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GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT
Aruna A P
DEFINITION
• GROWTH
The term growth denotes a
net increase in the size, or
mass of the tissue. It is largely
attributed to multiplication of
cells and increase in the
intracellular substance.
ACCORDING TO HURLOCK
• GROWTH is change in size, in
proportion, disappearance of
old features and acquisition of
new ones
According to Crow and Crow (1962)
• Growth refers to structural and
physiological changes
DEVELOPMENT
• Development specify maturation of functions.
It is related to the maturation and myelination
of the nervous system and indicates
acquisition of a variety of skills for optimal
functioning of the individual
According to Hurlock(1959)
• Development means a
progressive series of changes
that occur in an orderly
predictable pattern as a result
of maturation and experience.
According to J.E. Anderson(1950)
• Development is concerned
with growth as well as those
changes in behavior which
results from environmental
situations.
According to Liebert, Poulos and
Marmor (1979)
• Development refers to a
process of change in growth
and capability over time, as
function of both maturation
and interaction with the
environment
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT
GROWTH DEVELOPMENT
The term is used in
purely physical sense. It
generally refers to increase
in size, length.
Changes in the
quantitative aspects come
into the domain of
Growth.
Development implies
overall change in shape,
form or structure resulting
in improved working or
functioning.
Changes in the quality or
character rather than the
quantitative aspects comes
in this domain.
GROWTH DEVELOPMENT
It is a part of
developmental process.
Development in its
quantitative aspect is
termed as growth.
Growth does not
continue throughout life.
It stops when maturity
has been attained.
It is a comprehensive
and wider term and refers
to overall changes in the
individual.
Development is a wider
and comprehensive term
and refers to overall
changes in the individual.
It continues throughout
life and is progressive.
GROWTH DEVELOPMENT
Growth involves body
changes.
The changes produced
by growth are the subject
of measurement. They
may be quantified.
Development involves
changes of an orderly,
coherent type tending
towards the goal of
maturity.
Development implies
improvement in
functioning and behavior
and hence bring
qualitative changes which
are difficult to be
GROWTH DEVELOPMENT
Growth is cellular .
It takes place due to
the multiplication of
cells.
Growth may or
may not bring
development.
Development is
organizational. It is
organization of all
the parts which
growth and
differentiation have
produced.
 Development is
also possible without
growth.
PRINCIPLES OF GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT
• Development is a
continous process
from conception
to maturity
• Development depends on the maturation and
myelination of nervous system.
• The sequence of the development is the same
for all children, but the rate of development
varies from child to child
• Certain primitive reflexes anticipate
corresponding voluntary movement
and have to be lost before the
voluntary movement develops
• Development
follows a
direction and
uniform
pattern
• Generalized mass activity given way
to specific individual response
• Principle of hierarchical integration
• Development lacks uniformity of
rate
• Development proceeds from general to
specific responses
• Principle of independence of systems
• Most traits of development are
correlated
• Development is cumulative
• Development is a result of interaction of
Maturation and Learning
