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The document discusses the Hardy Cross Method for analyzing water distribution systems to determine pressures and flows. It involves the following steps: 1. Assume pipe diameters and initial flows such that the sum of inflows equals outflows at junctions. 2. Calculate head losses in each pipe using the Hazen-Williams equation. 3. Calculate flow corrections using an equation that sets the sum of head losses around loops to zero. 4. Repeat using corrected flows until flow corrections become small. An example problem applies the method to determine suitable pipe diameters for a branching system given pressure requirements at nodes.

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Design of pipe network

The document discusses the design of pipe networks for water distribution. It describes various methods for analyzing pressure in distribution systems, including the equivalent pipe method, Hardy Cross method, and graphical method. The equivalent pipe method involves replacing a complex pipe system with a single hydraulically equivalent pipe. The document provides detailed steps for applying the equivalent pipe method to pipes placed in series and parallel. It also describes the Hardy Cross method which balances heads by iteratively correcting assumed pipe flows until the total head loss equals zero.

Geotechnical Engineering-I [Lec #24: Soil Permeability - II]

Class notes of Geotechnical Engineering course I used to teach at UET Lahore. Feel free to download the slide show.
Anyone looking to modify these files and use them for their own teaching purposes can contact me directly to get hold of editable version.

Hardy cross method of pipe network analysis

Hardy Cross Method of pipe network analysis has revolutionized the municipal water supply design. i.e., EPANET, a public domain software of water supply, uses the Hardy cross method for pipe network analysis. It is an iterative approach to estimate the flows within the pipe network where inflows (supply) and outflows (demand) with pipe characteristics are known.

economic channel section

its a topic of fluid mechanics detailing about the most economic section of channels its parameters and so.

design and analysis of water distribution System

This document provides an overview of water distribution system design and analysis. It discusses the requirements and design phases for water distribution systems, including preliminary studies, demand analysis, and network layout. It also covers topics such as design criteria, pipe sizing, head losses, and hydraulic analysis methods. The key hydraulic analysis method discussed is the Hardy-Cross method, which is an iterative process that balances the head around loops in the pipe network to solve for node pressures and pipe flows.

Pipe network analysis with examples

(1) The document discusses water supply distribution networks and their components. It describes various natural and non-traditional water sources, as well as water quality parameters and treatment methods.
(2) Distribution networks use reservoirs, transmission pipelines, and distribution mains to deliver water from treatment plants to consumers. The document discusses different network layouts and design considerations like minimizing dead ends.
(3) Pipe network analysis methods like Hardy-Cross and nodal methods are presented to calculate pipe flows and node pressures. An example applies Hardy-Cross iteration to determine flows in a pipe loop that balances the head loss around the loop.

Open Channel Flow

OPEN CHANNEL FLOW AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
Open channel flow: Types of flows – Type of channels – Velocity distribution – Energy and momentum correction factors – Chezy’s, Manning’s; and Bazin formula for uniform flow – Most Economical sections. Critical flow: Specific energy-critical depth – computation of critical depth – critical sub-critical – super critical flows
Non-uniform flows –Dynamic equation for G.V.F., Mild, Critical, Steep, horizontal and adverse slopes-surface profiles-direct step method- Rapidly varied flow, hydraulic jump, energy dissipation

Permeability of Soils & Seepage Analysis

Soil permeability, or hydraulic conductivity, is the rate of the flow of water through soil materials, and it is an essential characteristic of soil.

Design of pipe network

The document discusses the design of pipe networks for water distribution. It describes various methods for analyzing pressure in distribution systems, including the equivalent pipe method, Hardy Cross method, and graphical method. The equivalent pipe method involves replacing a complex pipe system with a single hydraulically equivalent pipe. The document provides detailed steps for applying the equivalent pipe method to pipes placed in series and parallel. It also describes the Hardy Cross method which balances heads by iteratively correcting assumed pipe flows until the total head loss equals zero.

Geotechnical Engineering-I [Lec #24: Soil Permeability - II]

Class notes of Geotechnical Engineering course I used to teach at UET Lahore. Feel free to download the slide show.
Anyone looking to modify these files and use them for their own teaching purposes can contact me directly to get hold of editable version.

Hardy cross method of pipe network analysis

Hardy Cross Method of pipe network analysis has revolutionized the municipal water supply design. i.e., EPANET, a public domain software of water supply, uses the Hardy cross method for pipe network analysis. It is an iterative approach to estimate the flows within the pipe network where inflows (supply) and outflows (demand) with pipe characteristics are known.

economic channel section

its a topic of fluid mechanics detailing about the most economic section of channels its parameters and so.

design and analysis of water distribution System

This document provides an overview of water distribution system design and analysis. It discusses the requirements and design phases for water distribution systems, including preliminary studies, demand analysis, and network layout. It also covers topics such as design criteria, pipe sizing, head losses, and hydraulic analysis methods. The key hydraulic analysis method discussed is the Hardy-Cross method, which is an iterative process that balances the head around loops in the pipe network to solve for node pressures and pipe flows.

Pipe network analysis with examples

(1) The document discusses water supply distribution networks and their components. It describes various natural and non-traditional water sources, as well as water quality parameters and treatment methods.
(2) Distribution networks use reservoirs, transmission pipelines, and distribution mains to deliver water from treatment plants to consumers. The document discusses different network layouts and design considerations like minimizing dead ends.
(3) Pipe network analysis methods like Hardy-Cross and nodal methods are presented to calculate pipe flows and node pressures. An example applies Hardy-Cross iteration to determine flows in a pipe loop that balances the head loss around the loop.

Open Channel Flow

OPEN CHANNEL FLOW AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
Open channel flow: Types of flows – Type of channels – Velocity distribution – Energy and momentum correction factors – Chezy’s, Manning’s; and Bazin formula for uniform flow – Most Economical sections. Critical flow: Specific energy-critical depth – computation of critical depth – critical sub-critical – super critical flows
Non-uniform flows –Dynamic equation for G.V.F., Mild, Critical, Steep, horizontal and adverse slopes-surface profiles-direct step method- Rapidly varied flow, hydraulic jump, energy dissipation

Permeability of Soils & Seepage Analysis

Soil permeability, or hydraulic conductivity, is the rate of the flow of water through soil materials, and it is an essential characteristic of soil.

Highway Drainage (Highway Engineering)

This document discusses highway drainage, which involves removing excess surface and subsurface water from the roadway. Proper drainage is important to maintain the stability of the soil subgrade and prevent damage to pavement materials from moisture. The document outlines various methods of surface drainage like side drains and median drainage, as well as sub-surface drainage techniques such as lowering the water table and installing longitudinal drains. It emphasizes the importance of keeping water levels well below the subgrade and discusses special considerations for draining roads constructed in waterlogged areas.

Class 8 Triaxial Test ( Geotechnical Engineering )

The document summarizes laboratory tests conducted on sand and clay soils, including triaxial compression tests and unconfined compression tests. It describes the test procedures, equipment used, and how to analyze the results to determine soil shear strength parameters. Specifically, it outlines how to conduct a consolidated drained triaxial test on sand under three confining pressures and an unconfined compression test on clay to measure the undrained shear strength. Graphs and calculations of stress, strain, and shear strength are presented.

