SlideShare a Scribd company logo
F L O W E R
FLORAL STRUCTURE
DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS AND PLANT BREEDING
ALLAHABAD SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURE
SAM HIGGINBOTTOM INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGYAND SCIENCES
(Formerly Allahabad Agricultural Institute)
DEEMED TO BE UNIVERSITY
Allahabad- India -211007
2012
By
Deva Ram
M.Sc Ag SST
SUBMITTED TO
Dr . SHAILESH MARKER
Head of department,
Dept. of Genetics and plant
breeding ,
SHIATS
Topic: floral structure
Contents
 Introduction to floral structure
 Flower parts and their functions
 Classification of flowers
 Floral formula and diagram
 Floral biology of some families viz, Graminae,
leguminaceae and malvaceae
 Summary and conclusion
FLOWER
 A flower is the
reproductive structure
found in plants.
 The biological
function of a flower is
to mediate the union
of male sperm with
female ovum in order
to produce seeds.
Flower Structure
FLOWER sits a top of a stem
called peduncle.
Sepals from the latin sepalum
“covering” .
Petals from the latin petalum “to
spread out”.
Stamens are the pollen producing
part of a flower.
Androecium “house of man”.
Carpel from the greek word
carpos “fruit”.
Collectively known as
gynoecium “house of woman”.
Flower Part Form and Function
Peduncle Flower stalk.
Receptacle Part of flower stalk bearing the floral organs, at base of flower.
Sepal Leaf-like structures at flower base, protects young flower bud.
Calyx All the sepals together form the calyx.
Petal
Located in and above the sepals, often large and colourful, sometimes
scented, sometimes producing nectar. Often serve to attract pollinators
to the plant.
Corolla All the petals together form the corolla.
Stamen
Male part of the flower, consisting of the anther and filament, makes
pollen grains.
Filament The stalk of the stamen which bears the anther.
Anther The pollen bearing portion of a stamen.
Pollen
Grains containing the male gametes. Immature male gametophyte
with a protective outer covering.
CarpelPistil Female part of the flower. Consisting of the stigma, style and ovary.
Stigma
Often sticky top of carpel, serves as a receptive surface for pollen
grains.
Style
The stalk of a carpel, between the stigma and the ovary, through
which the pollen tube grows.
Ovary
Enlarged base of the carpel containing the ovule or ovules. The ovary
matures to become a fruit.
Ovule
Located in the ovaries. Carries female gametes. Ovules become seeds
on fertilization.
INTERNAL FLOWER STRUCTURE
Types of Flower
Flower can vary in the type of
structure present.
A flower containing all four
modified leaves is said to be
complete.
If a flower that lacks any of these
modified leaves is said to be
incomplete.
Incomplete flower
Types of flower
BISEXUAL FLOWER UNISEXUAL FLOWER
BASED ON SHAPE OF FLOWER
The sex of a flower can be described in three ways:
1.Staminate flowers: Flowers bearing only male sex parts. These
are sometime referred to as "male flowers".
2.CarpellatePistillate Flowers: Flowers bearing only female sex
parts. These are sometimes referred to as "female flowers".
3.HermaphhroditeComplete flowers: Flowers bearing both male
and female sex parts.
Ovary position
A flower is basically made
up of four concentric rings
of structures.
There is an outer ring of
modified leaves called sepals.
These provide protection to
the flower before it opens and are usually green. This
outer ring is known as the calyx.
Inside the sepals is another ring of modified leaves
called petals which are often brightly coloured. This
layer is known as the corolla.
Floral Diagram
Floral Formulas and Diagrams
A floral formula is a "shorthand"
method used to represent the
structure of a flower using the
standard set of symbols shown at
the right.
The four major floral parts are always shown in the same
order; sepals (CA), petals (CO), stamens (A), and carpels
(G). The number of each part in the flower is indicated with
a superscript number after the letters.
Graminae family
 Cereal crops are mostly grain crops belonging to the
grass family Graminae (Poaceae).
 The word cereal is derived from ceres, the name of
the roman Goddess of harvest and agriculture.
 The major cereal crops are Wheat, Rice, Corn,
Barley, Rye, Oat, and include the millets.
 Several non grass crops grown for their grain are
called pseudocereals.
 Infloroscence of Rice is called Spikelet. Spikelet
consists of one fertile and two vestigial florets
represented by two glumes below the fertile floret.
GENERAL CHARACTERS
Characteristics of Rice
 The lemma may or may not be indurated,
entire, pointed, hairy or glabrous, strongly
carinate, awnless or mucronate or awnless.
 Palea present relatively long, but shorter than lemma
 Fertile floret: hermaphrodite, cleistogamous or chasmogamous
in some cases cross pollination is prevelent, calyx and
corolla(perianth) are called lodicules.
