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Release of Bt Cotton in India: A Case Study
By
Deva Ram
M.Sc Ag.
Insects 330 M yrs.
Dinosaurs 160 M yrs
Man 1.5 M yrs
We inherited this planet from insectsWe inherited this planet from insects
 Cotton is one of the main cash crop grown in India, belongs to
family Malvaceae.
 It consists of 4 species namely G. arborium, G. barbadence G.
herbacium and G.hirsutam
 USA is the leading country in the world in production and area.
 India, the world's second biggest cotton grower, had produced a
record 34.25 million bales in the 2011-12 (1 bale= 170kg).
 According to the (CAI Cotton association of India) estimates,
there will be a decrease of 3 percent in cotton cultivation area this
year over the past year.
 (Source: www.cai.com)
 CAB has estimated 2012-13 cotton acreage at 11.02 million
hectares against 12.17 million hectares in 2011-12, down 9.44
percent 2011-12 marketing year.
 In India major growing states Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra
Pradesh followed by Karnataka.
 It is also known as White gold
 (Source : www. CAB)
• A crop of significant
economic importance,
valued at over Rs. 15000
crores
• Approx. 12 Mn acres of
cotton provides livelihood
to almost 4 million farmers.
• Damage by Insect pests
reduce yields by 50%
• (Source agri. Statistics 2009)
Cotton trends in India
 Farmers spend most money on
controlling bollworms; up to
15 sprays and over RS. 1400
Cr
 Insects resistance to chemicals
is increasing
 Yields are reduced in spite of
sprays
22.5 % of all crop pesticide in the world
55% of total insecticides used is on Cotton majority on bollworm
control
Helicoverpa a common major pest, causing epidemics resulting into
calamity
H. armigera comes in more than one peak along with pink boll worm
in all cotton growing zones
Other pests: Jassids,Aphids,White flies and Thrips
Rs. 2600 crores is spent in controlling insect pests on cotton.
(Source: CAB 2009)
Pesticide Usage
Change in pest Scenario
a. Excessive and indiscriminate use of pesticides
b. Improper choice, quantity and application of pesticides.
c. Use of pesticide mixtures
(Has lead to)
a. Resurgence of minor pests
b. Resistance to pesticides
c. Increase in cost of protection
Constraints of Cotton Production
 Laboratory phase:
 Involves identification of the gene, achieving stable
transformation and adequate expression
 Breeding phase:
 Involves using the transformantion as a donor parent for
transferring the trait to other elite germplasm
 Bio-Safety & Field studies:
 Required to establish the safety of the transgenic product
 Both small scale and large scale needed to establish the
agronomic superiority and determine parameters like
yield, quality etc
 Regulatory Process for Transgenic Crops:
 IBSC, RCGM, ME, ICAR & GEAC.
Conventional
plant breeding
Desired gene
Commercial varietySource variety / species Result
By comparison, biotechnology offers
more precise plant breeding...
X
Modern
biotechnology
 Greater crop area, variety of crops.
 Better crop protection.
 Greater need for more food and nutrition.
A transgenic plant is a normal crop plant
with one or more additional genes from
diverse sources engineered into the plant
genome, the plant thus acquires new,
stable and inherited trait/traits.
 Agrobacterium-mediated transformation
 Particle bombardment
Also known as Gene Gunn/ Biolistic method.
1st
used in Tobacco, most commonly used in indirect method.
It involves instrument which consists parts like Firing pin, Micro
projectile, micro plate holder, sample strand and helium gas cylinder.
Before using all physical parameter are optimised. Then high
pressure is created with gas cylinder and micro projectile.
Gene of interest coated with metals like gold is allowed to bombard
into samples.
As a result gene of interest is inserted into plant genome and the
plant cell is selected and grown to develop into whole plant with the
help of plant tissue culture.
 A.tumefaciens is a gram –ve soil bacterium which infects wide
range of Dicot plants.
 It carries Ti plasmid in addition to chromosomal DNA.
 During infection,Ti plasmid transfers a portion of its TDNA in to
the plant cell.
 TDNA integrates into the chromosomal DNA of the plant.
 TDNA segment of Ti plasmid carries a number of genes encoding
enzymes for the synthesis of phytohormones such as cytokinins
and auxins which stimulate the growth and division of the plant
tissue results in the formation of tumors and production of specific
metabolites called opines such as octopine and nopaline.
 Gene of interest inserted within the T-region of the Tiplasmid are
transferred and stable integrated into the plant genome.
 Food and fiber production
 Increased yield
 Nutritional quality
 Insect and disease control
 Weed and a biotic stress tolerance
 Medicine and food processing
Transgenic Crop Plants: Traits
 First reported from diseased silkworm from Japan.