• Development is a product of contribution
of Heredity and Environment
FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT
• FETAL GROWTH
Genetic potential
Sex
Fetal hormones
Fetal growth factors
Placental factors
Maternal factors
POST NATAL PERIOD
• Sex
• IUGR
• Genetic factors
• Hormonal influences
• Nutrition
• Infections
• Chemical agents
• Traumate
SOCIAL FACTORS:
• Socioeconomic level
• Poverty
• Natural resources
• Climate
• Emotional factors
• Cultural factors
• Parental education
LAWS OF GROWTH
• Growth and development in
children is a continuous and
orderly process
• Growth pattern of every
individual is unique
• Different patterns in the body
grow at different rates
DEVELOPMENTAL AGE PERIODS
• Infancy
– Neonate
• Birth to 1 month
– Infancy
• 1 month to 1 year
• Early Childhood
– Toddler
• 1-3 years
– Preschool
• 3-6 years
• Middle Childhood
– School age
– 6 to 12 years
• Late Childhood
• Adolescent
– 13 years to approximately 18 years
SOMATIC GROWTH
• SKELETAL GROWTH
• BONE AGE ESTIMATION
• ERUPTION OF TEETHS
ERRUPTION OF TEETH
ERRUPTION OF PRIMARY TEETH
UPPER ARCH LOWER ARCH
CENTRAL
INCISORS
10 MONTHS 8 MONTHS
LATERAL INCISORS 11 MONTHS 13 MONTHS
CANINE 19 MONTHS 2O MONTHS
FIRST MOLAR 16YEARS 16 YEARS
SECOND MOLAR 29 YEARS 27 YEARS
PERMANENT TEETH
Molar
6 to 7 years
Central and lateral incisors 6 to 8 years
Canines and premolars 9 to 12 years
Second molars 12 years
Third molars 18 years or later
CLASSIC STAGE THEORIES
FREUD’S PSYCHO SEXUAL THEORY
INFANCY ORAL
TODDLERHOOD ANAL
PRE SCHOOL PHALLIC
SCHOOL AGE LATENCY
ADOLESCENCE GENITAL
PSYCHO SOCIAL THEORY
INFANCY BASIC TRUST VS
MISTRUST
TODDLERHOOD AUTONOMY VS SHAME
AND DOUBT
PRE SCHOOL INITIATIVE VS GUILT
SCHOOL AGE INDUSTRY VS
INFERIORITY
ADOLESCENCE IDENTITY VS ROLE
DIFFUSION
TRUST VS MISTRUST
• INFANCY
• VIRTUE: HOPE
AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBT
• TODDLERS
• VIRTUE: WILL
• MAIN QUESTION : CAN I DO THINGS MYSELF
OR MUST I ALWAYS RELY ON OTHERS?
INITIATIVE VS GUILT
• PRE SCHOOLERS
• VIRTUE : PURPOSE
• MAIN QUESTION : AM I GOOD OR BAD?
INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITY
• CHILDHOOD
• VIRTUE: COMPETANCE
• QUESTION: AM I SUCCESSFUL OR
WORTHLESS?
IDENTITY VS ROLE CONFUSION
• ADOLESCENTS
• QUESTION: WHO AM I AND WHERE AM I
GOING?
• EGO QUALITY: FIDELITY
INTIMACY VS ISOLATION
• YOUNG ADULTS
• 20- 34YEARS
• QUESTION: AM I LOVED AND WANTED?
• VIRTUE : LOVE
GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATION
• MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
• VIRTUE: CARE
• QUESTION : WILL I PRODUCE SOMETHING OF
REAL VALUE?
PIAGET: 4 STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
• Sensorimotor (0-2 years)
• Preoperations (2-7 years)
• Concrete Operations (7-12 years)
• Formal Operations (12 and up)
SENSORY MOTOR
• Understand the world
through senses and
motor actions
• Develop object
permanence at stage
end
• At 9 months, can
imitate
SENSORY MOTOR PHASE
• 3 EVENTS
– SEPARATION
– OBJECT PERMANANCE
– SYMBOL OR MENTAL REPRESENTATION
SYMBOL OR MENTAL REPRESENTATION
• HAS 6 STAGES
– USE OF REFLEX (BIRTH – 1 MONTH)
– PRIMARY CIRCULAR REACTION ( 1-4 MONTH)
– SECONDARY CIRCULAR REACTION ( 4-8 MONTH)
– COORDINATION OF SECONDARY SCHEMES
– TERTIARY CIRCULAR REACTION( 13- 18 MONTHS)
– MENTAL COMBINATION (19-24 MONTHS)
PRE OPERATIVE
• Think about things not
present
• Fantasy play
• Thinking egocentric,
dominated by
perception
CONCRETE OPERATIONS
• Can manipulate
ideas
• Understand
reversibility
• Can do
conservation and
classification
FORMAL OPERATIONS
• Can do abstract &
hypothetical
reasoning
• Can reason
contrary to
experience
• MAY be found only
in people's areas of
expertise!