Notches and weir

This document contains information about notches and weirs used to measure fluid discharge. It defines notches and weirs, describes common types of each including rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal, and Cippoletti, and provides the key equations for calculating discharge over each type. The main difference between notches and weirs is that notches are openings in tank walls used to measure small discharges, while weirs are larger concrete structures built across rivers or canals to measure larger discharges.

Estimation of storm sewage

This presentation includes the estimation of storm sewage generated as a result of storm/rainfall events. It includes the detailed usage of rational formula for quantity estimation with solved examples.

Spillways & energy dissipator

This document discusses spillways and energy dissipators for dams. It defines spillways as structures used to safely release surplus water from reservoirs. The main types of spillways are main, auxiliary, and emergency spillways. Spillways can also be classified based on their prominent features, such as free overflow, overflow, side channel, open channel, tunnel, shaft, and siphon spillways. Energy dissipators, such as stilling basins and bucket types, are also discussed to reduce the energy of water flowing from spillways. Common energy dissipator types include horizontal and sloping apron stilling basins, and solid roller, slotted roller, and ski jump bucket dissipators.

Water supply appurtenances

This document discusses various appurtenances used in water supply systems. It describes valves such as sluice valves, check valves, air relief valves, drain valves, zero velocity valves, scour valves, ball valves, and fire hydrants. It also discusses other appurtenances like water meters, storage tanks, bib cocks, and stop cocks. The purpose of these appurtenances is to control water flow, prevent leakage, change flow direction, and regulate pressure. Proper selection and installation of appurtenances is important for efficient water distribution.

Hydraulics of water Distribution System

The document discusses the design of water distribution systems. It states that the design must satisfy water needs and maintain minimum residual pressures. It discusses pressure variations and velocity limits in distribution systems. It introduces the Hazen-Williams equation for calculating head loss in pipes based on flow rate, length, diameter and roughness coefficient. The document outlines Hardy's Cross Method for balancing flows in distribution networks using loop equations. It provides an example of applying the method to calculate pipe diameters and flows in a sample network.

Open Channel VS Pipe Flow

Pipe flow involves fluid completely filling a pipe, while open channel flow has a free surface. In pipe flow, pressure varies along the pipe but remains constant at the free surface in open channels. The main driving force is gravity in open channels and pressure gradient in pipes. Flow properties like cross-sectional area and velocity profile differ between the two flow types.

Dry weather flow

Dry weather flow refers to the waste water flow in sewer systems during dry periods and consists mainly of domestic sewage and industrial wastewater. The key factors that affect dry weather flow are the rate of water supply, population growth, type of area served (residential, industrial, commercial), and infiltration of groundwater. The sewers must be designed to carry a minimum of 150 litres of water per capita per day to account for these factors.

Hydraulic design of sewer

Hydraulic Design of Sewer:
Hydraulic formulae, maximum and minimum velocities in sewer, hydraulic
characteristics of circular sewer in running full and partial full conditions,
laying and testing of sewer, sewer appurtenances and network.

Methods of boring ppt

This document discusses various methods of boring into soil and rock to obtain samples at different depths. It describes auger boring, which uses hand or powered soil augers to drill holes. It also outlines shell and auger boring, wash boring using pressurized water, percussion boring using repeated blows, and rotary drilling which rotates a cutting bit to extract cylindrical core samples. The purpose of boring is to gather reliable subsurface information for engineering design and construction projects.

Chapter 7 spillway and energy dissipators

This document provides information on spillway and energy dissipator design. It begins with an introduction to spillways, their classification, and factors considered in design. It then focuses on the design of ogee or overflow spillways. It discusses spillway crest profiles, discharge characteristics including effects of approach depth, upstream slope, and submergence. It provides example designs for overflow spillways and calculations for determining spillway length. The key aspects covered are types of spillways, design considerations, standard crest profiles, discharge equations, and worked examples for spillway sizing.

Gravity Dam

Topics:
1. Types of Gravity Dam
2. Forces Acting on a Gravity Dam
3. Causes of failure of Gravity Dam
4. Elementary Profile of Gravity Dam
5. Practical Profile of Gravity Dam
6. Limiting height of Gravity Dam
7. Drainage and Inspection Galleries

(Part ii)- open channels

This document discusses open channel hydraulics and specific energy. It defines key terms like head, energy, hydraulic grade line, energy line, critical depth, Froude number, specific energy, and gradually varied flow. It explains the concepts of critical depth, alternate depths, and how specific energy relates to critical depth for rectangular and non-rectangular channels. It also discusses surface profiles, backwater curves, types of bed slopes, occurrence of critical depth with changes in bed slope, and the energy equation for gradually varied flow. An example problem is included to demonstrate calculating distance between depths for gradually varied flow.

design of weirs

WEIRS VERSUS BERRAGE
TYPES OF WEIRS
COMPONENT PARTS OF A WEIR
CAUSES OF FAILURE OF WEIRS & THEIR REMEDIES
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
DESIGN FOR SURFACE FLOW
DESIGN OF BARRAGE OR WEIR

Standard Penetration Test

This document provides information on the standard penetration test (SPT), including the instruments, procedures, corrections, and applications. It describes that the SPT is commonly used to evaluate the in-situ properties of cohesionless soils. The key instruments are a split spoon sampler, drive-weight assembly with a 63.5 kg hammer, and cathead. The procedure involves drilling a borehole, driving the sampler with the hammer, and recording the number of blows to penetrate each 15 cm interval. Corrections are made to account for overburden pressure, dilatancy effects, and hammer energy efficiency. The SPT provides useful correlations to estimate properties like relative density, friction angle, and strength.

Lecture notes 04

The document summarizes open channel flow. It defines open channel flow as flow where the surface is open to the atmosphere. It then classifies open channel flows as:
1) Steady or unsteady based on if flow properties change over time or not.
2) Uniform or non-uniform based on if flow depth changes along the channel or not.
3) It also discusses types of flow based on viscosity, inertia and gravity forces. Pressure distribution in open channels is also summarized for different channel geometries and flow conditions.

Cross section of the canal, balancing depth and canal fsl

1) The document discusses the cross section of irrigation canals, including configurations for cutting, filling, and partial cutting/filling. It describes the main components of a canal cross section such as side slopes, berms, and banks.
2) Balancing depth is defined as the depth of cutting where the quantity of excavated earth equals the amount required to form the canal banks, resulting in the most economical cross section.
3) Canal FSL (Full Supply Level) refers to the normal maximum operating water level of a canal when not affected by floods, corresponding to 100% capacity.

Field control of compaction and compaction Equipment

This document discusses field compaction control and compaction equipment. It notes that field compaction depends on placement water content, compaction equipment type, and soil type. Placement water content should be within 2% of optimum moisture content from lab tests. Different soils require different moisture levels - cohesive soils are compacted dry of optimum while earth dam cores are compacted wet of optimum. Compaction can be measured using methods like core cutting or nuclear gauges. Common compaction equipment includes smooth drum rollers, pneumatic rubber-tired rollers, sheepfoot rollers, and vibratory rollers, each suited to different soil types. Relative compaction is used to check compaction levels in the field.