 Berliner coined the name Bacillus thuringiensis,
isolated the strain from a grain mill in German
district of Thuriengien
 First commercial preparation prepared in 1927
 First large scale Bt based product released for sale
in 1957 by Sandoz Corp.
 It was a Bt variety kurstaki strain marketed as
“Thuricide”.
 Insecticidal activity in crystalline bodies produced
during sporulation of the bacteria.
 Composed of proteins (delta endotoxins).
 The crystals dissolve in the alkaline conditions of insect
midgut.
 Release proteins (protoxins) of relative molecular mass
65KD-160KD.
 These are proteolytically processed by midgut proteases
to yield smaller toxic fragments (65KD).
 The activated protein crosses the peritrophic
membrane
 Binds to receptors on the midgut epithelium
 Gut paralysis
 Midgut lining disintegrates
 Larva stops feeding
 Dies in 2-3 days.
 Low efficacy
 UV-degradable, short field persistence.
 Poor Coverage
 Human health risks.
i. Risk of possible allergies
ii. Extensive testing required.
iii. Labeling of GM food required.
vi. Fear of danger to human health from foreign gene.
 Environmental risks.
i. Unintended harm to other organisms
ii. Pests develop resistance to transgenics.
iii. Gene transfer to non-target species.
 Economic concerns.
I. Fear of economic concentration.
II. Intellectual property rights & ethics.
III. Failure to exercise regulatory oversight
 Evaluation of risk before release of transgenic.
 Base decisions on validated information.
 Regulating transgenics by Government.
 Safety testing.
 International policies and trade.
 Public awareness and education.
26
Agencies Involved in Rules,1989 of EPAct 1986
GOVERNMENT OF
INDIA
Dept. of BiotechnologyDept. of Environment
RCGMGEAC
IBSC
PI/ Applicant
SBCC
Large Scale
Imports,
Production
and Release
DLC
Applicant Monitoring
-cum-
Evaluation
Committee
R&D,
Limited
experimental
field trials and
imports for
R&D.
It involves:
i. Regulations
ii. Risk Assessment
iii. Release
It needs: i. Regulatory Agencies
ii. Research Organizations
Sub-threshold Protection in B.t Cotton
Economic Threshold level
Non Bt cotton
insecticide application
triggered
Rs.Rs.
Time
Population(Damage)
Rs.Rs.
Rs.Rs.
Rs.Rs.
Rs.Rs.
Bt cotton
Savings
 Bt cotton provides in built protection to cotton against
Lepidopteran pests (Helicoverpa)
 Can significantly reduce the number of sprays for
Helicoverpa therefore reducing farmers costs and debt
 Potential for large yield increase
 It is safe to crop
 Fits into the IPM strategy in India
 Peace of Mind
 1994 Formation of IBSC & application for seed import
 1995 Permit to import seed (100 gm )
 1996 Imported seed, Greenhouse trial
 1996 Limited field trial -1 Location
 1997-98 Limited field trials-5 Locations
 1998 Ruminant (goat) and Allerginicity studies
 1998-99 Multi centric replicated trials-15-25 Locations
 1999-00 Multi centric replicated trials-11 Locations
 2000-01 Large Scale field Trials & Hybrid Seed Production,
Conduction of various Studies, ICAR Trials
 2001-02 Large Scale & ICAR trials, Hybrid Seed Prodn.
 2002: Approval for commercialization by GEAC
Research on Bt cotton development in India
Mahyco - Cry1Ac
Monsanto Cry1Ac+2Ab
Nath seeds Cry1Ac modified (China)
JK seeds Cry1Ac modified (IIT Khargpur
Syngenta Vip3A
Dow Agri. Science Cry1F
ICAR Cry1Aa3
Cry1F
Cry1Ia5
Cry1Ab (Japan)
Cry1Ac (Canada)
NBRI Cry1Ec
Recommended Bt cotton hybrids for
commercial cultivation in India
North Zone Central Zone South Zone
(6) (12) (10)
MRC-6301 MECH-12 MECH-12
MRC-6304 MECH-162 MECH-162
RCH-134 MECH-184 MECH-184
RCH-317 MRC-6301 RCH-2(2004)
Ankur-651 RCH-2 (2004) RCH-20
Ankur-2534 RCH-118 RCH-368
RCH-138 MRC-6322
RCH-144 MRC-6918(HB)
Ankur-651 Bunny
Ankur-09 Mallika
Bunny
Mallika
“India has avoided famine.
But hunger continues even
today”
Prof. Amartya Sen,Prof. Amartya Sen,
Nobel Prize Laureate for Economics ,Nobel Prize Laureate for Economics ,
19981998
 AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS AT GLANCE 2012.