KOHLBERG’ THEORY
• 3 LEVELS OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
– PRE CONVENTIONAL MORALITY
– CONVENTIONAL MORALITY
– POST CONVENTIONAL MORALITY
PRE CONVENTIONAL MORALITY
• STAGE I
• CHILD IS OBEDIENCE
PUNISHMENT
ORIENTED
• STAGE II
• CHILD CONFIRM THE
SOCIAL EXPECTATION
TO GAIN REWARD
CONVENTIONAL MORALITY
• MORALITY OF CONVENTIONAL RULES AND
CONFIRMITY
• 2 STAGES
– GOOD BOY MORALITY
– AVOID SOCIAL DISAPPROVAL
POST CONVENTIONAL MORALITY
• MORALITY OF SELF ACCEPTED PRINCIPLES
• 2 STAGES
– MORALITY SHOULD BE MODIFIABLE
– SOCIAL STANDARDS AND INTERNALISED IDEAS TO
AVOID SELF CENSURE
KOHLBERG’S THEORY
TODDLER PRE CONVENTIONAL
PRE SCHOOL CONVENTIONAL
SCHOOL AGE CONVENTIONAL
ADOLESCENCE POST CONVENTIONAL
BEHAVIOURAL THEORY
THEORY OF INTERPERSONAL
DEVELOPMENT
• PROPOSED BY SULLIVAN
• FIRST INTERACTION WITH MOTHERS
• EXTENDS TO OTHER FAMILY MEMBERS BY THE
AGE OF 2 YRS
• EXTENDS TO NEIGHBOURS, PEERS AT SCHOOL
AND HORIZONTAL WIDENS
NORMAL GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT DURING
INFANCY
GROSS MOTOR DEVELOPMENT
• 6 WEEKS – DEVELOP
HEAD CONTROL
• 20 WEEKS – COMPLETE
NECK CONTROL
• 6 MONTHS – CHILD CAN
BEAR ALMOST ALL HIS
WEIGHT
• 9 MONTHS- _ begins to
stand holding on the
furniture
• 10 – 11 months – start
cruising around the
furniture
• 12- 13 months _ stands
independently.
• 13- 15 months _ start
walking independently
• 18 months _ runs
FINE MOTOR DEVELOPMENT
• Hand eye
coordination
• 12-20 weeks – child
observes his own hands
(hand regard)
• 4 months – hand of the
children come together
at midline as he plays
Offer a red cube to the child
• 5-6 months : infant reaches and holds the cube
in a crude manner using the ulnar aspect of his
hand
• 6-7 months : transfer objects from one hand to
other
• 8-9 months : child is able to grasp from the radial
side of the hand
• 1 year : mature grasp ( index finger and thumb) is
evident
By offering pellets, finer hand skills are
assessed
• 9-10 months : child approaches the pellet by
an index finger and lifts it using – thumb
opposition
HAND TO MOUTH COORDINATION
• 6 months : child can
take a biscuit to his
mouth and chew
• 1 year : tries to feed
self from a cup but
spills some of the
content
DRESSING
• 1 year : child
starts to pull
off mittens,
caps and socks
PERSONAL AND SOCIAL
DEVELOPMENT AND GENERAL
UNDERSTANDING
• 1 month _ child
intently watches
his mother
when she talks
to him
•6-8 weeks
: social
smile
• 3 months : enjoys
looking around and
recognizes the
mother
• 6 months : vocalizes
and smiles at his
mirror image and
imitates acts such as
cough or tongue
protrusion
• 6-7 months : stranger
anxiety
• 9 months : waves ‘bye-
bye’. Repeats any
performance that
evokes an appreciative
response from the
observers
1 year : he can
understand simple
questions like ‘ where is
your papa?’
LANGUAGE
• 1 month – alerts to sound
• 3 month – coos ( musical vowel sounds)
• 4 months – laugh aloud
• 6 months – monosyllables (ba- pa –da), ah-
goo sounds
• 9 months – bisyllables (mama, baba, dada)
• 12 months – 1-2 words words with meaning
VISION
• 1 month – baby can fixate on his mother as
she talks to him
• 3-4 months : child can fixate intently on an
object shown to him (grasping with eye)
• 6 weeks : binocular vision begins and is well
established by 4 months
• 6 months : child adjusts his position to follow
object of interest
• 1 year : follow rapidly moving objects
HEARING
• 3-4 months : child turns his head towards the
source of sound
• 5-6 months : child turns the head to one side
and then downward if a sound is made sound
below the level of ears.