Design of sewers

Here you will get all information about sewer design, its type & various tests carried out on it for any leakage or any obstruction present and of improper joints.

Ejercicio Redes Malladas

This document provides an example of applying the Hardy-Cross method to analyze a grid water distribution network. It includes the following steps:
1) Determining design flows including maximum daily demand, unit demand per pipe length, and fire flows.
2) Assigning tentative pipe flow directions and volumes.
3) Iteratively calculating flow corrections using the Hardy-Cross equation until pipe flows converge.
4) Assigning pipe diameters based on design flows and velocity criteria.

Hydraulics of structures

Structures placed in channels can control or measure water flow. Common structures include weirs and orifices. Weirs have a crest over which water flows. As head increases, flow increases dramatically for weirs. Sharp-crested weirs come in triangular, rectangular, and trapezoidal shapes. Broad-crested weirs support flow longitudinally. Orifices are openings where flow occurs. At low heads, orifices can act as weirs. Pipes also control flow as head loss from entrance, bends, and friction must be considered. Multiple flow regimes like weir, orifice, and full pipe flow apply for drop inlet spillways depending on head. Rockfill outlets provide energy dissipation

Highway Drainage (Highway Engineering)

This document discusses highway drainage, which involves removing excess surface and subsurface water from the roadway. Proper drainage is important to maintain the stability of the soil subgrade and prevent damage to pavement materials from moisture. The document outlines various methods of surface drainage like side drains and median drainage, as well as sub-surface drainage techniques such as lowering the water table and installing longitudinal drains. It emphasizes the importance of keeping water levels well below the subgrade and discusses special considerations for draining roads constructed in waterlogged areas.

Class 8 Triaxial Test ( Geotechnical Engineering )

The document summarizes laboratory tests conducted on sand and clay soils, including triaxial compression tests and unconfined compression tests. It describes the test procedures, equipment used, and how to analyze the results to determine soil shear strength parameters. Specifically, it outlines how to conduct a consolidated drained triaxial test on sand under three confining pressures and an unconfined compression test on clay to measure the undrained shear strength. Graphs and calculations of stress, strain, and shear strength are presented.

Notches and weir

This document contains information about notches and weirs used to measure fluid discharge. It defines notches and weirs, describes common types of each including rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal, and Cippoletti, and provides the key equations for calculating discharge over each type. The main difference between notches and weirs is that notches are openings in tank walls used to measure small discharges, while weirs are larger concrete structures built across rivers or canals to measure larger discharges.

Estimation of storm sewage

This presentation includes the estimation of storm sewage generated as a result of storm/rainfall events. It includes the detailed usage of rational formula for quantity estimation with solved examples.

Spillways & energy dissipator

This document discusses spillways and energy dissipators for dams. It defines spillways as structures used to safely release surplus water from reservoirs. The main types of spillways are main, auxiliary, and emergency spillways. Spillways can also be classified based on their prominent features, such as free overflow, overflow, side channel, open channel, tunnel, shaft, and siphon spillways. Energy dissipators, such as stilling basins and bucket types, are also discussed to reduce the energy of water flowing from spillways. Common energy dissipator types include horizontal and sloping apron stilling basins, and solid roller, slotted roller, and ski jump bucket dissipators.

Water supply appurtenances

This document discusses various appurtenances used in water supply systems. It describes valves such as sluice valves, check valves, air relief valves, drain valves, zero velocity valves, scour valves, ball valves, and fire hydrants. It also discusses other appurtenances like water meters, storage tanks, bib cocks, and stop cocks. The purpose of these appurtenances is to control water flow, prevent leakage, change flow direction, and regulate pressure. Proper selection and installation of appurtenances is important for efficient water distribution.

Hydraulics of water Distribution System

The document discusses the design of water distribution systems. It states that the design must satisfy water needs and maintain minimum residual pressures. It discusses pressure variations and velocity limits in distribution systems. It introduces the Hazen-Williams equation for calculating head loss in pipes based on flow rate, length, diameter and roughness coefficient. The document outlines Hardy's Cross Method for balancing flows in distribution networks using loop equations. It provides an example of applying the method to calculate pipe diameters and flows in a sample network.

Open Channel VS Pipe Flow

Pipe flow involves fluid completely filling a pipe, while open channel flow has a free surface. In pipe flow, pressure varies along the pipe but remains constant at the free surface in open channels. The main driving force is gravity in open channels and pressure gradient in pipes. Flow properties like cross-sectional area and velocity profile differ between the two flow types.

Dry weather flow

Dry weather flow refers to the waste water flow in sewer systems during dry periods and consists mainly of domestic sewage and industrial wastewater. The key factors that affect dry weather flow are the rate of water supply, population growth, type of area served (residential, industrial, commercial), and infiltration of groundwater. The sewers must be designed to carry a minimum of 150 litres of water per capita per day to account for these factors.

Hydraulic design of sewer

Hydraulic Design of Sewer:
Hydraulic formulae, maximum and minimum velocities in sewer, hydraulic
characteristics of circular sewer in running full and partial full conditions,
laying and testing of sewer, sewer appurtenances and network.

Methods of boring ppt

This document discusses various methods of boring into soil and rock to obtain samples at different depths. It describes auger boring, which uses hand or powered soil augers to drill holes. It also outlines shell and auger boring, wash boring using pressurized water, percussion boring using repeated blows, and rotary drilling which rotates a cutting bit to extract cylindrical core samples. The purpose of boring is to gather reliable subsurface information for engineering design and construction projects.

Chapter 7 spillway and energy dissipators

This document provides information on spillway and energy dissipator design. It begins with an introduction to spillways, their classification, and factors considered in design. It then focuses on the design of ogee or overflow spillways. It discusses spillway crest profiles, discharge characteristics including effects of approach depth, upstream slope, and submergence. It provides example designs for overflow spillways and calculations for determining spillway length. The key aspects covered are types of spillways, design considerations, standard crest profiles, discharge equations, and worked examples for spillway sizing.

Gravity Dam

Topics:
1. Types of Gravity Dam
2. Forces Acting on a Gravity Dam
3. Causes of failure of Gravity Dam
4. Elementary Profile of Gravity Dam
5. Practical Profile of Gravity Dam
6. Limiting height of Gravity Dam
7. Drainage and Inspection Galleries

(Part ii)- open channels

This document discusses open channel hydraulics and specific energy. It defines key terms like head, energy, hydraulic grade line, energy line, critical depth, Froude number, specific energy, and gradually varied flow. It explains the concepts of critical depth, alternate depths, and how specific energy relates to critical depth for rectangular and non-rectangular channels. It also discusses surface profiles, backwater curves, types of bed slopes, occurrence of critical depth with changes in bed slope, and the energy equation for gradually varied flow. An example problem is included to demonstrate calculating distance between depths for gradually varied flow.

design of weirs

WEIRS VERSUS BERRAGE
TYPES OF WEIRS
COMPONENT PARTS OF A WEIR
CAUSES OF FAILURE OF WEIRS & THEIR REMEDIES
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
DESIGN FOR SURFACE FLOW
DESIGN OF BARRAGE OR WEIR

Standard Penetration Test

This document provides information on the standard penetration test (SPT), including the instruments, procedures, corrections, and applications. It describes that the SPT is commonly used to evaluate the in-situ properties of cohesionless soils. The key instruments are a split spoon sampler, drive-weight assembly with a 63.5 kg hammer, and cathead. The procedure involves drilling a borehole, driving the sampler with the hammer, and recording the number of blows to penetrate each 15 cm interval. Corrections are made to account for overburden pressure, dilatancy effects, and hammer energy efficiency. The SPT provides useful correlations to estimate properties like relative density, friction angle, and strength.