 Stamens 6, anthers 2-3mm long with filaments, not penicillate,
versatile, ovary glabrous, monocarpellary, usually one ovule,
placentation basel, styles fused(basally) or free to their basaes.
 Stigmas bifid, and feathery.
Flower structure of Rice
Flower structure of wheat
Characteristics of Wheat
 Inflorescence: spike, the basic unit of the
inflorescence is called a spikelet, typiclly
consisting of a basaal pair of minute sterile
bracts called glumes.
 One or more distichously arranged distal florets on an often zig zag
extension of the spikelet axis called the rachilla.
 The average spike of common wheat contains 25-30 grains in 14-17
spikelets.
 Androecium typically consists of 3 or occasionally 6 distinct stamens,
anthers yellow.
 Gynoecium consists of a single compound pistil of 2 or sometimes 3
carpels, an equal number of styles with feathery stigmas, and a
superior ovary with one locule.
.
Characteristics of Maize
 The corn plant is normally monoecious.
 The staminate flowers is called tassel at
the top of the stalk.
 The mature pistilate inflorescence is called cob(silk).
 The spikelets are usually arranged in pairs, one sessile and the other
pediceled, the spikelet is completely enclosed by two firm.
 There are two florets per spikelet, each floret contains 3 stamens, 2
lodicules and a rudimentary pistil.
 The lemma and palea are thinner and shorter than the glumes
 The single ovary in a fertile floret bears a long style are silk which is
forked at the tip.
 The silk are ordinarily 10-30cm long.
PEARLMILLET PROSOMILLET
KODO
MILLE
T
FINGERMILLET
GENERAL CHARACTERS OF
LEGUMINACEAE FAMILY
 The flowers often have five generally fused sepals
and five free petals.
 They are generally hermaphrodite, and have a short
hypanthium, usually cup shaped.
 There are normally ten stamens and one elongated
superior ovary, with a curved style. They are usually
arranged in indeterminate inflorescences.
 Fabaceae are typically entomophilous plants (i.e. they
are pollinated by insects), and the flowers are usually
showy to attract pollinators.
PIGEONPEA AND GREENGRAM
General characteristics of Redgram
 Infloroscence: Terminal or axillary raceme.
 Flowers: Bisexual irregular, zygomorphic,
pentamerous, yellow, red or yellow-purple with
brownish black in colour.
 Calyx: Gamosepalous, four lobed, two lobes being
united.
 Corolla: Papilionaceous, standard petal auricled.
 Wings and keel yellow of equal length, keel
incurved at apex.
 Androecium lie within the two keel petals, nine unequal
stamens unite to make up the 10th stamen is free vexillary,
diadelphous(9+1)
 The filaments elongate in the bud and pollen is shed the day
before the flower opens.
 Gynoecium: monocarpellary, superior many ovules in
marginal placentation. Ovary and base of style hairy; stigma
knob shaped.
GROUNDNUT
SOYBEA
N
General characteristics of Groundnut
 The flowers are bisexual,
zygomorphic, complete
and sessile.
 The ovary is surrounded by the
base of the hypanthium.
 Petals are orange, yellow, cream or
rarely white.
 Wings are yellow at the base and orrange apically two brick red,
keel coloureless to faintly yellow.
 There are 10 stamens, sterile filaments usually 2,
anthers 8.
 The tip of the ovary, bearing from 1-5 ovules,grows out from the
between floral bracts.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
MALVACEAE FAMILY
 Usually herbaceous, sometimes trees or shrubs.
 Leaves are alternate, stipulate, simple and entire.
 The stamens are five to numerous, and
connate at least at their bases, but
often forming a tube around the pistils.
 The pistils are composed of two to many
connate carpels.
 The ovary is superior, with axial placentation, with
capitate or lobed stigma.
 The flowers have nectaries made of many tightly
packed glandular hairs, usually positioned on the sepals.
Flower morphology, continued
 Androecium-
 Stamens numerous, filaments connate
into a tube for most of their length.
 Anthers Unilocular.
 Gynoecium-
 Ovary Superior.
 Carpels (1) 2-many, either loosely
coherent in a ring around the base
of the single style or wholly united in a compound ovary.
 Style with as many long or short branches as there are
carpels.
 Ovules 1-many per carpel.
•Gossypium spp. (cotton) •Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (tropical hibiscus)
Abelmoschus esculuentus
(okra)
•Bombax ceiba
Corchorus olitorius
Megiostegium microphyllum
‘
C
O
T
T
O
N
H
I
B
I
S
C
U
S
Summary and conclusion
 Summary: By studying the flower structure of the field
crops we came to know about its floral biology, floral
morphology and pollination mechanism to take up the
hybridization.
 Conclusion: As a part of Seed Technologist or plant
breeder it is necessary to know about the floral biology,
morphology and pollination mechanism to maintain the
genetic purity, isolation distance and germplasm etc.
Flower structure

