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CEE320
Winter2006
Freeway & Highway Level of Service
CEE 320
Steve Muench
CEE320
Winter2006
Outline
1. Definitions
2. Level of Service (LOS)
3. Freeway Segment LOS Determination
a. Free-flow speed
b. Flow Rate
4. Multilane Highway LOS
5. Design Traffic Volume
CEE320
Winter2006
I-5 Average Daily Traffic
from the WSDOT 2001 Annual Traffic Report
CEE320
Winter2006
Freeway Defined
• A divided highway with full control of
access and two or more lanes for the
exclusive use of traffic in each direction.
• Assumptions
– No interaction with adjacent facilities (streets,
other freeways)
– Free-flow conditions exist on either side of the
facility being analyzed
– Outside the influence or ramps and weaving areas
CEE320
Winter2006
Basic Freeway Segment
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
CEE320
Winter2006
Definitions
• Freeway Capacity
– The maximum sustained 15-min flow rate,
expressed in passenger cars per hour per lane,
that can be accommodated by a uniform freeway
segment under prevailing traffic and roadway
conditions in one direction of flow.
CEE320
Winter2006
Definitions – Flow Characteristics
• Undersaturated
– Traffic flow that is unaffected by upstream or downstream
conditions.
• Queue discharge
– Traffic flow that has just passed through a bottleneck and is
accelerating back to the FFS of the freeway.
• Oversaturated
– Traffic flow that is influenced
by the effects of a
downstream bottleneck.
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
CEE320
Winter2006
Speed vs. Flow
Flow (veh/hr)
Speed(mph)Sf
Free Flow Speed
Optimal flow,
capacity, vm
Uncongested Flow
Congested Flow
Sm
CEE320
Winter2006
Uncongested Flow
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
CEE320
Winter2006
Definitions – Free-Flow Speed
• Free-Flow Speed (FFS)
– The mean speed of passenger cars that can be
accommodated under low to moderate flow rates on a
uniform freeway segment under prevailing roadway and
traffic conditions.
• Factors affecting free-flow speed
– Lane width
– Lateral clearance
– Number of lanes
– Interchange density
– Geometric design
CEE320
Winter2006
Definitions
• Passenger car equivalents
– Trucks and RVs behave differently
– Baseline is a freeway with all passenger cars
– Traffic is expressed in passenger cars per lane per hour
(pc/ln/hr or pcplph)
• Driver population
– Non-commuters suck more at driving
– They may affect capacity
• Capacity
– Corresponds to LOS E and v/c = 1.0
CEE320
Winter2006
Definitions – Level of Service (LOS)
• Chief measure of “quality of service”
– Describes operational conditions within a traffic
stream.
– Does not include safety
– Different measures for different facilities
• Six measures (A through F)
• Freeway LOS
– Based on traffic density
CEE320
Winter2006
Levels of Service
• LOS A
– Free-flow operation
• LOS B
– Reasonably free flow
– Ability to maneuver is only
slightly restricted
– Effects of minor incidents still
easily absorbed
FromHighwayCapacityManual,2000
CEE320
Winter2006
Levels of Service
• LOS C
– Speeds at or near FFS
– Freedom to maneuver is
noticeably restricted
– Queues may form behind any
significant blockage.
• LOS D
– Speeds decline slightly with
increasing flows
– Density increases more quickly
– Freedom to maneuver is more
noticeably limited
– Minor incidents create queuing
FromHighwayCapacityManual,2000
CEE320
Winter2006
Levels of Service
• LOS E
– Operation near or at capacity
– No usable gaps in the traffic
stream
– Operations extremely volatile
– Any disruption causes queuing
• LOS F
– Breakdown in flow
– Queues form behind
breakdown points
– Demand > capacity
FromHighwayCapacityManual,2000
CEE320
Winter2006
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
LOS Calculation
• Does not consider
– Special lanes reserved for a particular type of vehicle
(HOV, truck, climbing, etc.)
