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Hybrid seed production of sorghum crop.

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Submitted to:
Dr. V. Umesh kumar
Assistant Professor
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics
N.S Agriculture college,
Markapur.
Submitted by:
NAA/18-01,
NAA/18-03,
NAA/18-57,
3rd year – 2nd semester.
N.S Agriculture college,Markapur.
Course No: GPBR-314
Course Title: Principles of Seed Technology.
Topic: Seed Production of sorghum crop.
Seed Production of open pollinated varieties of sorghum
Land requirement
Isolation requirement
Land should be free from volunteer plants, Johnson grass, Sudan grass and
other forage types.
The same crop should not be grown on the same piece of land in the
previous one season unless it is the same variety and certified by certification
agency for its purity.
sorghum is a self-pollinated crop but cross-pollination up to 8-10 % may
occur.
Hence the seed fields must be isolated from other varieties of grain and dual-
purpose sorghum and same variety not confirming to varietal purity by 200m
for foundation seed class and 100 m for certified seed class.
An isolation of 400 m is required from Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense).
Rouging
Brief Cultural Practices
The seed rate required is 12-15 kg/ha and the spacing adopted is 45cm
between the rows and 15cm between the plants
Remove all the offtypes and volunteer plants before they start shedding
pollen.
The rouged plants must be cut from the bottom or uprooted to prevent
regrowth.
Offtypes can be identified based on morphological characters like plant
height, leaf shape, leaf colour, stem pigmentation, days to flowering etc.
Number of field Inspections
A minimum of three field inspection should be done.
First inspection should be done during vegetative stage to determine isolation,
volunteer plants and designated diseases etc.
Second inspection shall be made during flowering to check isolation, offtypes
and other relevant factors.
Third inspection shall be made at maturity prior to harvest to verify designated
diseases true nature of plants, head and seed
Foundation class certified class
Offtypes 0.05 % 0.10 %
Diseases plants 0.05 % 0.10 %
(Kernel smut or grain smut and head smut)
Seed Yield
Harvesting and threshing
The seed crop must be harvested when it is fully ripe.
The harvested heads should be sorted out to remove the diseased or
otherwise undesirable.
The heads should be dried on the threshing floor or tarpaulin for a couple
of days before threshing.
Threshing can be done by threshers or manually.
The seed should be thoroughly cleaned and dried to 10 % moisture before
storage
Seed yield may be in the range of 35-40 q/ha.
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Hybrid seed production of sorghum crop.

  • 1. Submitted to: Dr. V. Umesh kumar Assistant Professor Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics N.S Agriculture college, Markapur. Submitted by: NAA/18-01, NAA/18-03, NAA/18-57, 3rd year – 2nd semester. N.S Agriculture college,Markapur.
  • 2. Course No: GPBR-314 Course Title: Principles of Seed Technology. Topic: Seed Production of sorghum crop.
  • 3. Seed Production of open pollinated varieties of sorghum Land requirement Isolation requirement Land should be free from volunteer plants, Johnson grass, Sudan grass and other forage types. The same crop should not be grown on the same piece of land in the previous one season unless it is the same variety and certified by certification agency for its purity. sorghum is a self-pollinated crop but cross-pollination up to 8-10 % may occur. Hence the seed fields must be isolated from other varieties of grain and dual- purpose sorghum and same variety not confirming to varietal purity by 200m for foundation seed class and 100 m for certified seed class. An isolation of 400 m is required from Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense).
  • 4. Rouging Brief Cultural Practices The seed rate required is 12-15 kg/ha and the spacing adopted is 45cm between the rows and 15cm between the plants Remove all the offtypes and volunteer plants before they start shedding pollen. The rouged plants must be cut from the bottom or uprooted to prevent regrowth. Offtypes can be identified based on morphological characters like plant height, leaf shape, leaf colour, stem pigmentation, days to flowering etc.
  • 5. Number of field Inspections A minimum of three field inspection should be done. First inspection should be done during vegetative stage to determine isolation, volunteer plants and designated diseases etc. Second inspection shall be made during flowering to check isolation, offtypes and other relevant factors. Third inspection shall be made at maturity prior to harvest to verify designated diseases true nature of plants, head and seed Foundation class certified class Offtypes 0.05 % 0.10 % Diseases plants 0.05 % 0.10 % (Kernel smut or grain smut and head smut)
  • 6. Seed Yield Harvesting and threshing The seed crop must be harvested when it is fully ripe. The harvested heads should be sorted out to remove the diseased or otherwise undesirable. The heads should be dried on the threshing floor or tarpaulin for a couple of days before threshing. Threshing can be done by threshers or manually. The seed should be thoroughly cleaned and dried to 10 % moisture before storage Seed yield may be in the range of 35-40 q/ha.
