 11.
  • 12. The Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 yrs) - Infancy • Infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (seeing, hearing) with motor actions (reaching, touching). • Develop Object Permanence (memory) - Realize that objects exist even if they are out of sight. • Infants progress from reflexive, instinctual actions at birth to the beginning of problem solving (intellectual) and symbolic abilities (language) toward the end of this stage.
  • 13. Preoperational Stage (2-7 yrs) -Toddler and Early Childhood • This stage begins when the child starts to use symbols and language. This is a period of developing language and concepts. So, the child is capable of more complex mental representations (i.e, words and images). He is still unable to use 'operations', i.e,logical mental rules, such as rules of arithmetic. This stage is further divided into 2 sub-stages : • Preconceptual stage (2-4 yrs) : Increased use of verbal representation but speech is egocentric. The child uses symbols to stand for actions; a toy doll stands for a real baby or the child role plays mummy or daddy. • Intuitive stage (4-7 yrs) : Speech becomes more social, less egocentric. Here the child base their knowledge on what they feel or sense to be true, yet they cannot explain the underlying principles behind what they feel or sense.
  • 14. The following are the key features of this stage : • Egocentrism: The child's thoughts and communications are typically egocentric (i.e, about themselves or their own point of view). Eg.: "if i can't see you, you also can't see me". It is the inability to see the world from anyone else's eyes. It is well explained by Piaget as Three Mountain Task. • Animism: Treating inanimate objects as living ones. Eg.: children dressing and feeding their dolls as if they are alive. • Concentration: The process of concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects. It is noticed in Conservation. Conservation on the other hand is the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects. Children at this stage are unaware of conseravtion.
  • 15. Concrete Operational Stage (7-12 yrs) -Childhood and Early Adolescence The concrete operational stage is characterized by the appropriate use of logic. Important processes during this stage are : • Seriation: The ability to sort objects in an order according to size, shape or any other characterstic. Eg.: if given different-sized objects, they may place them accordingly. • Transitivity: The ability to recognize logical relationships among elements in a serial order. Eg.: if A is taller than B and B is taller than C, then A must be taller than C. • Classification: The ability to group objects together on the basis of common features. The child also begins to get the idea that one set can include another. Eg.: there is a class of objects called dogs. There is also a class called animals. But all dogs are also animals, so the class of animals includes that of dogs.
  • 16. • Decentring: The ability to take multiple adpects of a situation into account. Eg.: the child will no longer perceive an exceptionally- wide but short cup to contain less than a normally-wide, taller cup. • Reversibility: The child understands that numbers or objects can be changed, then returned to their original state. Eg.: the child will rapidly determine that if 4+4=8 then 8-4=4, the original quantity. • Conservation: Understanding that the quantity, length or number of items is unrelated to the arrangement or appearance of the object or item. • Elimination of Egocentrism: The ability to view things from another's perspective. • The child performs operations: combining, separating, multiplying, repeating, dividing etc
  • 17. Formal Operational Stage (12 yrs & above) -Adolscence and Adulthood • The thought becomes increasingly flexible and abstract, i.e, can carry out systematic experiments. • The ability to systematically solve a problem in a logical and methodological way. • Understands that nothing is absolute; everything is relative. • Develops skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning as well as inductive reasoning and sytematic planning etc. • Understands that the rules of any game or social system are developed by a man by mutual agreement and hence could be changed or modified. • The child's way of thinking is at its most advanced, although the knowledge it has to work with, will change.
  • 18. Educational Implications • Emphasis on discovery approach in learning. • Curriculum should provide specific educational experience based on children's developmental level. • Arrange classroom activities so that they assist and encourage self learning. • Social interactions have a great educational value for Piaget. Positive social actions, therefore should be encouraged. • Instruction should be geared to the level of the child. As the level of the child changes at each stage, the level of instruction or exploratory activities should also change. • Simple to Complex and Project method of teaching. • Co-curricular activities have equal importance as that of curricular experiences in the cognitive development of children. • Major Goals of education according to Piaget are critical and creative thinking.
  • 19. Contribution to Education • Piaget's theory helped educators, parents and investigators to comprehend the capacity of children in their different stages. • He made us conscious with the way children and adults think. • A lot of school programs have been redesigned taking as base Piaget's discoveries. • Piaget made a revolution with the developmental psychology concentrating all his attention to the mental process and his role with behavior.