More Related Content

What's hot

Botany of maize
Botany of maizeBotany of maize
Botany of maize
Rione Drevale
 
An Introduction to Parthenocarpy
An Introduction to ParthenocarpyAn Introduction to Parthenocarpy
An Introduction to Parthenocarpy
Vikas Kashyap
 
Pollination
PollinationPollination
Pollination
Sheryl Bhatnagar
 
Seed type and characterstics
Seed type and charactersticsSeed type and characterstics
Seed type and characterstics
Ankush Singh
 
Cutting propagation
Cutting propagationCutting propagation
Cutting propagation
HORTIPEDIA INDIA
 
Fabaceae IN TAXONOMY
Fabaceae  IN TAXONOMYFabaceae  IN TAXONOMY
Fabaceae IN TAXONOMY
Anbarasan D
 
Family lamiaceae
Family lamiaceaeFamily lamiaceae
Family lamiaceae
kanthasamy
 
Self incompatibility
Self incompatibilitySelf incompatibility
Self incompatibility
Pawan Nagar
 
Presentation on Modes of Pollination
Presentation on Modes of Pollination Presentation on Modes of Pollination
Presentation on Modes of Pollination
Dr. Kaushik Kumar Panigrahi
 
Self incompatibility in plants
Self incompatibility in plantsSelf incompatibility in plants
Self incompatibility in plants
ShekhAlisha
 
Fertilisation in plants
Fertilisation in plantsFertilisation in plants
Flower structure and pollination mechanisms
Flower structure and pollination mechanismsFlower structure and pollination mechanisms
Flower structure and pollination mechanisms
University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot
 
Fruits Development
Fruits DevelopmentFruits Development
Fruits Development
zssi
 
Seed
SeedSeed
Seed viability
Seed viability Seed viability
Seed viability
SANDEEP VARMA VUNNAM
 
Center of origin and Center of Diversity
Center of origin and Center of DiversityCenter of origin and Center of Diversity
Center of origin and Center of Diversity
Dr. Kaushik Kumar Panigrahi
 
Methods of Vegetative Propagation
Methods of Vegetative PropagationMethods of Vegetative Propagation
Methods of Vegetative Propagation
Mallikharjuna Palle B
 
Life cycle of Pythium, Albugo, Erysiphe, Claviceps, Ustilao and Puccinia fungi
Life cycle of Pythium, Albugo, Erysiphe, Claviceps, Ustilao and Puccinia fungiLife cycle of Pythium, Albugo, Erysiphe, Claviceps, Ustilao and Puccinia fungi
Life cycle of Pythium, Albugo, Erysiphe, Claviceps, Ustilao and Puccinia fungi
Dr. Rajbir Singh
 
Embryology of pollen and ovule development
Embryology of pollen and ovule developmentEmbryology of pollen and ovule development
Embryology of pollen and ovule development
sandeshGM
 
Morphology Of Flower Part 2
Morphology Of  Flower Part 2Morphology Of  Flower Part 2
Morphology Of Flower Part 2
guest275ba2
 

What's hot (20)

Botany of maize
Botany of maizeBotany of maize
Botany of maize
 
An Introduction to Parthenocarpy
An Introduction to ParthenocarpyAn Introduction to Parthenocarpy
An Introduction to Parthenocarpy
 