– Extended bridge and tunnel segments
– Segments near a toll plaza
– Facilities with FFS < 55 mi/h or > 75 mi/h
– Demand conditions in excess of capacity
– Influence of downstream blockages or queuing
– Posted speed limit
– Extent of police enforcement
– Intelligent transportation system features
– Capacity-enhancing effects of ramp metering
Freeway LOS
Input
Geometric Data
Measured FFS or BFFS
Volume
BFFS Adjustment
Lane width
Number of lanes
Interchange density
Lateral clearance
Volume Adjustment
PHF
Number of lanes
Driver population
Heavy vehicles
Compute FFS Compute flow rate
Define speed-flow curve
Determine speed using speed-flow curve
Compute density using flow rate and speed
Determine LOS
BFFS Input
Measured
FFS Input
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
LOSCriteriaforBasicFreewaySegments
FromHighwayCapacityManual,2000
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Determining FFS
• Measure FFS in the field
– Low to moderate traffic conditions
• Use a baseline and adjust it (BFFS)
IDNLCLW ffffBFFSFFS −−−−=
FFS = free-flow speed (mph)
BFFS = base free-flow speed, 70 mph (urban), 75 mph (rural)
fLW = adjustment for lane width (mph)
fLC = adjustment for right-shoulder lateral clearance (mph)
fN = adjustment for number of lanes (mph)
fID = adjustment for interchange density (mph)
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Lane Width Adjustment (fLW)
• Base condition (fLW = 0)
– Average width of 12 ft. or wider across all lanes
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Lateral Clearance Adjustment (fLC)
• Base condition (fLC = 0)
– 6 ft. or greater on right side
– 2 ft. or greater on the median or left side
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Number of Lanes Adjustment (fN)
• Base condition (fN = 0)
– 5 or more lanes in one direction
– Do not include HOV lanes
– fN = 0 for all rural freeway segments
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Interchange Density Adjustment (fIC)
• Base condition (fIC = 0)
– 0.5 interchanges per mile (2-mile spacing)
– Interchange defined as having at least one on-ramp
– Determined over 6-mile segment
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Determining Flow Rate
• Adjust hourly volumes to get pc/ln/hr
pHV
p
ffNPHF
V
v
×××
=
vp = 15-minute passenger-car equivalent flow rate (pcphpl)
V = hourly volume (veh/hr)
PHF = peak hour factor
N = number of lanes in one direction
fHV = heavy-vehicle adjustment factor
fP = driver population adjustment factor
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Peak Hour Factor (PHF)
• Typical values
– 0.80 to 0.95
– Lower PHF characteristic or rural or off-peak
– Higher PHF typical of urban peak-hour
415 ×
=
V
V
PHF
V = hourly volume (veh/hr) for hour of analysis
V15 = maxiumum 15-min. flow rate within hour of analysis
4 = Number of 15-min. periods per hour
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Heavy Vehicle Adjustment (fHV)
• Base condition (fHV = 1.0)
– No heavy vehicles
– Heavy vehicle = trucks, buses, RVs
• Two-step process
– Determine passenger-car equivalents (ET)
– Determine fHV
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Passenger-Car Equivalents (ET)
• Extended segments method
– Determine the type of terrain and select ET
– No one grade of 3% or more is longer than 0.25 miles
OR
– No one grade of less than 3% is longer than 0.5 miles
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Passenger-Car Equivalents (ET)
• Specific grades method
– Any grade of 3% or more that is longer than 0.25 miles
OR
– Any grade of less than 3% that is longer than 0.5 miles
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
Freeway LOS
FromHighwayCapacityManual,2000
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Passenger-Car Equivalents (ET)
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Passenger-Car Equivalents (ET)
• Composite grades method
– Determines the effect of a series of steep
grades in succession
– Method OK if…
• All subsection grades are less than 4%
OR
• Total length of composite grade is less than 4000 ft.
– Otherwise, use a detailed technique in the
Highway Capacity Manual (HCM)
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Determine fHV
( ) ( )111
1
−+−+
=
RRTT
HV
EPEP
f
fHV = Heavy vehicle adjustment factor
ET, ER = Passenger-car equivalents for trucks/buses and RVs
PT, PR = Proportion of trucks/buses and RVs in traffic stream
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Driver Population Adjustment (fP)
• Base condition (fP = 1.0)
– Most drivers are familiar with the route
• Commuter drivers
– Typical values between 0.85 and 1.00
• Two-step process
– Determine passenger-car equivalents (ET)
– Determine fHV
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Define Speed-Flow Curve
Select a Speed-Flow curve based on FFS
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Determine Average PC Speed (S)
Use vp and FFS curve to find average passenger car speed (S)
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Determine Average PC Speed (S)
For 70 < FFS ≤ 75 mph AND (3400 – 30FFS) < vp ≤ 2400
For 55 < FFS ≤ 70 mph AND (3400 – 30FFS) < vp ≤ (1700 + 10FFS)
For 55 < FFS ≤ 75 mph AND vp < (3400 – 30FFS)
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6.2
100030
340030
3
160
FFS
FFSv
FFSFFSS
p
( )

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−−=
6.2
170040
340030
3407
9
1
FFS
FFSv
FFSFFSS
p
FFSS =
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Determine Density
• Calculate density using:
S
v
D
p
=
D = density (pc/mi/ln)
vp = flow rate (pc/hr/ln)
S = average passenger-car speed (mph)
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
LOSCriteriaforBasicFreewaySegments
FromHighwayCapacityManual,2000
Determine
LOS
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Example
Geometry
• 11 ft. lane width
• Left lateral clearance = 5 ft.
• Right lateral clearance = 4 ft.
