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Point Source Pollution 
Point source pollution is contamination that enters the environment through any clear, specific location, 
like smokestack, pipe, ditch, tunnel, or conduits. Point source pollution remains a major cause of pollution 
to water. Point sources of water pollution include municipal sewage treatment plant discharges and 
discharges from industrial plant. 
Municipal sewage treatment plant point sources can contribute 
pollution in the form of oxygen-depleting nutrients and in the 
form of pathogens that cause serious health hazards in drinking 
water and swimming areas. Industrial point sources can contribute 
pollution in the form of toxic chemicals and heavy metals 
. point sources of water pollution can be limited to ensure 
protection of designated uses of a receiving water. Either standard 
may be used to minimized the effluents concentration by proper 
wastewater treatment processes like screening, grit chamber 
sedimentation, flotation and biological treatment processes. 
Point sources are as at specific locations, they are easy to identify, monitor and regulate. Developed world 
control point source discharges of many harmful chemicals into aquatic system as well as in atmosphere.
Calculation of Point source Pollutions 
In Point source pollution calculation law of conservation of mass can be used in any water or wastewater unit 
operation. It relate influent flow rate and concentration to effluent flow rate and concentration by accounting for 
removal or transformation phenomena. It can be applied to rivers, lakes, or other treatment basins, where the 
problem is to find the concentration of a substance at a location or its rate of change in a section. According to this 
law there are three general cases . 
(i) Steady state conservative system: The simple system to analyze are the assumption that the substance is 
conservative . It means the substance leave the system with out any change 
Then input rate = output rate 
Mathematically 
Qw 
(ii) Many contaminants undergo chemical, biological or nuclear reactions at 
Cw Qm 
QS 
a rate sufficient to treat them non conservative substances. Then 
Cm 
Cs 
Input = Out put + Decay rate . The decay rate is = -KC 
where K is rate coefficient. The negative sign implies a loss of 
substance with time or C = Ce-Kt so Decay rate = KCV 
Accumulation 
0 input and Decay output
Non Point Source Pollution (NPSP) 
Non point source pollution can not be traced to any single site of discharge. They are usually large land areas that 
pollute water by runoff, subsurface flow or deposition from the atmosphere. The runoff of chemicals into surface 
water from cropland, live stocks feed lots, urban streets, lawns and parking lots, fugitive discharges from pipelines, 
spraying, fertilizers, runoff from lands are the common examples of non point source pollution. There has been 
little progress in controlling non point water pollution because of the difficulty extends of identifying and 
controlling discharges from so many diffuse sources. Current concerns include the contamination of aquatic 
environments by fertilizers and pesticides in runoff from agricultural lands, by oils and particulate matter from 
urban streets and by atmospheric deposition of acids. The contamination of ground water resources, especially by 
hazardous wastes is also of great concerns. 
Major Non Point Source Pollution Categories 
Categor S.S D. S BOD Nutrients Toxic Metals Pesticides Pathogens 
Agriculture +++ +++ +++ +++ + +++ +++ 
Construction +++ n + + + n n n 
Urban Runoff +++ ++ ++ +++ +++ +++ +++ 
Mining ++ ++ n n +++ n n 
+++ = Potentially High Pollutant Source ++ = Moderate Pollutant Source 
+ = Low pollutant Source and n = negligible pollutant source
Urban Non Point Source Pollution 
Storm water runoff from urban areas contained higher concentration of different pollutants, like metals, 
nutrients, oxygen demanding wastes and suspended solids. It also contains pathogenic microorganisms, 
oil and petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides and a variety of synthetic organics. The following measures 
are help in reducing urban NPSP. (i) Public education and outreach (ii) Public participation (iii) Illicit 
discharge determination and elimination (iv) Construction site runoff control (v) Post Construction runoff 
to reduce soil erosion and (vi) Pollution prevention/ good house keeping to reduce pollution in runoff 
from municipal operations. There are three major steps that can mitigate urban NPSP. (a) Reduce surface 
runoff from urban sites (b) source control to reduce the amount of pollution pick up by runoff and © Best 
management practices (BMP) to remove or treat pollutants in the runoff. Urban areas have a higher 
percentage of impervious surfaces like roads side walls, driveways and parking lots. As a greater 
percentage of precipitation falling in urban areas becomes surface runoff. Pollution control techniques 
that reduce the amount of surface runoff can be effective at reducing erosion and pollution transport. In 
addition to reducing surface runoff we can emphasize source control to reduce the amount of pollutants 
deposited on impervious surfaces. Source control can be attained by increasing public education providing 
waste disposal sites, introducing appropriate planning and regularity policy and enforcing pollution 
control regulations. Streets sweeping least expensive source control techniques, reduces sediment loads 
in runoff but fail to pick up the finer particles that are often the most significant source of pollution. Street 
vacuuming is efficient in collecting the small particles, but expensive and often ineffective during wet 
season. Street flushing is an effective way, but the catch basins have to cleaned periodically.