Pollination
PollinationPollination
Pollination
 
Seed type and characterstics
Seed type and charactersticsSeed type and characterstics
Seed type and characterstics
 
Cutting propagation
Cutting propagationCutting propagation
Cutting propagation
 
Fabaceae IN TAXONOMY
Fabaceae  IN TAXONOMYFabaceae  IN TAXONOMY
Fabaceae IN TAXONOMY
 
Family lamiaceae
Family lamiaceaeFamily lamiaceae
Family lamiaceae
 
Self incompatibility
Self incompatibilitySelf incompatibility
Self incompatibility
 
Presentation on Modes of Pollination
Presentation on Modes of Pollination Presentation on Modes of Pollination
Presentation on Modes of Pollination
 
Self incompatibility in plants
Self incompatibility in plantsSelf incompatibility in plants
Self incompatibility in plants
 
Fertilisation in plants
Fertilisation in plantsFertilisation in plants
Fertilisation in plants
 
Flower structure and pollination mechanisms
Flower structure and pollination mechanismsFlower structure and pollination mechanisms
Flower structure and pollination mechanisms
 
Fruits Development
Fruits DevelopmentFruits Development
Fruits Development
 
Seed
SeedSeed
Seed
 
Seed viability
Seed viability Seed viability
Seed viability
 
Center of origin and Center of Diversity
Center of origin and Center of DiversityCenter of origin and Center of Diversity
Center of origin and Center of Diversity
 
Methods of Vegetative Propagation
Methods of Vegetative PropagationMethods of Vegetative Propagation
Methods of Vegetative Propagation
 
Life cycle of Pythium, Albugo, Erysiphe, Claviceps, Ustilao and Puccinia fungi
Life cycle of Pythium, Albugo, Erysiphe, Claviceps, Ustilao and Puccinia fungiLife cycle of Pythium, Albugo, Erysiphe, Claviceps, Ustilao and Puccinia fungi
Life cycle of Pythium, Albugo, Erysiphe, Claviceps, Ustilao and Puccinia fungi
 
Embryology of pollen and ovule development
Embryology of pollen and ovule developmentEmbryology of pollen and ovule development
Embryology of pollen and ovule development
 
Morphology Of Flower Part 2
Morphology Of  Flower Part 2Morphology Of  Flower Part 2
Morphology Of Flower Part 2
 

Similar to Flower structure

Punicaceae family.pptx
Punicaceae family.pptxPunicaceae family.pptx
Punicaceae family.pptx
NAVSARI AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY
 
Floral biology
Floral biologyFloral biology
Floral biology
Dev Hingra
 
ANGIOSPERMS.pptx
ANGIOSPERMS.pptxANGIOSPERMS.pptx
ANGIOSPERMS.pptx
ArfaIftikhar4
 
Morphoanatomy Of The Flower
Morphoanatomy Of  The  FlowerMorphoanatomy Of  The  Flower
Morphoanatomy Of The Flower
guest275ba2
 
Morphoanatomy Of The Flower
Morphoanatomy Of  The  FlowerMorphoanatomy Of  The  Flower
Morphoanatomy Of The Flower
Geonyzl Alviola
 
Angiosperm.pptx
 Angiosperm.pptx Angiosperm.pptx
Angiosperm.pptx
AninaPVarghese
 
Flower anatomy
Flower anatomyFlower anatomy
Flower anatomy
Bhanu Dangi
 
The Flower
The FlowerThe Flower
The Flower
Biswarup Majumder
 
family liliaceae
family liliaceaefamily liliaceae
family liliaceae
SonaliMalhotra17
 
GNETUM................................pptx
GNETUM................................pptxGNETUM................................pptx
GNETUM................................pptx
Cherry
 
Different parts of flower ..
Different parts of flower ..Different parts of flower ..
Different parts of flower ..
TabishAnwar10
 
Flowers ppt
Flowers pptFlowers ppt
Flowers ppt
Dr Gurminder Rawal
 
Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants (Part I)
Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants (Part I)Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants (Part I)
Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants (Part I)
Shashank Tripathi
 
Flowers: Parts and Functions
Flowers: Parts and FunctionsFlowers: Parts and Functions
Flowers: Parts and Functions
Home
 