Other
• 7 am PHF = 0.95
• 10 pm PHF = 0.99
• 2% trucks
• 3% buses
Determine the typical LOS for SR 520 eastbound near Microsoft
(MP 10.25 – shown in the picture below) at 7 a.m. and 10 p.m.
from WSDOT’s SRWeb
http://srview.wsdot.wa.gov/
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Determine FFS
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Determine FFS
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Determine FFS
In a 6-mile stretch from
I-405 to Redmond there
are 5 interchanges
from Microsoft MapPoint
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Determine FFS
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
At 7am the ½ hour volume is about 4000 veh/hr
At 10 pm the ½ hour volume is about 1700 veh/hr
Graph from the Puget Sound Regional Council’s Puget Sound Trends, No. T6, July 1997
Determine Flow Rate (vp)
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Determine Flow Rate (vp)
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Determine LOS
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
LOSCriteriaforBasicFreewaySegments
FromHighwayCapacityManual,2000
Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Multilane Highway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Multilane Highway LOS
• Similar to Freeway LOS
• A few minor differences
Multilane Highway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Base Conditions for Multilane Highway
• Level terrain, with grades no greater than 2 percent
• Minimum lane width = 12 ft
• Objects no closer than 6 ft from the edge of the traveled
pavement (at the roadside or median)
• No direct access points along the roadway
• Divided highway
• Traffic stream composed entirely of passenger cars
• Free flow speed of 60 mph or more
• Driver population composed principally of regular users
Multilane Highway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Free Flow Speed (FFS)
• Measure FFS in the field
– Low to moderate traffic conditions
• Use a baseline and adjust it (BFFS)
AMLCLW ffffBFFSFFS −−−−=
FFS = free-flow speed (mph)
BFFS = base free-flow speed, 60 mph is typically used
fLW = adjustment for lane width (mph)
fLC = adjustment for right-shoulder lateral clearance (mph)
fM = adjustment for median type (mph)
fA = adjustment for access points (mph)
Multilane Highway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Lane Width Adjustment (fLW)
• Base condition (fLW = 0)
– Average width of 12 ft. or wider across all lanes
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
Multilane Highway LOS
Same as Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Lateral Clearance Adjustment (fLC)
• Base condition (fLC = 0)
– 12 ft or greater TLC
• LCL = 6 ft for undivided highways
– (accounted for in median type adjustment)
• LCL = 6 ft for two-way left-turn lanes
FromHighwayCapacityManual,2000
Multilane Highway LOS
LR LCLCTLC +=
CEE320
Winter2006
Median Adjustment (fM)
• Base condition (fM = 0)
– Divided highway
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
Multilane Highway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Access-Point Density Adjustment (fA)
• For each access point/mi FFS decreases by 0.25 mph
• Base condition (fA = 0)
– 0 access points per mile
• For NAPM ≤ 40: fA = 0.25 × NAPM
• For NAPM > 40: fA = 10
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
Multilane Highway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Determining Flow Rate
• Adjust hourly volumes to get pc/ln/hr
pHV
p
ffNPHF
V
v
×××
=
vp = 15-minute passenger-car equivalent flow rate (pcphpl)
V = hourly volume (veh/hr)
PHF = peak hour factor
N = number of lanes in one direction
fHV = heavy-vehicle adjustment factor
fP = driver population adjustment factor
Multilane Highway LOS
Same as Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Heavy Vehicle Adjustment (fHV)
• Base condition (fHV = 1.0)
– No heavy vehicles
– Heavy vehicle = trucks, buses, RVs
• Two-step process
– Determine passenger-car equivalents (ET)
– Determine fHV
Same as Freeway LOS
Multilane Highway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Passenger-Car Equivalents (ET)
• Extended segments method
– Determine the type of terrain and select ET
– No one grade of 3% or more is longer than 0.5 miles
OR
– No one grade of less than 3% is longer than 1 mile
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
Multilane Highway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Passenger-Car Equivalents (ET)
• Specific grades method
– Any grade of 3% or more that is longer than 0.5 miles
OR
– Any grade of less than 3% that is longer than 1 mile
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
Multilane Highway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
FromHighwayCapacityManual,2000
Same as
Freeway LOS
Multilane Highway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Passenger-Car Equivalents (ET)
Same as Freeway LOS
Multilane Highway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Passenger-Car Equivalents (ET)
• Composite grades method
– Determines the effect of a series of steep
grades in succession
– Method OK if…
• All subsection grades are less than 4%
OR
• Total length of composite grade is less than 4000 ft.