  • 8. In sorghum hybrid seed is produced by utilizing cytoplasmic genetic male sterile system. The source of male sterile cytoplasm used is Combined kafir. Hybrid seed production involves two steps; 1. Maintenance of parental Lines (A-line, B-line and R-line) 2. Commercial hybrid seed production (AxR) Maintenance of parental lines is generally referred as foundation seed production and hybrid seed production as certified seed class. The A-line can be maintained by crossing with B-line in an isolated plot, while in hybrid seed production A-line is crosses with R-line or fertility restorer line. The B-line and the R-line can be maintained just like normal varieties by following the required isolation and field standards. Hybrid Seed Production of sorghum
  • 9. Seed Production of B-line and R-line: The seed is produced in an isolated plot and it is similar to seed production of open pollinated varieties. However the isolation distance required and the fields standards are similar to that of maintenance of A-line. Maintenance of A-line or Hybrid seed Production (AxR): Land requirement: Land should be free from volunteer plants, Johnson grass, Sudan grass and other forage types. The same crop should not be grown on the same piece of land in the previous one season unless it is the same variety and certified by certification agency for its purity.
  • 10. Isolation requirement: The isolation distance for maintenance of A-line (AxB) is 300 m from fields of other varieties of grain and dual purpose sorghum and same variety not confirming to varietal purity and 400m from Johnson grass, Sudan grass and other forage types. For commercial hybrid seed production (AxR) the isolation distance required is 200 m from fields of other varieties of grain and dual purpose sorghum, and same hybrid not confirming to varietal purity requirements of certification, 5 m from other hybrid seed production plot having the same male parent and 400 m from Johnson grass, Sudan grass and other forage types. Planting ratio: The planting ratio of female to male plants is 4:2 with two rows of male parent all around the field.
  • 11. Brief cultural practices: The success in hybrid seed production depends on synchronization of flowering between male and female parent. For maintenance of A-line synchronization of flowering will not be a problem as both A and B-lines are isogenic lines and come to flowering at the same time, while in hybrid seed production synchronization will be a problem as A-line and R-line have different genetic constitution. If there is any difference between the male and female parent for days to flowering the sowing dates should be adjusted for proper synchronization of flowering. The seed rate required is 8.0 kgs/ha of A-line and 4.0 kgs/ha of B or R-line. Other cultural practices similar to commercial crop production should be adopted for raising a good crop.
  • 12. Cultural manipulation for nicking: Proper synchronization of flowering between A-line and R-line is a common problem. In-spite of taking the precautions like adjusting the sowing dates some times synchronization may be a problem. If the difference between the male and female parent is less than a week it can be manipulated by cultural practices. The parent which is lagging should be sprayed with 1 per cent urea solution 2-3 times at an interval of 2-3 days or additional irrigation should be given to the Lagging parent. Blowing air by operating empty duster with the mouth directed horizontally to the male ears, will help to disseminate pollen.
  • 13. Rouging: Before flowering remove all off-types from both seed parent and pollen rows based on morphological characters. Some of the precautions to be taken while rouging are 1. Start rouging before off-types, volunteers and pollen shedders in female rows start shedding pollen. 2. Out crosses can be easily identified be cause of their greater height and more vigorous growth and should be removed 3. At flowering rouging should be done every day to remove pollen shedders from female parent rows. 4. Remove all plants out of their place (i.e. plants in between the lines), and male plants in female rows and vice versa 5. Remove other sorghum related plants like Johnson grass, Sudan grass and other forage types from the seed plot and from within the isolation distance. 6. Remove the plants affected by kernel bunt ands head smut. 7. Pre-harvest rouging may be done based on grain and ear characters.
  • 14. Number of Field Inspections: A minimum of four field inspections should be conducted. The first field inspection should be conducted before flowering stage, second and third during flowering stag and fourth before harvesting. During the first field inspection verification should be done for volunteer plants, isolation requirement, errors in planting and the actual acreage sown. During the second and third field inspection verification should be done for isolation requirement, off-types, diseased plants, pollen shedders and objectionable weed plants. Fourth or final field inspection should be done to verify for all the above factors and the off-types can be identified based on panicle or seed characters. Foundation class certified class Off-types 0.05 % 0.10 % Pollen shedders 0.05 % 0.10 % Diseases plants 0.05 % 0.10 % (kernel smut or grain smut and head smut)
  • 15. Harvesting and threshing: Harvest the male rows first and keep their heads separate to avoid mixture male and female seed. Then harvest the female parental line and thresh it separately. Precautions may to taken while harvesting and threshing to avoid mechanical mixtures. Seed Yield: the seed yield may be in the range of 4-6 q/ha depending on the parent line and the cultural practices adopted.