Mitigation Measure 
Urban NPSP can be mitigated by the use of appropriate structural and non structural best management 
practices. They are (i) Infiltration systems : Infiltration systems reduce the total amount of surface runoff 
and the amount of sediment transport by increasing the amount of precipitation infiltrated into the soil. 
(ii) Detention system: It reduce pollutant transport by retarding the rate of runoff and by encouraging the 
settling of suspended solids. (iii) Retention system: Retention systems are wet ponds that are sized to 
hold a typical (6 months) storm events. The ponds may be lined or unlined. The unlined ponds increase 
infiltration and can help with ground water recharge. However, unlined ponds are not appropriate if the 
surface runoff contains pollutants that could contaminate drinking water aquifer or in area where a high 
water table would result in ground water flowing into ponds. (iv) constructed Wetlands: Constructed 
wetlands are similar to retention system and wet ponds in that they have permanent standing water, but 
have the added advantage that they incorporate biotic functions like nutrients uptake and microbial 
degradation of pollutants. (v) Filtration System: Filtration systems use sand, soil, organic matter, carbon 
or other materials to filter out pollutants. Filter systems can be incorporated into existing storm drainage 
structures by adding underground vaults. (vi) Biofilter: Biofilter and other vegetated system such as grassy 
swales and filter strips can be used to treat shallow flow or sheet flow by increasing infiltration and 
reducing sediment transport. Large bioretention system add biological treatment such as nutrient uptake 
and microbial degradation of pollutants. Most of the structural BMPs are designed to remove sediments 
and pollutants that are transported in surface runoff along with sediments. The nonstructural BMPs focus 
on reducing various pollutants. A public education program, with appropriate enforcement of pollution 
control regulation is effective tools.
Mitigation Measure 
Urban NPSP can be mitigated by the use of appropriate structural and non structural best management 
practices. They are (i) Infiltration systems : Infiltration systems reduce the total amount of surface runoff 
and the amount of sediment transport by increasing the amount of precipitation infiltrated into the soil. 
(ii) Detention system: It reduce pollutant transport by retarding the rate of runoff and by encouraging the 
settling of suspended solids. (iii) Retention system: Retention systems are wet ponds that are sized to 
hold a typical (6 months) storm events. The ponds may be lined or unlined. The unlined ponds increase 
infiltration and can help with ground water recharge. However, unlined ponds are not appropriate if the 
surface runoff contains pollutants that could contaminate drinking water aquifer or in area where a high 
water table would result in ground water flowing into ponds. (iv) constructed Wetlands: Constructed 
wetlands are similar to retention system and wet ponds in that they have permanent standing water, but 
have the added advantage that they incorporate biotic functions like nutrients uptake and microbial 
degradation of pollutants. (v) Filtration System: Filtration systems use sand, soil, organic matter, carbon 
or other materials to filter out pollutants. Filter systems can be incorporated into existing storm drainage 
structures by adding underground vaults. (vi) Biofilter: Biofilter and other vegetated system such as grassy 
swales and filter strips can be used to treat shallow flow or sheet flow by increasing infiltration and 
reducing sediment transport. Large bioretention system add biological treatment such as nutrient uptake 
and microbial degradation of pollutants. Most of the structural BMPs are designed to remove sediments 
and pollutants that are transported in surface runoff along with sediments. The nonstructural BMPs focus 
on reducing various pollutants. A public education program, with appropriate enforcement of pollution 
control regulation is effective tools.