– Otherwise, use a detailed technique in the
Highway Capacity Manual (HCM)
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
Same as Freeway LOS
Multilane Highway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Determine fHV
( ) ( )111
1
−+−+
=
RRTT
HV
EPEP
f
fHV = Heavy vehicle adjustment factor
ET, ER = Passenger-car equivalents for trucks/buses and RVs
PT, PR = Proportion of trucks/buses and RVs in traffic stream
Multilane Highway LOS
Same as Freeway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Driver Population Adjustment (fP)
• Base condition (fP = 1.0)
– Most drivers are familiar with the route
• Commuter drivers
– Typical values between 0.85 and 1.00
Same as Freeway LOS
Multilane Highway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Determine Average PC Speed (S)
Use vp and FFS curve to find average passenger car speed (S)
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
Multilane Highway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Determine Average PC Speed (S)
For 55 < FFS ≤ 60 mph AND vp > 1400
For 50 < FFS ≤ 55 mph AND vp > 1400
For 55 < FFS ≤ 75 mph AND vp < (3400 – 30FFS)
For vp < 1400
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−
−
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−−=
31.1
88028
1400
13
10
3
FFS
v
FFSFFSS
p
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−
−
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
−−=
31.1
1181
5
171
1400
41
219
205
34
FFS
v
FFSFFSS
p
FFSS =
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−−=
31.1
112036
1400
9
56
5
1
FFS
v
FFSFFSS
p
Multilane Highway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Determine LOS
Use vp and passenger car speed (S)
From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
Multilane Highway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Determine Density
• Calculate density using:
S
v
D
p
=
D = density (pc/mi/ln)
vp = flow rate (pc/hr/ln)
S = average passenger-car speed (mph)
Multilane Highway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
FromHighwayCapacityManual,2000
LOS Criteria for Multilane Highways
Multilane Highway LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Design Traffic Volumes
CEE320
Winter2006
Design Traffic Volumes
• Need to select the appropriate hourly
traffic volume to get the design LOS
CEE320
Winter2006
Definitions
• Annual average daily traffic (AADT)
– Annual traffic averaged on a daily basis
• Design hourly volume (DHV)
– Traffic volume used for design calculations
– Typically between the 10th
and 50th
highest volume hour
of the year (30th
highest is most common)
• K-factor
– Relationship between AADT and DHV
AADT
DHV
K =
CEE320
Winter2006
Definitions
• Directional distribution factor (D)
– Factor reflecting the proportion of peak-hour traffic
traveling in the peak direction
– Often there is much more traffic in one direction than
the other
• Directional design-hour volume (DDHV)
AADTDKDDHV ××=
CEE320
Winter2006
Typical Graph
HourlyvolumeasaproportionofAADT
Number of hours (annually) with
specified or greater volumes
20 40 10060 800
0.10
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.11
Highest 100 Hourly Volumes Over a One-Year
Period for a Typical Roadway
WSDOT Graphs
CEE320
Winter2006
Primary References
• Mannering, F.L.; Kilareski, W.P. and Washburn, S.S. (2005).
Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis, Third Edition.
Chapter 6
• Transportation Research Board. (2000). Highway Capacity Manual
2000. National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

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Freeway & Highway LOS (Transportation Engineering)

  • 1. CEE320 Winter2006 Freeway & Highway Level of Service CEE 320 Steve Muench
  • 2. CEE320 Winter2006 Outline 1. Definitions 2. Level of Service (LOS) 3. Freeway Segment LOS Determination a. Free-flow speed b. Flow Rate 4. Multilane Highway LOS 5. Design Traffic Volume
  • 3. CEE320 Winter2006 I-5 Average Daily Traffic from the WSDOT 2001 Annual Traffic Report
  • 4. CEE320 Winter2006 Freeway Defined • A divided highway with full control of access and two or more lanes for the exclusive use of traffic in each direction. • Assumptions – No interaction with adjacent facilities (streets, other freeways) – Free-flow conditions exist on either side of the facility being analyzed – Outside the influence or ramps and weaving areas
  • 5. CEE320 Winter2006 Basic Freeway Segment From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
  • 6. CEE320 Winter2006 Definitions • Freeway Capacity – The maximum sustained 15-min flow rate, expressed in passenger cars per hour per lane, that can be accommodated by a uniform freeway segment under prevailing traffic and roadway conditions in one direction of flow.