Lecture notes 04

The document summarizes open channel flow. It defines open channel flow as flow where the surface is open to the atmosphere. It then classifies open channel flows as:
1) Steady or unsteady based on if flow properties change over time or not.
2) Uniform or non-uniform based on if flow depth changes along the channel or not.
3) It also discusses types of flow based on viscosity, inertia and gravity forces. Pressure distribution in open channels is also summarized for different channel geometries and flow conditions.

Cross section of the canal, balancing depth and canal fsl

1) The document discusses the cross section of irrigation canals, including configurations for cutting, filling, and partial cutting/filling. It describes the main components of a canal cross section such as side slopes, berms, and banks.
2) Balancing depth is defined as the depth of cutting where the quantity of excavated earth equals the amount required to form the canal banks, resulting in the most economical cross section.
3) Canal FSL (Full Supply Level) refers to the normal maximum operating water level of a canal when not affected by floods, corresponding to 100% capacity.

Field control of compaction and compaction Equipment

This document discusses field compaction control and compaction equipment. It notes that field compaction depends on placement water content, compaction equipment type, and soil type. Placement water content should be within 2% of optimum moisture content from lab tests. Different soils require different moisture levels - cohesive soils are compacted dry of optimum while earth dam cores are compacted wet of optimum. Compaction can be measured using methods like core cutting or nuclear gauges. Common compaction equipment includes smooth drum rollers, pneumatic rubber-tired rollers, sheepfoot rollers, and vibratory rollers, each suited to different soil types. Relative compaction is used to check compaction levels in the field.

Design of sewers

Here you will get all information about sewer design, its type & various tests carried out on it for any leakage or any obstruction present and of improper joints.

Highway Drainage (Highway Engineering)

Highway Drainage (Highway Engineering)

Class 8 Triaxial Test ( Geotechnical Engineering )

Class 8 Triaxial Test ( Geotechnical Engineering )

Notches and weir

Notches and weir

Estimation of storm sewage

Estimation of storm sewage

Spillways & energy dissipator

Spillways & energy dissipator

Water supply appurtenances

Water supply appurtenances

Hydraulics of water Distribution System

Hydraulics of water Distribution System

Open Channel VS Pipe Flow

Open Channel VS Pipe Flow

Dry weather flow

Dry weather flow

Hydraulic design of sewer

Hydraulic design of sewer

Methods of boring ppt

Methods of boring ppt

Chapter 7 spillway and energy dissipators

Chapter 7 spillway and energy dissipators

Gravity Dam

Gravity Dam

(Part ii)- open channels

(Part ii)- open channels

design of weirs

design of weirs

Standard Penetration Test

Standard Penetration Test

Lecture notes 04

Lecture notes 04

Cross section of the canal, balancing depth and canal fsl

Cross section of the canal, balancing depth and canal fsl

Field control of compaction and compaction Equipment

Field control of compaction and compaction Equipment

Design of sewers

Design of sewers

Ejercicio Redes Malladas

This document provides an example of applying the Hardy-Cross method to analyze a grid water distribution network. It includes the following steps:
1) Determining design flows including maximum daily demand, unit demand per pipe length, and fire flows.
2) Assigning tentative pipe flow directions and volumes.
3) Iteratively calculating flow corrections using the Hardy-Cross equation until pipe flows converge.
4) Assigning pipe diameters based on design flows and velocity criteria.

Hydraulics of structures

Structures placed in channels can control or measure water flow. Common structures include weirs and orifices. Weirs have a crest over which water flows. As head increases, flow increases dramatically for weirs. Sharp-crested weirs come in triangular, rectangular, and trapezoidal shapes. Broad-crested weirs support flow longitudinally. Orifices are openings where flow occurs. At low heads, orifices can act as weirs. Pipes also control flow as head loss from entrance, bends, and friction must be considered. Multiple flow regimes like weir, orifice, and full pipe flow apply for drop inlet spillways depending on head. Rockfill outlets provide energy dissipation

Ejercicio Red Ramificada

This document provides an example of a branched distribution network design for a rural water supply system. It includes calculations of design flows, pipe sizing, and hydraulic analysis to determine pressures and velocities throughout the network. Design flows are calculated based on a population of 5,000 people and pipe diameters are assigned using maximum velocity and flow criteria. Hazen-Williams equations are used to calculate head losses in pipes and ensure pressures and velocities meet standards.

Section 7 multistage separation processes

This document provides an example problem to design a distillation column for separating acetone from an aqueous waste stream. The following steps are included:
1) Performing a material balance to calculate unknown flow rates.
2) Estimating the actual number of plates needed based on an overall efficiency of 60%.
3) Calculating the column diameter by determining vapor velocities and flow rates.
4) Determining the liquid flow pattern will be normal flow.
5) Performing a complete plate design which includes checking for weeping by calculating minimum vapor and liquid velocities and heights.

2A- Hydraulics, Water Distribution and WW Collection_AC_W2022 (1).pdf

This document provides an overview of key concepts in hydraulics including hydrostatic pressure, buoyant force, flow, flow energy, Bernoulli's equation, and flow in pipes. It defines hydraulics as the study of water at rest or in motion. Key equations are presented for calculating pressure, flow rate, continuity of flow, total energy, and pipe flow using the Hazen-Williams equation. Examples demonstrate applications of these equations for various hydraulic scenarios.

3.1 hydraulics

The document discusses hydraulics and hydraulic principles related to irrigation systems. It defines hydraulics as the study of liquid behavior in pipes and channels. Important concepts covered include:
- Flow rate, velocity, cross-sectional area, and how they relate mathematically.
- Different forms of energy in water systems including kinetic, potential, and pressure energy. It defines related terms like head, velocity head, elevation head, and pressure head.
- Friction loss and how it is calculated using equations like Hazen-Williams. It provides examples of calculating friction loss in pipes of different diameters and lengths.
- Head losses in fittings, valves, bends and how to calculate them using resistance coefficients.

14.pdf

This document discusses pipe flow and fluid mechanics concepts including:
1) Pipes connected in parallel and calculating flow rates using the continuity and energy equations.
2) Branched pipe systems with three reservoirs and calculating unknown flow rates by guessing the total head and applying the continuity and energy equations.
3) Non-stationary pipe flow where the outflow from a reservoir varies with changing pressure levels over time according to integration of the continuity equation.

friction loss along a pipe

,friction pipe ,friction loss along a pipe ,pipe ,along a ,loss along ,loss along a ,friction loss ,friction loss along a ,loss along a pipe ,along a pipe ,friction loss alon ,friction loss along a p ,loss along a pip

Design of Lined Channels.pptx

This document discusses the design of open channel sections to convey water flow in the most economical way. It examines rectangular, trapezoidal, triangular, and circular channel cross-sections. For rectangular channels, the most economical section is when the base width is twice the flow depth. For trapezoidal channels, the most economical section is when the side slopes are at an angle of 60 degrees from horizontal and the half top width is equal to the flow depth. Empirical flow equations like Chezy's and Manning's formulas are also presented to estimate normal flow velocities based on hydraulic radius and channel slope.