• 10 months : child directly looks at the source
of diagonally
PSYCHO SOCIAL
DEVELOPMENT
TRUST VS MISTRUST
RADIUS OF SIGNIFICANT
RELATIONSHIP
• Proposed by Sullivan
• Maternal person (
unipolar – bipolar)
COGNITIVE STAGE
• Proposed by Piaget
• Sensory motor
THANK YOU…

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Growth and development

  • 2. DEFINITION • GROWTH The term growth denotes a net increase in the size, or mass of the tissue. It is largely attributed to multiplication of cells and increase in the intracellular substance.
  • 3. ACCORDING TO HURLOCK • GROWTH is change in size, in proportion, disappearance of old features and acquisition of new ones
  • 4. According to Crow and Crow (1962) • Growth refers to structural and physiological changes
  • 5. DEVELOPMENT • Development specify maturation of functions. It is related to the maturation and myelination of the nervous system and indicates acquisition of a variety of skills for optimal functioning of the individual
  • 6. According to Hurlock(1959) • Development means a progressive series of changes that occur in an orderly predictable pattern as a result of maturation and experience.
  • 7. According to J.E. Anderson(1950) • Development is concerned with growth as well as those changes in behavior which results from environmental situations.
  • 8. According to Liebert, Poulos and Marmor (1979) • Development refers to a process of change in growth and capability over time, as function of both maturation and interaction with the environment
  • 9. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT GROWTH DEVELOPMENT The term is used in purely physical sense. It generally refers to increase in size, length. Changes in the quantitative aspects come into the domain of Growth. Development implies overall change in shape, form or structure resulting in improved working or functioning. Changes in the quality or character rather than the quantitative aspects comes in this domain.
  • 10. GROWTH DEVELOPMENT It is a part of developmental process. Development in its quantitative aspect is termed as growth. Growth does not continue throughout life. It stops when maturity has been attained. It is a comprehensive and wider term and refers to overall changes in the individual. Development is a wider and comprehensive term and refers to overall changes in the individual. It continues throughout life and is progressive.
  • 11. GROWTH DEVELOPMENT Growth involves body changes. The changes produced by growth are the subject of measurement. They may be quantified. Development involves changes of an orderly, coherent type tending towards the goal of maturity. Development implies improvement in functioning and behavior and hence bring qualitative changes which are difficult to be
  • 12. GROWTH DEVELOPMENT Growth is cellular . It takes place due to the multiplication of cells. Growth may or may not bring development. Development is organizational. It is organization of all the parts which growth and differentiation have produced.  Development is also possible without growth.
  • 13. PRINCIPLES OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT • Development is a continous process from conception to maturity
  • 14. • Development depends on the maturation and myelination of nervous system. • The sequence of the development is the same for all children, but the rate of development varies from child to child
  • 15. • Certain primitive reflexes anticipate corresponding voluntary movement and have to be lost before the voluntary movement develops
  • 16. • Development follows a direction and uniform pattern
  • 17. • Generalized mass activity given way to specific individual response • Principle of hierarchical integration • Development lacks uniformity of rate
  • 18. • Development proceeds from general to specific responses