Floral biology of commercial crops
Floral biology of commercial cropsFloral biology of commercial crops
Floral biology of commercial crops
Rajendragouda Patil
 
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants
Sexual reproduction in flowering plantsSexual reproduction in flowering plants
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants
V.S Malik
 
Biology
BiologyBiology
Biology
Tarun
 
Morphology of flowering plants part2
Morphology of flowering plants  part2Morphology of flowering plants  part2
Morphology of flowering plants part2
Aarif Kanadia
 
Presentation on morphology of rice plant
Presentation on morphology of rice plantPresentation on morphology of rice plant
Presentation on morphology of rice plant
Abdul Salim
 
Euphorbiaceae
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
AkashVeershetty
 

Similar to Flower structure (20)

Punicaceae family.pptx
Punicaceae family.pptxPunicaceae family.pptx
Punicaceae family.pptx
 
Floral biology
Floral biologyFloral biology
Floral biology
 
ANGIOSPERMS.pptx
ANGIOSPERMS.pptxANGIOSPERMS.pptx
ANGIOSPERMS.pptx
 
Morphoanatomy Of The Flower
Morphoanatomy Of  The  FlowerMorphoanatomy Of  The  Flower
Morphoanatomy Of The Flower
 
Morphoanatomy Of The Flower
Morphoanatomy Of  The  FlowerMorphoanatomy Of  The  Flower
Morphoanatomy Of The Flower
 
Angiosperm.pptx
 Angiosperm.pptx Angiosperm.pptx
Angiosperm.pptx
 
Flower anatomy
Flower anatomyFlower anatomy
Flower anatomy
 
The Flower
The FlowerThe Flower
The Flower
 
family liliaceae
family liliaceaefamily liliaceae
family liliaceae
 
GNETUM................................pptx
GNETUM................................pptxGNETUM................................pptx
GNETUM................................pptx
 
Different parts of flower ..
Different parts of flower ..Different parts of flower ..
Different parts of flower ..
 
Flowers ppt
Flowers pptFlowers ppt
Flowers ppt
 
Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants (Part I)
Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants (Part I)Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants (Part I)
Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants (Part I)
 
Flowers: Parts and Functions
Flowers: Parts and FunctionsFlowers: Parts and Functions
Flowers: Parts and Functions
 
Floral biology of commercial crops
Floral biology of commercial cropsFloral biology of commercial crops
Floral biology of commercial crops
 
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants
Sexual reproduction in flowering plantsSexual reproduction in flowering plants
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants
 
Biology
BiologyBiology
Biology
 
Morphology of flowering plants part2
Morphology of flowering plants  part2Morphology of flowering plants  part2
Morphology of flowering plants part2
 
Presentation on morphology of rice plant
Presentation on morphology of rice plantPresentation on morphology of rice plant
Presentation on morphology of rice plant
 
Euphorbiaceae
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
 

More from Dev Hingra

Somatic hybridization
Somatic hybridizationSomatic hybridization
Somatic hybridization
Dev Hingra
 
Single seed descent method
Single seed descent methodSingle seed descent method
Single seed descent method
Dev Hingra
 
Modern type storage
Modern type storageModern type storage
Modern type storage
Dev Hingra
 
Ear to row method
Ear to row methodEar to row method
Ear to row method
Dev Hingra
 
Genetical and physiological basis of heterosis and inbreeding
Genetical and physiological basis of heterosis and inbreedingGenetical and physiological basis of heterosis and inbreeding
Genetical and physiological basis of heterosis and inbreeding
Dev Hingra
 
Male sterility
Male sterilityMale sterility
Male sterility
Dev Hingra
 
Ear to row method
Ear to row methodEar to row method
Ear to row method
Dev Hingra
 
Diallele selective mating system
Diallele selective mating systemDiallele selective mating system
Diallele selective mating system
Dev Hingra
 
Characteristics Improvement in Plant Breeding
Characteristics Improvement in Plant BreedingCharacteristics Improvement in Plant Breeding
Characteristics Improvement in Plant Breeding
Dev Hingra
 
Cell ultrastructure and cell organelles
Cell ultrastructure and cell organellesCell ultrastructure and cell organelles
Cell ultrastructure and cell organelles
Dev Hingra
 
Mutation breeding
Mutation breedingMutation breeding
Mutation breeding
Dev Hingra
 