Unit6 energy loss in pipelines

The document discusses energy losses in pipeline systems. It covers topics such as velocity profiles in pipes, sources of energy loss including shock losses at enlargements and contractions, friction losses, and examples of calculating losses. Bernoulli's equation is applied to analyze pressure and velocity changes between points along pipelines. Key sources of loss are friction against pipe walls and shocks caused by changes in pipe diameter.

S3 Minor Losses Presentation

Minor losses occur in pipes due to fittings, bends, valves, and other sources in addition to friction losses. These losses are usually smaller than friction losses but can be significant for short pipes. The loss depends on the geometry of the fitting and the velocity of flow. It can be calculated using the formula hL=K(v^2/2g) where K is a loss coefficient that is provided for various common fittings. When fluid flows from a smaller to larger pipe, its velocity decreases, creating turbulence and energy loss proportional to the pipe diameter ratio. The hydraulic grade line and total energy line indicate pressure and total energy respectively along the flow path, dipping due to losses.

pipe lines lec 5.pdf

pipe lines lecture ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss cccccc f'wp oww kdw'eow e'fkwe ek ep ks'f' ;fakw 'k ap' ok wpo fkwa kw wapeok w ep owp oe pwoekwepokaew oe we po p aw weof aw oap oawepo kawpokawep k p wepo pokwa po kpofwe ep okwep okfw p weokweapfo kaw epofea po paofk awpe o[e po powpo kawep fowa ak fweofkaw pfokaw fpao ew we p awp ofkwp poawekp[awekofwe pewpo[ fpowef aw f[ powekee [pfodfk kfok' lro powekwepo;l dkpdoko;lfpowe k;lpeo 'lk fpfkoek'd;lfke ;'oeowfkef'kfekpfks;'fkf'aowek'fkepok

Momentum equation.pdf

1. The chapter discusses momentum and forces in fluid flow, including the development of the momentum principle using Newton's second law and the impulse-momentum principle.
2. The momentum equation is developed for two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow through a control volume, accounting for forces, velocities, flow rates, and momentum correction factors.
3. Examples of applying the momentum equation are presented, including forces on bends, nozzles, jets, and vanes.

pipe lines lec 1.pptx

1. The document discusses basic principles of pipe flow, including the continuity equation and equations of motion for steady flow in pipes. It defines terms like pressure head, velocity head, and head loss.
2. It covers topics like surface resistance (friction loss), minor losses from bends/elbows/valves, and form losses from transitions and other components. Equations are provided for calculating friction factor and head losses.
3. Examples are given to demonstrate calculating friction loss in a pipe and flow rates in inclined pipes using the provided equations. Pipe material roughness heights and common form loss coefficients are also tabulated.

Odemba ECE2304 Hydraulics1Lab

This document is a laboratory report for experiments conducted on a V-notch weir. The experiments were aimed at determining the relationship between discharge and head above the notch, comparing actual and theoretical discharge values, and calibrating the V-notch weir. Data was collected from measurements of head and discharge at various flow stages. Results showed the actual discharge was smaller than theoretical due to head losses, and a coefficient of discharge was derived to relate the two discharge values for calibration of the V-notch. Sources of experimental error and accuracy were also discussed.

Basic Theory & Formulae Training Module

This document provides an overview of basic theory and formulae for small hydro projects. It reviews mathematical fundamentals like area, volume, trigonometry, and algebra. It then covers commonly applied formulae for discharge equations, deflection calculations, and physics of compressed air. The document concludes with the process for sizing a small hydro site, including estimating the flow duration curve and picking the appropriate turbine based on integrating power potential.

Pipe sizing

This document provides information on calculating head losses in piping systems. It discusses the use of Bernoulli's equation to relate total head between two points in a piping system. It also covers friction losses using the Darcy-Weisbach equation and the Moody diagram, as well as "minor losses" from fittings, valves, etc. The document presents methods to calculate head loss or flow rate given the other, including iterative techniques. It concludes with an example problem calculating maximum flow between reservoirs considering major and minor losses.

1 FLO-2D Updates and Enhancements 2019.pptx

The document discusses several updates and enhancements to the FLO-2D model, including:
1) Improving model speed through optimization of computational timesteps using the TIME_ACCEL parameter and dividing large project areas into multiple grid systems.
2) Adding an optional new bridge flow routine to model free surface, pressure, and overtopping flow without needing an external rating table.
3) Visualizing velocity vectors to better understand flow fields and velocities within the model domain.
4) Modeling street gutter flow and its impact on concentrating flows and drain inlet hydraulics.
5) Representing multiple shallow channels to improve the timing of overland sheet flows in the model.

Problema 5

This document analyzes the power required to pump 565 L/s of water through a 91m long pipe with an internal diameter of 200mm.
Given the flow rate, pipe dimensions, and fluid properties, the head loss due to friction and fittings is calculated to be 155.5m.
Using this head loss along with the flow rate and fluid properties in an energy balance equation, the required pumping power is calculated to be approximately 717 kW.

UNIT-II FMM

The document discusses head loss in pipes due to friction and provides calculations using Darcy's and Chezy's formulas. It then describes two examples: (1) Calculating head loss in a 300mm diameter pipe that is 50m long with water flowing at 3m/s. (2) Finding the diameter of a pipe 2000m long with a flow rate of 200L/s and head loss of 4m using Chezy's formula with C=50. It also summarizes major energy losses from friction and minor losses from expansions, contractions, bends, and fittings.

Ejercicio Redes Malladas

Ejercicio Redes Malladas

Hydraulics of structures

Hydraulics of structures

Ejercicio Red Ramificada

Ejercicio Red Ramificada

Section 7 multistage separation processes

Section 7 multistage separation processes

2A- Hydraulics, Water Distribution and WW Collection_AC_W2022 (1).pdf

2A- Hydraulics, Water Distribution and WW Collection_AC_W2022 (1).pdf

3.1 hydraulics

3.1 hydraulics

14.pdf

14.pdf

friction loss along a pipe

friction loss along a pipe

Design of Lined Channels.pptx

Design of Lined Channels.pptx

Unit6 energy loss in pipelines

Unit6 energy loss in pipelines

S3 Minor Losses Presentation

S3 Minor Losses Presentation

pipe lines lec 5.pdf

pipe lines lec 5.pdf

Momentum equation.pdf

Momentum equation.pdf

pipe lines lec 1.pptx

pipe lines lec 1.pptx

Odemba ECE2304 Hydraulics1Lab

Odemba ECE2304 Hydraulics1Lab

Basic Theory & Formulae Training Module

Basic Theory & Formulae Training Module

Pipe sizing

Pipe sizing

1 FLO-2D Updates and Enhancements 2019.pptx

1 FLO-2D Updates and Enhancements 2019.pptx

Problema 5

Problema 5

UNIT-II FMM

UNIT-II FMM

Water properties pressure_flocculation coagulation

The document discusses water quality and drinking water standards. It provides information on various types of water quality parameters including physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. It describes factors that affect water quality such as contamination from living organisms, solids, and dissolved materials. It also outlines primary and secondary drinking water standards from organizations like the WHO and EPA, which establish limits for parameters to protect human health and aesthetic quality. Regular water quality monitoring is emphasized to ensure standards are being met.

