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Huertas Intensivas Estrategias En Zona 1 Ecoescuela El Manzano Www Ecoescuela.Cl


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Huertas Intensivas Estrategias En Zona 1 Ecoescuela El Manzano Www Ecoescuela.Cl

  1. 1. Intensive Gardens Zone I Strategies
  2. 2. © Ecoescuela El Manzano You can use this presentation for educational purposes. It can not be modified other than translation. Please always quote Ecoescuela El Manzano when you use this material. Thank you.
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Zone One Características. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Cultivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Food Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Living Mulch. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Guilds. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Farming. </li></ul><ul><li>Calorie Farming. </li></ul><ul><li>Open Pollinated Seed. </li></ul><ul><li>Whole Farming. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives <ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Zone I
  7. 7. Indoor-Outdoor <ul><li>Living spaces in the garden. </li></ul>
  8. 15. Use Vertical Space <ul><li>Maximise functions and yields. </li></ul>
  9. 23. Container Gardening <ul><li>Vertical Space & Roofs. </li></ul>
  10. 33. Sheet Mulch
  11. 39. Kitchen Herbs <ul><li>Accessible daily food needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants that need freq. attention. </li></ul>
  12. 40. Animal Tractors <ul><li>Many functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be contained from garden. </li></ul>
  13. 41. Dwarf Varieties <ul><li>Vertical Space & Roofs. </li></ul>
  14. 42. Soil Cultivation
  15. 43. Double Dug Raised Beds
  16. 44. Double Dug down to at least 24 inches. Allows close spacing of plants and very deep roots. Allows deeper penetration of air, water, and nutrients. Plant roots can grow more freely
  17. 49. No Digging
  18. 61. Importing Soil
  19. 69. Raised Bed Effect <ul><li>Extend Season. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve Drainage. </li></ul><ul><li>Retains Moisture. </li></ul><ul><li>No compaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Weeding simplified. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Yields. </li></ul>
  20. 87. Soil Food Web
  21. 88. Re-mineralisation <ul><li>The basic stuff of soil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parent material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rock Dust </li></ul><ul><li>Sart. </li></ul>
  22. 91. Answer Lives in the Soil <ul><li>Healthy soil, healthy plants, healthy animals and people... </li></ul>½ kilo of healthy topsoil may contain several billion microorganisms.
  23. 94. Waste is Food – Recycle! <ul><li>Compost ! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) Replenish nutrients. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Maintain healthy soil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) Sustain microrganisms ( Bacteria & Fungi ) . </li></ul></ul>
  24. 97. Aerobic Compost Tea
  25. 105. Living Mulch
  26. 106. <ul><li>Flats </li></ul>
  27. 107. <ul><li>Mini Greenhouse </li></ul>
  28. 108. <ul><li>Close Hexagon spacings </li></ul>
  29. 109. <ul><li>Leaves touching </li></ul>
  30. 111. Creates Microclimaté (1) Reduces evaporation. (2) Retards weeds. (3) Retains carbon dioxide. (4) Protects micro biota.
  31. 113. Three to Five Foot Bed <ul><li>Easy access. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy watering. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 114. Hexagonal Planting <ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 115. Mini Climate <ul><li>Gas exchange. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased Moisture. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shades weeds. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 116. Plant Guilds
  35. 117. Companion planting. For reasons that are still not well understood but have been thoroughly validated, many plants complement one another and grow more abundantly together - say bush beans and strawberries. In other cases, companion plants may serve to repel garden pests of various kinds, or may attract beneficial insects. For instance, borage helps to control tomato worms and also attracts pollinators like bees.
  36. 118. Mutually Benefical Plants <ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 119. Crop Rotation
  38. 123. Symbiosis <ul><li>Repel Pests. </li></ul><ul><li>Attract pests. </li></ul><ul><li>Fix nitrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>Tap nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Loosen Soil. </li></ul>
  39. 124. Weed Indicators <ul><li>Dont hate them. </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneers that colonise. </li></ul><ul><li>Handle extreme soils. </li></ul><ul><li>Fast vigorous carbon pathways. </li></ul><ul><li>Attract insects. </li></ul>
  40. 125. Compaction and Acidity
  41. 126. Dock accumulates potassium and phosphorus and decompacts.