  • 7. CEE320 Winter2006 Definitions – Flow Characteristics • Undersaturated – Traffic flow that is unaffected by upstream or downstream conditions. • Queue discharge – Traffic flow that has just passed through a bottleneck and is accelerating back to the FFS of the freeway. • Oversaturated – Traffic flow that is influenced by the effects of a downstream bottleneck. From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000
  • 8. CEE320 Winter2006 Speed vs. Flow Flow (veh/hr) Speed(mph)Sf Free Flow Speed Optimal flow, capacity, vm Uncongested Flow Congested Flow Sm
  • 10. CEE320 Winter2006 Definitions – Free-Flow Speed • Free-Flow Speed (FFS) – The mean speed of passenger cars that can be accommodated under low to moderate flow rates on a uniform freeway segment under prevailing roadway and traffic conditions. • Factors affecting free-flow speed – Lane width – Lateral clearance – Number of lanes – Interchange density – Geometric design
  • 11. CEE320 Winter2006 Definitions • Passenger car equivalents – Trucks and RVs behave differently – Baseline is a freeway with all passenger cars – Traffic is expressed in passenger cars per lane per hour (pc/ln/hr or pcplph) • Driver population – Non-commuters suck more at driving – They may affect capacity • Capacity – Corresponds to LOS E and v/c = 1.0
  • 12. CEE320 Winter2006 Definitions – Level of Service (LOS) • Chief measure of “quality of service” – Describes operational conditions within a traffic stream. – Does not include safety – Different measures for different facilities • Six measures (A through F) • Freeway LOS – Based on traffic density
  • 13. CEE320 Winter2006 Levels of Service • LOS A – Free-flow operation • LOS B – Reasonably free flow – Ability to maneuver is only slightly restricted – Effects of minor incidents still easily absorbed FromHighwayCapacityManual,2000
  • 14. CEE320 Winter2006 Levels of Service • LOS C – Speeds at or near FFS – Freedom to maneuver is noticeably restricted – Queues may form behind any significant blockage. • LOS D – Speeds decline slightly with increasing flows – Density increases more quickly – Freedom to maneuver is more noticeably limited – Minor incidents create queuing FromHighwayCapacityManual,2000
  • 15. CEE320 Winter2006 Levels of Service • LOS E – Operation near or at capacity – No usable gaps in the traffic stream – Operations extremely volatile – Any disruption causes queuing • LOS F – Breakdown in flow – Queues form behind breakdown points – Demand > capacity FromHighwayCapacityManual,2000
  • 17. CEE320 Winter2006 LOS Calculation • Does not consider – Special lanes reserved for a particular type of vehicle (HOV, truck, climbing, etc.) – Extended bridge and tunnel segments – Segments near a toll plaza – Facilities with FFS < 55 mi/h or > 75 mi/h – Demand conditions in excess of capacity – Influence of downstream blockages or queuing – Posted speed limit – Extent of police enforcement – Intelligent transportation system features – Capacity-enhancing effects of ramp metering Freeway LOS
  • 18. Input Geometric Data Measured FFS or BFFS Volume BFFS Adjustment Lane width Number of lanes Interchange density Lateral clearance Volume Adjustment PHF Number of lanes Driver population Heavy vehicles Compute FFS Compute flow rate Define speed-flow curve Determine speed using speed-flow curve Compute density using flow rate and speed Determine LOS BFFS Input Measured FFS Input Freeway LOS
  • 20. CEE320 Winter2006 Determining FFS • Measure FFS in the field – Low to moderate traffic conditions • Use a baseline and adjust it (BFFS) IDNLCLW ffffBFFSFFS −−−−= FFS = free-flow speed (mph) BFFS = base free-flow speed, 70 mph (urban), 75 mph (rural) fLW = adjustment for lane width (mph) fLC = adjustment for right-shoulder lateral clearance (mph) fN = adjustment for number of lanes (mph) fID = adjustment for interchange density (mph) Freeway LOS
  • 21. CEE320 Winter2006 Lane Width Adjustment (fLW) • Base condition (fLW = 0) – Average width of 12 ft. or wider across all lanes From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000 Freeway LOS
  • 22. CEE320 Winter2006 Lateral Clearance Adjustment (fLC) • Base condition (fLC = 0) – 6 ft. or greater on right side – 2 ft. or greater on the median or left side From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000 Freeway LOS
  • 23. CEE320 Winter2006 Number of Lanes Adjustment (fN) • Base condition (fN = 0) – 5 or more lanes in one direction – Do not include HOV lanes – fN = 0 for all rural freeway segments From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000 Freeway LOS
  • 24. CEE320 Winter2006 Interchange Density Adjustment (fIC) • Base condition (fIC = 0) – 0.5 interchanges per mile (2-mile spacing) – Interchange defined as having at least one on-ramp – Determined over 6-mile segment From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000 Freeway LOS