  • 19. • Principle of independence of systems • Most traits of development are correlated • Development is cumulative • Development is a result of interaction of Maturation and Learning • Development is a product of contribution of Heredity and Environment
  • 20. FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT • FETAL GROWTH Genetic potential Sex Fetal hormones Fetal growth factors Placental factors Maternal factors
  • 21. POST NATAL PERIOD • Sex • IUGR • Genetic factors • Hormonal influences • Nutrition • Infections • Chemical agents • Traumate
  • 22. SOCIAL FACTORS: • Socioeconomic level • Poverty • Natural resources • Climate • Emotional factors • Cultural factors • Parental education
  • 23. LAWS OF GROWTH • Growth and development in children is a continuous and orderly process • Growth pattern of every individual is unique • Different patterns in the body grow at different rates
  • 24. DEVELOPMENTAL AGE PERIODS • Infancy – Neonate • Birth to 1 month – Infancy • 1 month to 1 year • Early Childhood – Toddler • 1-3 years – Preschool • 3-6 years
  • 25. • Middle Childhood – School age – 6 to 12 years • Late Childhood • Adolescent – 13 years to approximately 18 years
  • 26. SOMATIC GROWTH • SKELETAL GROWTH • BONE AGE ESTIMATION • ERUPTION OF TEETHS
  • 28. ERRUPTION OF PRIMARY TEETH UPPER ARCH LOWER ARCH CENTRAL INCISORS 10 MONTHS 8 MONTHS LATERAL INCISORS 11 MONTHS 13 MONTHS CANINE 19 MONTHS 2O MONTHS FIRST MOLAR 16YEARS 16 YEARS SECOND MOLAR 29 YEARS 27 YEARS
  • 29. PERMANENT TEETH Molar 6 to 7 years Central and lateral incisors 6 to 8 years Canines and premolars 9 to 12 years Second molars 12 years Third molars 18 years or later
  • 31. FREUD’S PSYCHO SEXUAL THEORY INFANCY ORAL TODDLERHOOD ANAL PRE SCHOOL PHALLIC SCHOOL AGE LATENCY ADOLESCENCE GENITAL
  • 32. PSYCHO SOCIAL THEORY INFANCY BASIC TRUST VS MISTRUST TODDLERHOOD AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBT PRE SCHOOL INITIATIVE VS GUILT SCHOOL AGE INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITY ADOLESCENCE IDENTITY VS ROLE DIFFUSION
  • 33. TRUST VS MISTRUST • INFANCY • VIRTUE: HOPE
  • 34. AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBT • TODDLERS • VIRTUE: WILL • MAIN QUESTION : CAN I DO THINGS MYSELF OR MUST I ALWAYS RELY ON OTHERS?
  • 35. INITIATIVE VS GUILT • PRE SCHOOLERS • VIRTUE : PURPOSE • MAIN QUESTION : AM I GOOD OR BAD?
  • 36. INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITY • CHILDHOOD • VIRTUE: COMPETANCE • QUESTION: AM I SUCCESSFUL OR WORTHLESS?
  • 37. IDENTITY VS ROLE CONFUSION • ADOLESCENTS • QUESTION: WHO AM I AND WHERE AM I GOING? • EGO QUALITY: FIDELITY
  • 38. INTIMACY VS ISOLATION • YOUNG ADULTS • 20- 34YEARS • QUESTION: AM I LOVED AND WANTED? • VIRTUE : LOVE
  • 39. GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATION • MIDDLE ADULTHOOD • VIRTUE: CARE • QUESTION : WILL I PRODUCE SOMETHING OF REAL VALUE?
  • 40. PIAGET: 4 STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT • Sensorimotor (0-2 years) • Preoperations (2-7 years) • Concrete Operations (7-12 years) • Formal Operations (12 and up)
  • 41. SENSORY MOTOR • Understand the world through senses and motor actions • Develop object permanence at stage end • At 9 months, can imitate
  • 42. SENSORY MOTOR PHASE • 3 EVENTS – SEPARATION – OBJECT PERMANANCE – SYMBOL OR MENTAL REPRESENTATION
  • 43. SYMBOL OR MENTAL REPRESENTATION • HAS 6 STAGES – USE OF REFLEX (BIRTH – 1 MONTH) – PRIMARY CIRCULAR REACTION ( 1-4 MONTH) – SECONDARY CIRCULAR REACTION ( 4-8 MONTH) – COORDINATION OF SECONDARY SCHEMES – TERTIARY CIRCULAR REACTION( 13- 18 MONTHS) – MENTAL COMBINATION (19-24 MONTHS)
  • 44. PRE OPERATIVE • Think about things not present • Fantasy play • Thinking egocentric, dominated by perception
  • 45. CONCRETE OPERATIONS • Can manipulate ideas • Understand reversibility • Can do conservation and classification
  • 46. FORMAL OPERATIONS • Can do abstract & hypothetical reasoning • Can reason contrary to experience • MAY be found only in people's areas of expertise!