Back cross in recessive gene
Back cross in recessive geneBack cross in recessive gene
Back cross in recessive gene
Dev Hingra
 
Heat tolerance in wheat
Heat  tolerance in wheatHeat  tolerance in wheat
Heat tolerance in wheat
Dev Hingra
 
Gene transfer techniques
Gene transfer techniquesGene transfer techniques
Gene transfer techniques
Dev Hingra
 
Bt technology present status and future prospectus
Bt technology   present status and future prospectusBt technology   present status and future prospectus
Bt technology present status and future prospectus
Dev Hingra
 
Breeding methods in cross pollinated crops
Breeding methods in cross pollinated cropsBreeding methods in cross pollinated crops
Breeding methods in cross pollinated crops
Dev Hingra
 
Breeding methods in cross pollinated crops
Breeding methods in cross pollinated cropsBreeding methods in cross pollinated crops
Breeding methods in cross pollinated crops
Dev Hingra
 
Breeding techniques in self pollinated crops presentation
Breeding techniques in self pollinated crops presentationBreeding techniques in self pollinated crops presentation
Breeding techniques in self pollinated crops presentation
Dev Hingra
 
release Bt cotten in india A case study
 release Bt cotten in india A case study release Bt cotten in india A case study
release Bt cotten in india A case study
Dev Hingra
 
seed production of potato
seed production of potatoseed production of potato
seed production of potato
Dev Hingra
 

More from Dev Hingra (20)

Somatic hybridization
Somatic hybridizationSomatic hybridization
Somatic hybridization
 
Single seed descent method
Single seed descent methodSingle seed descent method
Single seed descent method
 
Modern type storage
Modern type storageModern type storage
Modern type storage
 
Ear to row method
Ear to row methodEar to row method
Ear to row method
 
Genetical and physiological basis of heterosis and inbreeding
Genetical and physiological basis of heterosis and inbreedingGenetical and physiological basis of heterosis and inbreeding
Genetical and physiological basis of heterosis and inbreeding
 
Male sterility
Male sterilityMale sterility
Male sterility
 
Ear to row method
Ear to row methodEar to row method
Ear to row method
 
Diallele selective mating system
Diallele selective mating systemDiallele selective mating system
Diallele selective mating system
 
Characteristics Improvement in Plant Breeding
Characteristics Improvement in Plant BreedingCharacteristics Improvement in Plant Breeding
Characteristics Improvement in Plant Breeding
 
Cell ultrastructure and cell organelles
Cell ultrastructure and cell organellesCell ultrastructure and cell organelles
Cell ultrastructure and cell organelles
 
Mutation breeding
Mutation breedingMutation breeding
Mutation breeding
 
Back cross in recessive gene
Back cross in recessive geneBack cross in recessive gene
Back cross in recessive gene
 
Heat tolerance in wheat
Heat  tolerance in wheatHeat  tolerance in wheat
Heat tolerance in wheat
 
Gene transfer techniques
Gene transfer techniquesGene transfer techniques
Gene transfer techniques
 
Bt technology present status and future prospectus
Bt technology   present status and future prospectusBt technology   present status and future prospectus
Bt technology present status and future prospectus
 
Breeding methods in cross pollinated crops
Breeding methods in cross pollinated cropsBreeding methods in cross pollinated crops
Breeding methods in cross pollinated crops
 
Breeding methods in cross pollinated crops
Breeding methods in cross pollinated cropsBreeding methods in cross pollinated crops
Breeding methods in cross pollinated crops
 
Breeding techniques in self pollinated crops presentation
Breeding techniques in self pollinated crops presentationBreeding techniques in self pollinated crops presentation
Breeding techniques in self pollinated crops presentation
 
release Bt cotten in india A case study
 release Bt cotten in india A case study release Bt cotten in india A case study
release Bt cotten in india A case study
 
seed production of potato
seed production of potatoseed production of potato
seed production of potato
 