Water treatment

Water treatment plants can be classified based on the processes used, which include disinfection, filtration, or softening. Filtration plants typically treat surface water and use screens, mixing, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection to remove debris, flocs, pathogens, and improve water quality. Lime soda softening plants treat groundwater, using lime, soda ash, and similar processes to precipitate calcium, magnesium, and remove hardness. Sedimentation separates solids from water using gravitational settling according to particle density and size.

Water pollutants

Municipal wastes, human and animal wastes, and industrial effluents are major sources of water pollution. Untreated sewage, human and animal excreta, and industrial wastewater contain pathogens, nutrients, and toxic metals that make water unsafe for drinking and aquatic life. Common pollutants include oxygen-demanding wastes, nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus that cause algal blooms, suspended solids, salts, and toxic compounds. These pollutants contaminate surface and groundwater sources and disrupt ecosystems.

Water distribution

The document discusses water distribution systems. It describes the key components of distribution systems including pipelines, valves, hydrants, and service connections. It discusses four common types of distribution network layouts - dead end, grid iron, ring, and radial systems - and their advantages and disadvantages. It also covers water distribution methods such as gravity, pumping without storage, and pumping with storage. The document provides information on design considerations for distribution systems including pressure requirements and equations used to calculate flow and head loss.

Sources of water

This document discusses various sources of water for potable water supply. It describes surface water sources like rivers, streams, ponds and lakes. It also describes subsurface sources like springs, wells and tube wells. It provides details on ponds and lakes, rivers and streams, and reservoirs as surface water sources. It discusses the quality of water from these different sources. It also summarizes the characteristics of groundwater versus surface water sources. The document provides guidance on selecting appropriate water sources based on factors like quantity, quality, distance, topography and elevation. It discusses water supply considerations and methods for rural areas.

Point source and non point source pollution

Point source pollution originates from specific, identifiable sources like pipes or ditches. Major point sources of water pollution include municipal sewage treatment plants and industrial facilities. Point source pollution can contaminate water with oxygen-depleting nutrients, pathogens, toxic chemicals, and heavy metals. However, point sources are easier to monitor and regulate compared to nonpoint sources since they come from specific locations.

Natural purification in streams and rivers

Natural streams have a self-purification capacity to break down and remove pollutants. However, as human settlements grew, the amount and types of pollutants entering water bodies exceeded this capacity. Smaller streams were affected first as dissolved oxygen levels dropped, harming aquatic life. The speed and completeness of natural purification in a stream depends on factors like water volume, flow rate, temperature, and sunlight exposure. Dissolved oxygen is particularly important for breaking down biodegradable organic matter and supporting aquatic life.

Ce 401 introduction to environmental engineering

This document provides an introduction to environmental engineering. It discusses the natural and built environment and defines environmental science and engineering. Environmental engineering aims to protect natural resources, control pollution, improve environmental quality, and enable healthy ecosystems and living conditions. It requires knowledge of various disciplines like chemistry, physics, hydrology and economics. Key aspects of environmental engineering include water supply, wastewater treatment, pollution control, and industrial hygiene. The document also discusses factors that affect water demand such as population, climate, and system losses. It provides methods to forecast future population trends which are important for designing water supply systems.

Water properties pressure_flocculation coagulation

Water properties pressure_flocculation coagulation

Water treatment

Water treatment

Water pollutants

Water pollutants

Water distribution

Water distribution

Sources of water

Sources of water

Point source and non point source pollution

Point source and non point source pollution

Natural purification in streams and rivers

Natural purification in streams and rivers

Ce 401 introduction to environmental engineering

Ce 401 introduction to environmental engineering

Null Bangalore | Pentesters Approach to AWS IAM

#Abstract:
- Learn more about the real-world methods for auditing AWS IAM (Identity and Access Management) as a pentester. So let us proceed with a brief discussion of IAM as well as some typical misconfigurations and their potential exploits in order to reinforce the understanding of IAM security best practices.
- Gain actionable insights into AWS IAM policies and roles, using hands on approach.
#Prerequisites:
- Basic understanding of AWS services and architecture
- Familiarity with cloud security concepts
- Experience using the AWS Management Console or AWS CLI.
- For hands on lab create account on [killercoda.com](https://killercoda.com/cloudsecurity-scenario/)
# Scenario Covered:
- Basics of IAM in AWS
- Implementing IAM Policies with Least Privilege to Manage S3 Bucket
- Objective: Create an S3 bucket with least privilege IAM policy and validate access.
- Steps:
- Create S3 bucket.
- Attach least privilege policy to IAM user.
- Validate access.
- Exploiting IAM PassRole Misconfiguration
-Allows a user to pass a specific IAM role to an AWS service (ec2), typically used for service access delegation. Then exploit PassRole Misconfiguration granting unauthorized access to sensitive resources.
- Objective: Demonstrate how a PassRole misconfiguration can grant unauthorized access.
- Steps:
- Allow user to pass IAM role to EC2.
- Exploit misconfiguration for unauthorized access.
- Access sensitive resources.
- Exploiting IAM AssumeRole Misconfiguration with Overly Permissive Role
- An overly permissive IAM role configuration can lead to privilege escalation by creating a role with administrative privileges and allow a user to assume this role.
- Objective: Show how overly permissive IAM roles can lead to privilege escalation.
- Steps:
- Create role with administrative privileges.
- Allow user to assume the role.
- Perform administrative actions.
- Differentiation between PassRole vs AssumeRole
Try at [killercoda.com](https://killercoda.com/cloudsecurity-scenario/)

Object Oriented Analysis and Design - OOAD

This ppt gives detailed description of Object Oriented Analysis and design.

Call For Paper -3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advan...

* Registration is currently open *
Call for Research Papers!!!
Free – Extended Paper will be published as free of cost.
3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Advances (AIAD 2024)
July 13 ~ 14, 2024, Virtual Conference
Webpage URL: https://aiad2024.org/index
Submission Deadline: June 22, 2024
Submission System URL:
https://aiad2024.org/submission/index.php
Contact Us:
Here's where you can reach us : aiad@aiad2024.org (or) aiadconference@yahoo.com
WikiCFP URL: http://wikicfp.com/cfp/servlet/event.showcfp?eventid=180509©ownerid=171656
#artificialintelligence #softcomputing #machinelearning #technology #datascience #python #deeplearning #tech #robotics #innovation #bigdata #coding #iot #computerscience #data #dataanalytics #engineering #robot #datascientist #software #automation #analytics #ml #pythonprogramming #programmer #digitaltransformation #developer #promptengineering #generativeai #genai #chatgpt #artificial #intelligence #datamining #networkscommunications #robotics #callforsubmission #submissionsopen #deadline #opencall #virtual #conference

AN INTRODUCTION OF AI & SEARCHING TECHIQUES

Useful for engineering students

Supermarket Management System Project Report.pdf

Supermarket management is a stand-alone J2EE using Eclipse Juno program.
This project contains all the necessary required information about maintaining
the supermarket billing system.
The core idea of this project to minimize the paper work and centralize the
data. Here all the communication is taken in secure manner. That is, in this
application the information will be stored in client itself. For further security the
data base is stored in the back-end oracle and so no intruders can access it.