  • 25. CEE320 Winter2006 Determining Flow Rate • Adjust hourly volumes to get pc/ln/hr pHV p ffNPHF V v ××× = vp = 15-minute passenger-car equivalent flow rate (pcphpl) V = hourly volume (veh/hr) PHF = peak hour factor N = number of lanes in one direction fHV = heavy-vehicle adjustment factor fP = driver population adjustment factor Freeway LOS
  • 26. CEE320 Winter2006 Peak Hour Factor (PHF) • Typical values – 0.80 to 0.95 – Lower PHF characteristic or rural or off-peak – Higher PHF typical of urban peak-hour 415 × = V V PHF V = hourly volume (veh/hr) for hour of analysis V15 = maxiumum 15-min. flow rate within hour of analysis 4 = Number of 15-min. periods per hour Freeway LOS
  • 27. CEE320 Winter2006 Heavy Vehicle Adjustment (fHV) • Base condition (fHV = 1.0) – No heavy vehicles – Heavy vehicle = trucks, buses, RVs • Two-step process – Determine passenger-car equivalents (ET) – Determine fHV Freeway LOS
  • 28. CEE320 Winter2006 Passenger-Car Equivalents (ET) • Extended segments method – Determine the type of terrain and select ET – No one grade of 3% or more is longer than 0.25 miles OR – No one grade of less than 3% is longer than 0.5 miles From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000 Freeway LOS
  • 29. CEE320 Winter2006 Passenger-Car Equivalents (ET) • Specific grades method – Any grade of 3% or more that is longer than 0.25 miles OR – Any grade of less than 3% that is longer than 0.5 miles From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000 Freeway LOS
  • 32. CEE320 Winter2006 Passenger-Car Equivalents (ET) • Composite grades method – Determines the effect of a series of steep grades in succession – Method OK if… • All subsection grades are less than 4% OR • Total length of composite grade is less than 4000 ft. – Otherwise, use a detailed technique in the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000 Freeway LOS
  • 33. CEE320 Winter2006 Determine fHV ( ) ( )111 1 −+−+ = RRTT HV EPEP f fHV = Heavy vehicle adjustment factor ET, ER = Passenger-car equivalents for trucks/buses and RVs PT, PR = Proportion of trucks/buses and RVs in traffic stream Freeway LOS
  • 34. CEE320 Winter2006 Driver Population Adjustment (fP) • Base condition (fP = 1.0) – Most drivers are familiar with the route • Commuter drivers – Typical values between 0.85 and 1.00 • Two-step process – Determine passenger-car equivalents (ET) – Determine fHV Freeway LOS
  • 35. CEE320 Winter2006 Define Speed-Flow Curve Select a Speed-Flow curve based on FFS From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000 Freeway LOS
  • 36. CEE320 Winter2006 Determine Average PC Speed (S) Use vp and FFS curve to find average passenger car speed (S) From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000 Freeway LOS
  • 37. CEE320 Winter2006 Determine Average PC Speed (S) For 70 < FFS ≤ 75 mph AND (3400 – 30FFS) < vp ≤ 2400 For 55 < FFS ≤ 70 mph AND (3400 – 30FFS) < vp ≤ (1700 + 10FFS) For 55 < FFS ≤ 75 mph AND vp < (3400 – 30FFS)               − −+       −−= 6.2 100030 340030 3 160 FFS FFSv FFSFFSS p ( )               − −+ −−= 6.2 170040 340030 3407 9 1 FFS FFSv FFSFFSS p FFSS = Freeway LOS
  • 38. CEE320 Winter2006 Determine Density • Calculate density using: S v D p = D = density (pc/mi/ln) vp = flow rate (pc/hr/ln) S = average passenger-car speed (mph) Freeway LOS
  • 40. CEE320 Winter2006 Example Geometry • 11 ft. lane width • Left lateral clearance = 5 ft. • Right lateral clearance = 4 ft. Other • 7 am PHF = 0.95 • 10 pm PHF = 0.99 • 2% trucks • 3% buses Determine the typical LOS for SR 520 eastbound near Microsoft (MP 10.25 – shown in the picture below) at 7 a.m. and 10 p.m. from WSDOT’s SRWeb http://srview.wsdot.wa.gov/ Freeway LOS
  • 43. CEE320 Winter2006 Determine FFS In a 6-mile stretch from I-405 to Redmond there are 5 interchanges from Microsoft MapPoint Freeway LOS
  • 45. CEE320 Winter2006 At 7am the ½ hour volume is about 4000 veh/hr At 10 pm the ½ hour volume is about 1700 veh/hr Graph from the Puget Sound Regional Council’s Puget Sound Trends, No. T6, July 1997 Determine Flow Rate (vp) Freeway LOS
  • 50. CEE320 Winter2006 Multilane Highway LOS • Similar to Freeway LOS • A few minor differences Multilane Highway LOS
  • 51. CEE320 Winter2006 Base Conditions for Multilane Highway • Level terrain, with grades no greater than 2 percent • Minimum lane width = 12 ft • Objects no closer than 6 ft from the edge of the traveled pavement (at the roadside or median) • No direct access points along the roadway • Divided highway • Traffic stream composed entirely of passenger cars • Free flow speed of 60 mph or more • Driver population composed principally of regular users Multilane Highway LOS