Flower structure

  • 1. F L O W E R
  • 2. FLORAL STRUCTURE DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS AND PLANT BREEDING ALLAHABAD SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURE SAM HIGGINBOTTOM INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGYAND SCIENCES (Formerly Allahabad Agricultural Institute) DEEMED TO BE UNIVERSITY Allahabad- India -211007 2012 By Deva Ram M.Sc Ag SST SUBMITTED TO Dr . SHAILESH MARKER Head of department, Dept. of Genetics and plant breeding , SHIATS
  • 3. Topic: floral structure Contents  Introduction to floral structure  Flower parts and their functions  Classification of flowers  Floral formula and diagram  Floral biology of some families viz, Graminae, leguminaceae and malvaceae  Summary and conclusion
  • 4. FLOWER  A flower is the reproductive structure found in plants.  The biological function of a flower is to mediate the union of male sperm with female ovum in order to produce seeds.
  • 5. Flower Structure FLOWER sits a top of a stem called peduncle. Sepals from the latin sepalum “covering” . Petals from the latin petalum “to spread out”. Stamens are the pollen producing part of a flower. Androecium “house of man”. Carpel from the greek word carpos “fruit”. Collectively known as gynoecium “house of woman”.
  • 6. Flower Part Form and Function Peduncle Flower stalk. Receptacle Part of flower stalk bearing the floral organs, at base of flower. Sepal Leaf-like structures at flower base, protects young flower bud. Calyx All the sepals together form the calyx. Petal Located in and above the sepals, often large and colourful, sometimes scented, sometimes producing nectar. Often serve to attract pollinators to the plant. Corolla All the petals together form the corolla. Stamen Male part of the flower, consisting of the anther and filament, makes pollen grains.
  • 7. Filament The stalk of the stamen which bears the anther. Anther The pollen bearing portion of a stamen. Pollen Grains containing the male gametes. Immature male gametophyte with a protective outer covering. CarpelPistil Female part of the flower. Consisting of the stigma, style and ovary. Stigma Often sticky top of carpel, serves as a receptive surface for pollen grains. Style The stalk of a carpel, between the stigma and the ovary, through which the pollen tube grows. Ovary Enlarged base of the carpel containing the ovule or ovules. The ovary matures to become a fruit. Ovule Located in the ovaries. Carries female gametes. Ovules become seeds on fertilization.
  • 9. Types of Flower Flower can vary in the type of structure present. A flower containing all four modified leaves is said to be complete. If a flower that lacks any of these modified leaves is said to be incomplete. Incomplete flower
  • 10. Types of flower BISEXUAL FLOWER UNISEXUAL FLOWER
  • 11. BASED ON SHAPE OF FLOWER The sex of a flower can be described in three ways: 1.Staminate flowers: Flowers bearing only male sex parts. These are sometime referred to as "male flowers". 2.CarpellatePistillate Flowers: Flowers bearing only female sex parts. These are sometimes referred to as "female flowers". 3.HermaphhroditeComplete flowers: Flowers bearing both male and female sex parts.
  • 13.
  • 14. A flower is basically made up of four concentric rings of structures. There is an outer ring of modified leaves called sepals. These provide protection to the flower before it opens and are usually green. This outer ring is known as the calyx. Inside the sepals is another ring of modified leaves called petals which are often brightly coloured. This layer is known as the corolla. Floral Diagram
  • 15. Floral Formulas and Diagrams A floral formula is a "shorthand" method used to represent the structure of a flower using the standard set of symbols shown at the right. The four major floral parts are always shown in the same order; sepals (CA), petals (CO), stamens (A), and carpels (G). The number of each part in the flower is indicated with a superscript number after the letters.
  • 16. Graminae family  Cereal crops are mostly grain crops belonging to the grass family Graminae (Poaceae).  The word cereal is derived from ceres, the name of the roman Goddess of harvest and agriculture.  The major cereal crops are Wheat, Rice, Corn, Barley, Rye, Oat, and include the millets.  Several non grass crops grown for their grain are called pseudocereals.  Infloroscence of Rice is called Spikelet. Spikelet consists of one fertile and two vestigial florets represented by two glumes below the fertile floret. GENERAL CHARACTERS