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Point source and non point source pollution

  • 1. Point Source Pollution Point source pollution is contamination that enters the environment through any clear, specific location, like smokestack, pipe, ditch, tunnel, or conduits. Point source pollution remains a major cause of pollution to water. Point sources of water pollution include municipal sewage treatment plant discharges and discharges from industrial plant. Municipal sewage treatment plant point sources can contribute pollution in the form of oxygen-depleting nutrients and in the form of pathogens that cause serious health hazards in drinking water and swimming areas. Industrial point sources can contribute pollution in the form of toxic chemicals and heavy metals . point sources of water pollution can be limited to ensure protection of designated uses of a receiving water. Either standard may be used to minimized the effluents concentration by proper wastewater treatment processes like screening, grit chamber sedimentation, flotation and biological treatment processes. Point sources are as at specific locations, they are easy to identify, monitor and regulate. Developed world control point source discharges of many harmful chemicals into aquatic system as well as in atmosphere.
  • 2. Calculation of Point source Pollutions In Point source pollution calculation law of conservation of mass can be used in any water or wastewater unit operation. It relate influent flow rate and concentration to effluent flow rate and concentration by accounting for removal or transformation phenomena. It can be applied to rivers, lakes, or other treatment basins, where the problem is to find the concentration of a substance at a location or its rate of change in a section. According to this law there are three general cases . (i) Steady state conservative system: The simple system to analyze are the assumption that the substance is conservative . It means the substance leave the system with out any change Then input rate = output rate Mathematically Qw (ii) Many contaminants undergo chemical, biological or nuclear reactions at Cw Qm QS a rate sufficient to treat them non conservative substances. Then Cm Cs Input = Out put + Decay rate . The decay rate is = -KC where K is rate coefficient. The negative sign implies a loss of substance with time or C = Ce-Kt so Decay rate = KCV Accumulation 0 input and Decay output
  • 3. Non Point Source Pollution (NPSP) Non point source pollution can not be traced to any single site of discharge. They are usually large land areas that pollute water by runoff, subsurface flow or deposition from the atmosphere. The runoff of chemicals into surface water from cropland, live stocks feed lots, urban streets, lawns and parking lots, fugitive discharges from pipelines, spraying, fertilizers, runoff from lands are the common examples of non point source pollution. There has been little progress in controlling non point water pollution because of the difficulty extends of identifying and controlling discharges from so many diffuse sources. Current concerns include the contamination of aquatic environments by fertilizers and pesticides in runoff from agricultural lands, by oils and particulate matter from urban streets and by atmospheric deposition of acids. The contamination of ground water resources, especially by hazardous wastes is also of great concerns. Major Non Point Source Pollution Categories Categor S.S D. S BOD Nutrients Toxic Metals Pesticides Pathogens Agriculture +++ +++ +++ +++ + +++ +++ Construction +++ n + + + n n n Urban Runoff +++ ++ ++ +++ +++ +++ +++ Mining ++ ++ n n +++ n n +++ = Potentially High Pollutant Source ++ = Moderate Pollutant Source + = Low pollutant Source and n = negligible pollutant source
  • 4. Urban Non Point Source Pollution Storm water runoff from urban areas contained higher concentration of different pollutants, like metals, nutrients, oxygen demanding wastes and suspended solids. It also contains pathogenic microorganisms, oil and petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides and a variety of synthetic organics. The following measures are help in reducing urban NPSP. (i) Public education and outreach (ii) Public participation (iii) Illicit discharge determination and elimination (iv) Construction site runoff control (v) Post Construction runoff to reduce soil erosion and (vi) Pollution prevention/ good house keeping to reduce pollution in runoff from municipal operations. There are three major steps that can mitigate urban NPSP. (a) Reduce surface runoff from urban sites (b) source control to reduce the amount of pollution pick up by runoff and © Best management practices (BMP) to remove or treat pollutants in the runoff. Urban areas have a higher percentage of impervious surfaces like roads side walls, driveways and parking lots. As a greater percentage of precipitation falling in urban areas becomes surface runoff. Pollution control techniques that reduce the amount of surface runoff can be effective at reducing erosion and pollution transport. In addition to reducing surface runoff we can emphasize source control to reduce the amount of pollutants deposited on impervious surfaces. Source control can be attained by increasing public education providing waste disposal sites, introducing appropriate planning and regularity policy and enforcing pollution control regulations. Streets sweeping least expensive source control techniques, reduces sediment loads in runoff but fail to pick up the finer particles that are often the most significant source of pollution. Street vacuuming is efficient in collecting the small particles, but expensive and often ineffective during wet season. Street flushing is an effective way, but the catch basins have to cleaned periodically.