Blood finder application project report (1).pdf

Blood Finder is an emergency time app where a user can search for the blood banks as
well as the registered blood donors around Mumbai. This application also provide an
opportunity for the user of this application to become a registered donor for this user have
to enroll for the donor request from the application itself. If the admin wish to make user
a registered donor, with some of the formalities with the organization it can be done.
Specialization of this application is that the user will not have to register on sign-in for
searching the blood banks and blood donors it can be just done by installing the
application to the mobile.
The purpose of making this application is to save the user’s time for searching blood of
needed blood group during the time of the emergency.
This is an android application developed in Java and XML with the connectivity of
SQLite database. This application will provide most of basic functionality required for an
emergency time application. All the details of Blood banks and Blood donors are stored
in the database i.e. SQLite.
This application allowed the user to get all the information regarding blood banks and
blood donors such as Name, Number, Address, Blood Group, rather than searching it on
the different websites and wasting the precious time. This application is effective and
user friendly.

一比一原版(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证如何办理

原版一模一样【微信：741003700 】【(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证成绩单】【微信：741003700 】学位证，留信认证（真实可查，永久存档）原件一模一样纸张工艺/offer、雅思、外壳等材料/诚信可靠,可直接看成品样本，帮您解决无法毕业带来的各种难题！外壳，原版制作，诚信可靠，可直接看成品样本。行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备。十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，包您满意。
本公司拥有海外各大学样板无数，能完美还原。
1:1完美还原海外各大学毕业材料上的工艺：水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠。文字图案浮雕、激光镭射、紫外荧光、温感、复印防伪等防伪工艺。材料咨询办理、认证咨询办理请加学历顾问Q/微741003700
【主营项目】
一.毕业证【q微741003700】成绩单、使馆认证、教育部认证、雅思托福成绩单、学生卡等！
二.真实使馆公证(即留学回国人员证明,不成功不收费)
三.真实教育部学历学位认证（教育部存档！教育部留服网站永久可查）
四.办理各国各大学文凭(一对一专业服务,可全程监控跟踪进度)
如果您处于以下几种情况：
◇在校期间，因各种原因未能顺利毕业……拿不到官方毕业证【q/微741003700】
◇面对父母的压力，希望尽快拿到；
◇不清楚认证流程以及材料该如何准备；
◇回国时间很长，忘记办理；
◇回国马上就要找工作，办给用人单位看；
◇企事业单位必须要求办理的
◇需要报考公务员、购买免税车、落转户口
◇申请留学生创业基金
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才
办理(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】外观非常简单，由纸质材料制成，上面印有校徽、校名、毕业生姓名、专业等信息。
办理(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】格式相对统一，各专业都有相应的模板。通常包括以下部分：
校徽：象征着学校的荣誉和传承。
校名:学校英文全称
授予学位：本部分将注明获得的具体学位名称。
毕业生姓名：这是最重要的信息之一，标志着该证书是由特定人员获得的。
颁发日期：这是毕业正式生效的时间，也代表着毕业生学业的结束。
其他信息：根据不同的专业和学位，可能会有一些特定的信息或章节。
办理(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】价值很高，需要妥善保管。一般来说，应放置在安全、干燥、防潮的地方，避免长时间暴露在阳光下。如需使用，最好使用复印件而不是原件，以免丢失。
综上所述，办理(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】是证明身份和学历的高价值文件。外观简单庄重，格式统一，包括重要的个人信息和发布日期。对持有人来说，妥善保管是非常重要的。

Levelised Cost of Hydrogen (LCOH) Calculator Manual

The aim of this manual is to explain the
methodology behind the Levelized Cost of
Hydrogen (LCOH) calculator. Moreover, this
manual also demonstrates how the calculator
can be used for estimating the expenses associated with hydrogen production in Europe
using low-temperature electrolysis considering different sources of electricity

SCALING OF MOS CIRCUITS m .pptx

this ppt explains about scaling parameters of the mosfet it is basically vlsi subject

一比一原版(uoft毕业证书)加拿大多伦多大学毕业证如何办理

原版一模一样【微信：741003700 】【(uoft毕业证书)加拿大多伦多大学毕业证成绩单】【微信：741003700 】学位证，留信认证（真实可查，永久存档）原件一模一样纸张工艺/offer、雅思、外壳等材料/诚信可靠,可直接看成品样本，帮您解决无法毕业带来的各种难题！外壳，原版制作，诚信可靠，可直接看成品样本。行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备。十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，包您满意。
本公司拥有海外各大学样板无数，能完美还原。
1:1完美还原海外各大学毕业材料上的工艺：水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠。文字图案浮雕、激光镭射、紫外荧光、温感、复印防伪等防伪工艺。材料咨询办理、认证咨询办理请加学历顾问Q/微741003700
【主营项目】
一.毕业证【q微741003700】成绩单、使馆认证、教育部认证、雅思托福成绩单、学生卡等！
二.真实使馆公证(即留学回国人员证明,不成功不收费)
三.真实教育部学历学位认证（教育部存档！教育部留服网站永久可查）
四.办理各国各大学文凭(一对一专业服务,可全程监控跟踪进度)
如果您处于以下几种情况：
◇在校期间，因各种原因未能顺利毕业……拿不到官方毕业证【q/微741003700】
◇面对父母的压力，希望尽快拿到；
◇不清楚认证流程以及材料该如何准备；
◇回国时间很长，忘记办理；
◇回国马上就要找工作，办给用人单位看；
◇企事业单位必须要求办理的
◇需要报考公务员、购买免税车、落转户口
◇申请留学生创业基金
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才
办理(uoft毕业证书)加拿大多伦多大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】外观非常简单，由纸质材料制成，上面印有校徽、校名、毕业生姓名、专业等信息。
办理(uoft毕业证书)加拿大多伦多大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】格式相对统一，各专业都有相应的模板。通常包括以下部分：
校徽：象征着学校的荣誉和传承。
校名:学校英文全称
授予学位：本部分将注明获得的具体学位名称。
毕业生姓名：这是最重要的信息之一，标志着该证书是由特定人员获得的。
颁发日期：这是毕业正式生效的时间，也代表着毕业生学业的结束。
其他信息：根据不同的专业和学位，可能会有一些特定的信息或章节。
办理(uoft毕业证书)加拿大多伦多大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】价值很高，需要妥善保管。一般来说，应放置在安全、干燥、防潮的地方，避免长时间暴露在阳光下。如需使用，最好使用复印件而不是原件，以免丢失。
综上所述，办理(uoft毕业证书)加拿大多伦多大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】是证明身份和学历的高价值文件。外观简单庄重，格式统一，包括重要的个人信息和发布日期。对持有人来说，妥善保管是非常重要的。

Determination of Equivalent Circuit parameters and performance characteristic...