  42. 127. Calorie Farming Calorie farming. Here the emphasis is on growing the most efficient calorie-producers for human consumption. For instance, about 30% of all the crops that are grown on a small subsistence farm are high-calorie root crops, such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, parsnips and others.
  43. 128. Food Miles & More <ul><li>Average supermarket dinner travels thousands of kilometres. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 130. Food Exercise
  45. 131. Basic Food Needs <ul><li>As close to home as possible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 132. 30% Root Crops
  47. 137. 10% Green Vegetables
  48. 138. Carbon Farming
  49. 139. &quot;Growing soil&quot; is the key to long term farm sustainability. Some 50-60% of all the crops grown on a modern biointensive farm are dual-purpose crops that provide both calories for humans and an abundance of material for building compost piles. These crops include many grains, corn, fava beans and sunflowers, among others.
  50. 140. 60% Dual Purpose <ul><li>Seed and grain crops. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quinoa; tolerates dry and germination in cold...0 o </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carbon rich crops. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce high carbon content for area. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>30:1 Ratio for compost. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul>
  51. 142. Corn
  52. 143. Fava
  53. 144. Sunflowers
  54. 147. Open Pollinated Seed
  55. 148. Hybrid Seeds <ul><li>First generation, from two distinct parents of same species. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid vigour&quot; which can improve yields. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be sterile or fail to breed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enabled commercial seed markets. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers buys new hybrid seed every growing season. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace traditional farm-saved seed </li></ul></ul>
  56. 149. Hybrid Seeds <ul><li>Known as &quot;high response&quot; seed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilisers, herbicides, pesticides and water . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hybrids bred for maximum yield, ripen at same time, over hardiness. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer reliance forces high chemical inputs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trapped farmers in debt cycle...suicide! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organic methods are substituted. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates lifeless dusty soils prone to erosion. </li></ul></ul>
  57. 151. Global Control <ul><li>85% Agrichemical sales concentrated; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Syngenta, Bayer, Monsanto, BASF, Dow y Dupont . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three corporations control 90% global grain trade; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cargill, Archer Daniels, Bunge. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dupont, Monsanto control seed market. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>¼ seed sale genetically engineered. </li></ul></ul>
  58. 152. Open Pollinated Seed <ul><li>Traditional varieties selected for millenia. </li></ul><ul><li>Selected under organic conditions...grow well without chemical inputs. </li></ul><ul><li>More hardy, better flavor & more flexible. </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic, adapt to local ecosystems. </li></ul>
  59. 153. Seed Saving <ul><li>In the past 100 years, lost 90% of vegetable varieties in the UK. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local, unusual, home-saved varieties . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We need to find old varieties. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local people, old gardens, seed savers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can create our own varieties. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifically adapted. </li></ul></ul>
  60. 156. Pollination
  61. 157. Winnowing
  62. 162. Storage Conditions <ul><li>Low moisture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry well – should crack. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In air tight container – rubber tube </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low light. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bright light can damage seed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low temperature. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temp can stimulate biological activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>constant temperature of around 5° C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pests and diseases. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only healthy seed stored. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neem, cayene, sand. </li></ul></ul>
  63. 166. Whole Farming
  64. 167. Conclusions <ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start. </li></ul></ul>A &quot;whole system&quot; approach. Biointensive farming emphasizes the need for integrating all of the many parts and fully utilizing all of the available knowledge about farming techniques. Some of that knowledge is very subtle. For instance, it has been found that the flavor of lettuce depends on what time of day it is harvested. Lettuce is much sweeter if it is harvested before dawn, because the bitter saps descend into the plant roots during the night and rise up into the plant again when the sun comes up.