  • 52. CEE320 Winter2006 Free Flow Speed (FFS) • Measure FFS in the field – Low to moderate traffic conditions • Use a baseline and adjust it (BFFS) AMLCLW ffffBFFSFFS −−−−= FFS = free-flow speed (mph) BFFS = base free-flow speed, 60 mph is typically used fLW = adjustment for lane width (mph) fLC = adjustment for right-shoulder lateral clearance (mph) fM = adjustment for median type (mph) fA = adjustment for access points (mph) Multilane Highway LOS
  • 53. CEE320 Winter2006 Lane Width Adjustment (fLW) • Base condition (fLW = 0) – Average width of 12 ft. or wider across all lanes From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000 Multilane Highway LOS Same as Freeway LOS
  • 54. CEE320 Winter2006 Lateral Clearance Adjustment (fLC) • Base condition (fLC = 0) – 12 ft or greater TLC • LCL = 6 ft for undivided highways – (accounted for in median type adjustment) • LCL = 6 ft for two-way left-turn lanes FromHighwayCapacityManual,2000 Multilane Highway LOS LR LCLCTLC +=
  • 55. CEE320 Winter2006 Median Adjustment (fM) • Base condition (fM = 0) – Divided highway From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000 Multilane Highway LOS
  • 56. CEE320 Winter2006 Access-Point Density Adjustment (fA) • For each access point/mi FFS decreases by 0.25 mph • Base condition (fA = 0) – 0 access points per mile • For NAPM ≤ 40: fA = 0.25 × NAPM • For NAPM > 40: fA = 10 From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000 Multilane Highway LOS
  • 57. CEE320 Winter2006 Determining Flow Rate • Adjust hourly volumes to get pc/ln/hr pHV p ffNPHF V v ××× = vp = 15-minute passenger-car equivalent flow rate (pcphpl) V = hourly volume (veh/hr) PHF = peak hour factor N = number of lanes in one direction fHV = heavy-vehicle adjustment factor fP = driver population adjustment factor Multilane Highway LOS Same as Freeway LOS
  • 58. CEE320 Winter2006 Heavy Vehicle Adjustment (fHV) • Base condition (fHV = 1.0) – No heavy vehicles – Heavy vehicle = trucks, buses, RVs • Two-step process – Determine passenger-car equivalents (ET) – Determine fHV Same as Freeway LOS Multilane Highway LOS
  • 59. CEE320 Winter2006 Passenger-Car Equivalents (ET) • Extended segments method – Determine the type of terrain and select ET – No one grade of 3% or more is longer than 0.5 miles OR – No one grade of less than 3% is longer than 1 mile From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000 Multilane Highway LOS
  • 60. CEE320 Winter2006 Passenger-Car Equivalents (ET) • Specific grades method – Any grade of 3% or more that is longer than 0.5 miles OR – Any grade of less than 3% that is longer than 1 mile From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000 Multilane Highway LOS
  • 62. CEE320 Winter2006 Passenger-Car Equivalents (ET) Same as Freeway LOS Multilane Highway LOS
  • 63. CEE320 Winter2006 Passenger-Car Equivalents (ET) • Composite grades method – Determines the effect of a series of steep grades in succession – Method OK if… • All subsection grades are less than 4% OR • Total length of composite grade is less than 4000 ft. – Otherwise, use a detailed technique in the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000 Same as Freeway LOS Multilane Highway LOS
  • 64. CEE320 Winter2006 Determine fHV ( ) ( )111 1 −+−+ = RRTT HV EPEP f fHV = Heavy vehicle adjustment factor ET, ER = Passenger-car equivalents for trucks/buses and RVs PT, PR = Proportion of trucks/buses and RVs in traffic stream Multilane Highway LOS Same as Freeway LOS
  • 65. CEE320 Winter2006 Driver Population Adjustment (fP) • Base condition (fP = 1.0) – Most drivers are familiar with the route • Commuter drivers – Typical values between 0.85 and 1.00 Same as Freeway LOS Multilane Highway LOS
  • 66. CEE320 Winter2006 Determine Average PC Speed (S) Use vp and FFS curve to find average passenger car speed (S) From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000 Multilane Highway LOS
  • 67. CEE320 Winter2006 Determine Average PC Speed (S) For 55 < FFS ≤ 60 mph AND vp > 1400 For 50 < FFS ≤ 55 mph AND vp > 1400 For 55 < FFS ≤ 75 mph AND vp < (3400 – 30FFS) For vp < 1400               − −       −−= 31.1 88028 1400 13 10 3 FFS v FFSFFSS p                         − −       −−= 31.1 1181 5 171 1400 41 219 205 34 FFS v FFSFFSS p FFSS =               − −       −−= 31.1 112036 1400 9 56 5 1 FFS v FFSFFSS p Multilane Highway LOS
  • 68. CEE320 Winter2006 Determine LOS Use vp and passenger car speed (S) From Highway Capacity Manual, 2000 Multilane Highway LOS
  • 69. CEE320 Winter2006 Determine Density • Calculate density using: S v D p = D = density (pc/mi/ln) vp = flow rate (pc/hr/ln) S = average passenger-car speed (mph) Multilane Highway LOS
  • 70. CEE320 Winter2006 FromHighwayCapacityManual,2000 LOS Criteria for Multilane Highways Multilane Highway LOS
  • 72. CEE320 Winter2006 Design Traffic Volumes • Need to select the appropriate hourly traffic volume to get the design LOS