  • 47. KOHLBERG’ THEORY • 3 LEVELS OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT – PRE CONVENTIONAL MORALITY – CONVENTIONAL MORALITY – POST CONVENTIONAL MORALITY
  • 48. PRE CONVENTIONAL MORALITY • STAGE I • CHILD IS OBEDIENCE PUNISHMENT ORIENTED • STAGE II • CHILD CONFIRM THE SOCIAL EXPECTATION TO GAIN REWARD
  • 49. CONVENTIONAL MORALITY • MORALITY OF CONVENTIONAL RULES AND CONFIRMITY • 2 STAGES – GOOD BOY MORALITY – AVOID SOCIAL DISAPPROVAL
  • 50. POST CONVENTIONAL MORALITY • MORALITY OF SELF ACCEPTED PRINCIPLES • 2 STAGES – MORALITY SHOULD BE MODIFIABLE – SOCIAL STANDARDS AND INTERNALISED IDEAS TO AVOID SELF CENSURE
  • 51. KOHLBERG’S THEORY TODDLER PRE CONVENTIONAL PRE SCHOOL CONVENTIONAL SCHOOL AGE CONVENTIONAL ADOLESCENCE POST CONVENTIONAL
  • 53. THEORY OF INTERPERSONAL DEVELOPMENT • PROPOSED BY SULLIVAN • FIRST INTERACTION WITH MOTHERS • EXTENDS TO OTHER FAMILY MEMBERS BY THE AGE OF 2 YRS • EXTENDS TO NEIGHBOURS, PEERS AT SCHOOL AND HORIZONTAL WIDENS
  • 55.
  • 57. • 6 WEEKS – DEVELOP HEAD CONTROL • 20 WEEKS – COMPLETE NECK CONTROL
  • 58. • 6 MONTHS – CHILD CAN BEAR ALMOST ALL HIS WEIGHT • 9 MONTHS- _ begins to stand holding on the furniture • 10 – 11 months – start cruising around the furniture
  • 59. • 12- 13 months _ stands independently. • 13- 15 months _ start walking independently • 18 months _ runs
  • 60. FINE MOTOR DEVELOPMENT • Hand eye coordination • 12-20 weeks – child observes his own hands (hand regard) • 4 months – hand of the children come together at midline as he plays
  • 61. Offer a red cube to the child • 5-6 months : infant reaches and holds the cube in a crude manner using the ulnar aspect of his hand • 6-7 months : transfer objects from one hand to other • 8-9 months : child is able to grasp from the radial side of the hand • 1 year : mature grasp ( index finger and thumb) is evident
  • 62. By offering pellets, finer hand skills are assessed • 9-10 months : child approaches the pellet by an index finger and lifts it using – thumb opposition
  • 63. HAND TO MOUTH COORDINATION • 6 months : child can take a biscuit to his mouth and chew • 1 year : tries to feed self from a cup but spills some of the content
  • 64. DRESSING • 1 year : child starts to pull off mittens, caps and socks
  • 65. PERSONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND GENERAL UNDERSTANDING • 1 month _ child intently watches his mother when she talks to him
  • 67. • 3 months : enjoys looking around and recognizes the mother • 6 months : vocalizes and smiles at his mirror image and imitates acts such as cough or tongue protrusion
  • 68. • 6-7 months : stranger anxiety • 9 months : waves ‘bye- bye’. Repeats any performance that evokes an appreciative response from the observers
  • 69. 1 year : he can understand simple questions like ‘ where is your papa?’
  • 70. LANGUAGE • 1 month – alerts to sound • 3 month – coos ( musical vowel sounds) • 4 months – laugh aloud • 6 months – monosyllables (ba- pa –da), ah- goo sounds • 9 months – bisyllables (mama, baba, dada) • 12 months – 1-2 words words with meaning
  • 71. VISION • 1 month – baby can fixate on his mother as she talks to him • 3-4 months : child can fixate intently on an object shown to him (grasping with eye) • 6 weeks : binocular vision begins and is well established by 4 months • 6 months : child adjusts his position to follow object of interest • 1 year : follow rapidly moving objects
  • 72. HEARING • 3-4 months : child turns his head towards the source of sound • 5-6 months : child turns the head to one side and then downward if a sound is made sound below the level of ears. • 10 months : child directly looks at the source of diagonally
  • 74. RADIUS OF SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP • Proposed by Sullivan • Maternal person ( unipolar – bipolar)
  • 75. COGNITIVE STAGE • Proposed by Piaget • Sensory motor