  • 17. Characteristics of Rice  The lemma may or may not be indurated, entire, pointed, hairy or glabrous, strongly carinate, awnless or mucronate or awnless.  Palea present relatively long, but shorter than lemma  Fertile floret: hermaphrodite, cleistogamous or chasmogamous in some cases cross pollination is prevelent, calyx and corolla(perianth) are called lodicules.  Stamens 6, anthers 2-3mm long with filaments, not penicillate, versatile, ovary glabrous, monocarpellary, usually one ovule, placentation basel, styles fused(basally) or free to their basaes.  Stigmas bifid, and feathery.
  • 20. Characteristics of Wheat  Inflorescence: spike, the basic unit of the inflorescence is called a spikelet, typiclly consisting of a basaal pair of minute sterile bracts called glumes.  One or more distichously arranged distal florets on an often zig zag extension of the spikelet axis called the rachilla.  The average spike of common wheat contains 25-30 grains in 14-17 spikelets.  Androecium typically consists of 3 or occasionally 6 distinct stamens, anthers yellow.  Gynoecium consists of a single compound pistil of 2 or sometimes 3 carpels, an equal number of styles with feathery stigmas, and a superior ovary with one locule.
  • 21. .
  • 22.
  • 23. Characteristics of Maize  The corn plant is normally monoecious.  The staminate flowers is called tassel at the top of the stalk.  The mature pistilate inflorescence is called cob(silk).  The spikelets are usually arranged in pairs, one sessile and the other pediceled, the spikelet is completely enclosed by two firm.  There are two florets per spikelet, each floret contains 3 stamens, 2 lodicules and a rudimentary pistil.  The lemma and palea are thinner and shorter than the glumes  The single ovary in a fertile floret bears a long style are silk which is forked at the tip.  The silk are ordinarily 10-30cm long.
  • 25. GENERAL CHARACTERS OF LEGUMINACEAE FAMILY  The flowers often have five generally fused sepals and five free petals.  They are generally hermaphrodite, and have a short hypanthium, usually cup shaped.  There are normally ten stamens and one elongated superior ovary, with a curved style. They are usually arranged in indeterminate inflorescences.  Fabaceae are typically entomophilous plants (i.e. they are pollinated by insects), and the flowers are usually showy to attract pollinators.
  • 27. General characteristics of Redgram  Infloroscence: Terminal or axillary raceme.  Flowers: Bisexual irregular, zygomorphic, pentamerous, yellow, red or yellow-purple with brownish black in colour.  Calyx: Gamosepalous, four lobed, two lobes being united.  Corolla: Papilionaceous, standard petal auricled.  Wings and keel yellow of equal length, keel incurved at apex.
  • 28.  Androecium lie within the two keel petals, nine unequal stamens unite to make up the 10th stamen is free vexillary, diadelphous(9+1)  The filaments elongate in the bud and pollen is shed the day before the flower opens.  Gynoecium: monocarpellary, superior many ovules in marginal placentation. Ovary and base of style hairy; stigma knob shaped.
  • 30. General characteristics of Groundnut  The flowers are bisexual, zygomorphic, complete and sessile.  The ovary is surrounded by the base of the hypanthium.  Petals are orange, yellow, cream or rarely white.  Wings are yellow at the base and orrange apically two brick red, keel coloureless to faintly yellow.  There are 10 stamens, sterile filaments usually 2, anthers 8.  The tip of the ovary, bearing from 1-5 ovules,grows out from the between floral bracts.
  • 31. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MALVACEAE FAMILY  Usually herbaceous, sometimes trees or shrubs.  Leaves are alternate, stipulate, simple and entire.  The stamens are five to numerous, and connate at least at their bases, but often forming a tube around the pistils.  The pistils are composed of two to many connate carpels.  The ovary is superior, with axial placentation, with capitate or lobed stigma.  The flowers have nectaries made of many tightly packed glandular hairs, usually positioned on the sepals.
  • 32. Flower morphology, continued  Androecium-  Stamens numerous, filaments connate into a tube for most of their length.  Anthers Unilocular.  Gynoecium-  Ovary Superior.  Carpels (1) 2-many, either loosely coherent in a ring around the base of the single style or wholly united in a compound ovary.  Style with as many long or short branches as there are carpels.  Ovules 1-many per carpel.
  • 33. •Gossypium spp. (cotton) •Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (tropical hibiscus) Abelmoschus esculuentus (okra) •Bombax ceiba Corchorus olitorius Megiostegium microphyllum
  • 35. Summary and conclusion  Summary: By studying the flower structure of the field crops we came to know about its floral biology, floral morphology and pollination mechanism to take up the hybridization.  Conclusion: As a part of Seed Technologist or plant breeder it is necessary to know about the floral biology, morphology and pollination mechanism to maintain the genetic purity, isolation distance and germplasm etc.