  • 73. CEE320 Winter2006 Definitions • Annual average daily traffic (AADT) – Annual traffic averaged on a daily basis • Design hourly volume (DHV) – Traffic volume used for design calculations – Typically between the 10th and 50th highest volume hour of the year (30th highest is most common) • K-factor – Relationship between AADT and DHV AADT DHV K =
  • 74. CEE320 Winter2006 Definitions • Directional distribution factor (D) – Factor reflecting the proportion of peak-hour traffic traveling in the peak direction – Often there is much more traffic in one direction than the other • Directional design-hour volume (DDHV) AADTDKDDHV ××=
  • 75. CEE320 Winter2006 Typical Graph HourlyvolumeasaproportionofAADT Number of hours (annually) with specified or greater volumes 20 40 10060 800 0.10 0.15 0.14 0.13 0.12 0.11 Highest 100 Hourly Volumes Over a One-Year Period for a Typical Roadway
  • 77. CEE320 Winter2006 Primary References • Mannering, F.L.; Kilareski, W.P. and Washburn, S.S. (2005). Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis, Third Edition. Chapter 6 • Transportation Research Board. (2000). Highway Capacity Manual 2000. National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

Editor's Notes

  1. Lots of measurements in the top part, a few in the queue part and a few in the congested part Segment 1 = top part = uncongested Segment 2 = straight part = queue discharge Segment 3 = bottom part = within a queue
  2. Measured from the edge of the paved shoulder to the nearest edge of the traveled lane No adjustments for left side
  3. 3 miles upstream and 3 miles downstream
  4. You measure or are given V
  5. 3 miles upstream and 3 miles downstream
  6. Level = any combo of alignments permitting heavy vehicles to maintain approximately the same speed as passenger cars. Generally includes short grades of no more than 2% Rolling = causes heavy vehicles to reduce speed substantially below passenger cars but does not cause them to operate at their limiting speed for the given terrain for any significant length of time or at frequent intervals Mountainous = causes heavy vehicles to operate at their limiting speed for significant distances or at frequent intervals
  7. No RVs for downgrades
  8. No RVs for downgrades
  9. Interpolation is OK 75 mph is dashed because is was extrapolated from the 70 mph curve
  10. Interpolation is OK 75 mph is dashed because is was extrapolated from the 70 mph curve
  11. Usually you can easily tell from the graph but it’s a good idea to check here Density defines LOS!
  12. FFS = BFFS – fLW – fLC – fN – fID Assume BFFS is 70 mph for urban freeway fLW = 1.9 fLC = 0.8 (do we use 2 or 3 lanes in one direction?) use 3 – this determines speed
  13. FFS = BFFS – fLW – fLC – fN – fID Assume BFFS is 70 mph for urban freeway fLW = 1.9 fLC = 0.8 (do we use 2 or 3 lanes in one direction?) use 3 – this determines speed fN = 4.5 (do not include the HOV lane)
  14. IC density = 5/6 = 0.833 interchanges/mile Interpolating from the table we get 1.68
  15. FFS = BFFS – fLW – fLC – fN – fID FFS = 70 – 1.9 – 0.8 – 4.5 – 1.7 = 61.1 mph
  16. ½ hour volume is for both directions Therefore the 1-hour volume in one direction is the same because there are 4 lanes total (2 in each direction)
  17. ET = 1.5 Assume there are no RVs fHV = 1/(1+PT(ET-1) + PR(ER-1) fHV = 1/(1+0.05(1.5-1) + 0(1.2-1) = 0.9756 Assume commuters, therefore fP = 1.00 Vp = 4000 vph / (0.95)(2)(0.9756)(1.00) = 2158 pcplph
  18. FFS = 61.1 mph Vp = 2158 pcplph S = about 56 mph Looks like LOS E Density = 2158/56 = 38.5 pc/mi/ln
  19. Density = 2158/56 = 38.5 pc/mi/ln LOS E at 7am At 10 pm Vp = 1700/(0.99)(2)(0.9756)(1.00) = 880 pc/ln/hr S = 61.1 mph (still in free-flow area) D = 880/61.1 = 14.4 pc/mi/ln LOS B
  20. Measured from the edge of the paved shoulder to the nearest edge of the traveled lane No adjustments for left side
  21. 3 miles upstream and 3 miles downstream
  22. You measure or are given V
  23. 3 miles upstream and 3 miles downstream
  24. Level = any combo of alignments permitting heavy vehicles to maintain approximately the same speed as passenger cars. Generally includes short grades of no more than 2% Rolling = causes heavy vehicles to reduce speed substantially below passenger cars but does not cause them to operate at their limiting speed for the given terrain for any significant length of time or at frequent intervals Mountainous = causes heavy vehicles to operate at their limiting speed for significant distances or at frequent intervals
  25. No RVs for downgrades
  26. No RVs for downgrades
  27. Interpolation is OK 75 mph is dashed because is was extrapolated from the 70 mph curve
  28. Interpolation is OK 75 mph is dashed because is was extrapolated from the 70 mph curve
  29. Usually you can easily tell from the graph but it’s a good idea to check here Density defines LOS!