  • 5. Mitigation Measure Urban NPSP can be mitigated by the use of appropriate structural and non structural best management practices. They are (i) Infiltration systems : Infiltration systems reduce the total amount of surface runoff and the amount of sediment transport by increasing the amount of precipitation infiltrated into the soil. (ii) Detention system: It reduce pollutant transport by retarding the rate of runoff and by encouraging the settling of suspended solids. (iii) Retention system: Retention systems are wet ponds that are sized to hold a typical (6 months) storm events. The ponds may be lined or unlined. The unlined ponds increase infiltration and can help with ground water recharge. However, unlined ponds are not appropriate if the surface runoff contains pollutants that could contaminate drinking water aquifer or in area where a high water table would result in ground water flowing into ponds. (iv) constructed Wetlands: Constructed wetlands are similar to retention system and wet ponds in that they have permanent standing water, but have the added advantage that they incorporate biotic functions like nutrients uptake and microbial degradation of pollutants. (v) Filtration System: Filtration systems use sand, soil, organic matter, carbon or other materials to filter out pollutants. Filter systems can be incorporated into existing storm drainage structures by adding underground vaults. (vi) Biofilter: Biofilter and other vegetated system such as grassy swales and filter strips can be used to treat shallow flow or sheet flow by increasing infiltration and reducing sediment transport. Large bioretention system add biological treatment such as nutrient uptake and microbial degradation of pollutants. Most of the structural BMPs are designed to remove sediments and pollutants that are transported in surface runoff along with sediments. The nonstructural BMPs focus on reducing various pollutants. A public education program, with appropriate enforcement of pollution control regulation is effective tools.
  • 6. Mitigation Measure Urban NPSP can be mitigated by the use of appropriate structural and non structural best management practices. They are (i) Infiltration systems : Infiltration systems reduce the total amount of surface runoff and the amount of sediment transport by increasing the amount of precipitation infiltrated into the soil. (ii) Detention system: It reduce pollutant transport by retarding the rate of runoff and by encouraging the settling of suspended solids. (iii) Retention system: Retention systems are wet ponds that are sized to hold a typical (6 months) storm events. The ponds may be lined or unlined. The unlined ponds increase infiltration and can help with ground water recharge. However, unlined ponds are not appropriate if the surface runoff contains pollutants that could contaminate drinking water aquifer or in area where a high water table would result in ground water flowing into ponds. (iv) constructed Wetlands: Constructed wetlands are similar to retention system and wet ponds in that they have permanent standing water, but have the added advantage that they incorporate biotic functions like nutrients uptake and microbial degradation of pollutants. (v) Filtration System: Filtration systems use sand, soil, organic matter, carbon or other materials to filter out pollutants. Filter systems can be incorporated into existing storm drainage structures by adding underground vaults. (vi) Biofilter: Biofilter and other vegetated system such as grassy swales and filter strips can be used to treat shallow flow or sheet flow by increasing infiltration and reducing sediment transport. Large bioretention system add biological treatment such as nutrient uptake and microbial degradation of pollutants. Most of the structural BMPs are designed to remove sediments and pollutants that are transported in surface runoff along with sediments. The nonstructural BMPs focus on reducing various pollutants. A public education program, with appropriate enforcement of pollution control regulation is effective tools.