Includes the testing of induction motor to draw the circle diagram of induction motor with step wise procedure and calculation for the same. Also explains the working and application of Induction generator

Assistant Engineer (Chemical) Interview Questions.pdf

These are interview questions for the post of Assistant Engineer (Chemical)

Tools & Techniques for Commissioning and Maintaining PV Systems W-Animations ...

Join us for this solutions-based webinar on the tools and techniques for commissioning and maintaining PV Systems. In this session, we'll review the process of building and maintaining a solar array, starting with installation and commissioning, then reviewing operations and maintenance of the system. This course will review insulation resistance testing, I-V curve testing, earth-bond continuity, ground resistance testing, performance tests, visual inspections, ground and arc fault testing procedures, and power quality analysis.
Fluke Solar Application Specialist Will White is presenting on this engaging topic:
Will has worked in the renewable energy industry since 2005, first as an installer for a small east coast solar integrator before adding sales, design, and project management to his skillset. In 2022, Will joined Fluke as a solar application specialist, where he supports their renewable energy testing equipment like IV-curve tracers, electrical meters, and thermal imaging cameras. Experienced in wind power, solar thermal, energy storage, and all scales of PV, Will has primarily focused on residential and small commercial systems. He is passionate about implementing high-quality, code-compliant installation techniques.

SENTIMENT ANALYSIS ON PPT AND Project template_.pptx

It is used for sentiment analysis project

Height and depth gauge linear metrology.pdf

Height gauges may also be used to measure the height of an object by using the underside of the scriber as the datum. The datum may be permanently fixed or the height gauge may have provision to adjust the scale, this is done by sliding the scale vertically along the body of the height gauge by turning a fine feed screw at the top of the gauge; then with the scriber set to the same level as the base, the scale can be matched to it. This adjustment allows different scribers or probes to be used, as well as adjusting for any errors in a damaged or resharpened probe.

Open Channel Flow: fluid flow with a free surface

Open Channel Flow: This topic focuses on fluid flow with a free surface, such as in rivers, canals, and drainage ditches. Key concepts include the classification of flow types (steady vs. unsteady, uniform vs. non-uniform), hydraulic radius, flow resistance, Manning's equation, critical flow conditions, and energy and momentum principles. It also covers flow measurement techniques, gradually varied flow analysis, and the design of open channels. Understanding these principles is vital for effective water resource management and engineering applications.

原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样

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- 1. Hardycross Method Muhammad Nouman UET,Peshawar,Pakistan
- 2. Hardy Cross Method:- • To analyze a given distribution system to determine the pressure and flow available in any section of the system and to suggest improvement if needed a number of methods are used like Equivalent pipe, Circle method, method of section and Hardy-cross method. Hardy-cross method is a popular method. According to this method the sum of the loss of head for a closed network / loop is equal to zero. Also the sum of inflow at a node / joint is equal to the out flow i.e. Σinflow = Σoutflow or total head loss = 0 Assumption:- Sum of the inflow at a node/point is equal to outflow. Σinflow = Σoutflow; Σtotal flow = 0 Algebraic sum of the head losses in a closed loop is equal to zero. Σhead losses = 0 Clockwise flows are positive. Counter clockwise flows are negative. • Derivation:- According to Hazen William Equation H= 10.68 (Q/C) 1.85 (L / d)4.87 H= KQ1.85 where K = (10.68L)/(C1.85*d4.87) For any pipe in a closed loop Q = Q+ Δ where Q = actual flow; Q= assumed flow and Δ = required flow correction 1 1 H= KQx (i) x is an exponent whose value is generally 1.85 From (i) H = K(Q+ Δ)x By Binomial theorm = K[Qx + (xQx-1Δ)/1! + {x(x-1)Qx-2Δ2}/2! + ……..] 1 1 1 As Δ is very small as compared to Q, we can neglect Δ2 etc. Therefore, H = KQ1 x + KxQ1 x-1Δ (ii) For a closed loop Σ H = 0 => Σ Qx = 0 => Σ k Q1 x = - ΔΣ x Q1 x-1) => Δ = - Σ k Q1 x / (Σ x Q1 x-1)
- 3. As H = K*Q x Σ KQ1 x/ Q1 = H/Q 1 Therefore, Δ = - Σ H/ [x* Σ (H)/ Q1] Above equation is used in Hardy Cross Method Procedure : (i) Assume the diameter of each pipe in the loop. (ii) Assume the flow in the pipe such that sum of the inflow = sum of the outflow at any junction or node ( V = V1 + V2 or Q = Q1 + Q2 ) (iii) Compute the head losses in each pipe by Hazen William Equation H = 10.68 * (Q/C)1.85 * L/D4.87 (iv) Taking clock wise flow as positive and anti clock wise as negative. (v) Find sum of the ratio of head loss and discharge in each pipe without regard of sign Σ ( H/Q1 ) (vi) Find the correction for each loop from Δ = - Σ H/ [x* Σ (H)/ Q1] and apply it to all pipes. (vii) Repeat the procedure with corrected values of flow and continue till the correction become very small
- 4. Example 2: For the branching pipe system shown below: At B and C, a minimum pressure of 5 m. At A, maximum pressure required is 46 m and the minimum is 36 m. Select a suitable diameter for AB and BC. 0.15 l/s 219 m A 2.9 m3/h 2.4 m3/h C (219 m, 700m 0.5m3/h 825 m B 189 m Public water main Example
- 5. Solution: Computation Table Pipe Sect. Flow (m3/h ) Lengt h (m) Pipe Dia mm Head Loss (m/10 0 m Flow Vel m/s Head Loss (m) Elev. of hydr. Grade (m) Groun d level elev (m) Press Head (m) Rem. AB 2.9 700 32 3.3 0.85 23 A 260 B 237 189 46 O.K BC 0.5 825 19 1.6 0.5 13 B 237 C 224 219 5 Just O.K
- 6. Example Example: Obtain the flow rates in the network shown below. 90 l/s A 55 600 m B 45 254 mm 35 600 m 254 mm 600 m C C 152 mm 15 15 60l/s 66600 600 m E 600 m 5 D 152 mm 152 mm 10 +ve 600 152 mm ABDE is one loop above and BCD is the second loop. Note that the clockwise water flows are positive while the anti-clockwise ones are negative. Positive and negative flows give rise to positive and negative head losses respectively
- 7. Solution Circuit Pipe L (m) D (m) Q (m3/s) hf (m) hf/Q Q AB 600 0.254 + 0.055 2.72 49.45 I BD 600 0.152 + 0.01 1.42 142 DE 600 0.152 - 0.005 - 0.39 78 0.008 EA 600 0.152 - 0.035 -14.42 412 Total - 10.67 681.45 BC 600 0.254 + 0.045 1.88 41.8 II CD 600 0.152 - 0.015 - 3.01 200.67 0.004 DB 600 0.152 - 0.010 - 1.42 142 Total - 2.55 384.47 Sample Calculation: Using the Hazen Williams Equation in Step 2 : hf for pipe AB = 10.67 x 135 – 1.85 x 0.254 -4.87 x 0.055 1.85 x 600 = 2.72