 Dhaliwal Ramesh Arora G.S Integrated Pest
Management kalyani Publishers , 2006, 259-263.
 www.cab.com
 www.cci.com
 www.cicr.com
 www.economictimes.com
 www.mahyco.co.in
 release Bt cotten in india A case study

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release Bt cotten in india A case study

  • 1. Release of Bt Cotton in India: A Case Study By Deva Ram M.Sc Ag.
  • 2. Insects 330 M yrs. Dinosaurs 160 M yrs Man 1.5 M yrs We inherited this planet from insectsWe inherited this planet from insects
  • 3.  Cotton is one of the main cash crop grown in India, belongs to family Malvaceae.  It consists of 4 species namely G. arborium, G. barbadence G. herbacium and G.hirsutam  USA is the leading country in the world in production and area.  India, the world's second biggest cotton grower, had produced a record 34.25 million bales in the 2011-12 (1 bale= 170kg).  According to the (CAI Cotton association of India) estimates, there will be a decrease of 3 percent in cotton cultivation area this year over the past year.  (Source: www.cai.com)
  • 4.  CAB has estimated 2012-13 cotton acreage at 11.02 million hectares against 12.17 million hectares in 2011-12, down 9.44 percent 2011-12 marketing year.  In India major growing states Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh followed by Karnataka.  It is also known as White gold  (Source : www. CAB)
  • 5. • A crop of significant economic importance, valued at over Rs. 15000 crores • Approx. 12 Mn acres of cotton provides livelihood to almost 4 million farmers. • Damage by Insect pests reduce yields by 50% • (Source agri. Statistics 2009) Cotton trends in India
  • 6.  Farmers spend most money on controlling bollworms; up to 15 sprays and over RS. 1400 Cr  Insects resistance to chemicals is increasing  Yields are reduced in spite of sprays
  • 7.
  • 8. 22.5 % of all crop pesticide in the world 55% of total insecticides used is on Cotton majority on bollworm control Helicoverpa a common major pest, causing epidemics resulting into calamity H. armigera comes in more than one peak along with pink boll worm in all cotton growing zones Other pests: Jassids,Aphids,White flies and Thrips Rs. 2600 crores is spent in controlling insect pests on cotton. (Source: CAB 2009) Pesticide Usage
  • 9. Change in pest Scenario a. Excessive and indiscriminate use of pesticides b. Improper choice, quantity and application of pesticides. c. Use of pesticide mixtures (Has lead to) a. Resurgence of minor pests b. Resistance to pesticides c. Increase in cost of protection Constraints of Cotton Production
  • 10.  Laboratory phase:  Involves identification of the gene, achieving stable transformation and adequate expression  Breeding phase:  Involves using the transformantion as a donor parent for transferring the trait to other elite germplasm  Bio-Safety & Field studies:  Required to establish the safety of the transgenic product  Both small scale and large scale needed to establish the agronomic superiority and determine parameters like yield, quality etc  Regulatory Process for Transgenic Crops:  IBSC, RCGM, ME, ICAR & GEAC.
  • 11. Conventional plant breeding Desired gene Commercial varietySource variety / species Result By comparison, biotechnology offers more precise plant breeding... X Modern biotechnology
  • 12.  Greater crop area, variety of crops.  Better crop protection.  Greater need for more food and nutrition.
  • 13. A transgenic plant is a normal crop plant with one or more additional genes from diverse sources engineered into the plant genome, the plant thus acquires new, stable and inherited trait/traits.
  • 15. Also known as Gene Gunn/ Biolistic method. 1st used in Tobacco, most commonly used in indirect method. It involves instrument which consists parts like Firing pin, Micro projectile, micro plate holder, sample strand and helium gas cylinder. Before using all physical parameter are optimised. Then high pressure is created with gas cylinder and micro projectile. Gene of interest coated with metals like gold is allowed to bombard into samples. As a result gene of interest is inserted into plant genome and the plant cell is selected and grown to develop into whole plant with the help of plant tissue culture.
  • 16.  A.tumefaciens is a gram –ve soil bacterium which infects wide range of Dicot plants.  It carries Ti plasmid in addition to chromosomal DNA.  During infection,Ti plasmid transfers a portion of its TDNA in to the plant cell.  TDNA integrates into the chromosomal DNA of the plant.  TDNA segment of Ti plasmid carries a number of genes encoding enzymes for the synthesis of phytohormones such as cytokinins and auxins which stimulate the growth and division of the plant tissue results in the formation of tumors and production of specific metabolites called opines such as octopine and nopaline.  Gene of interest inserted within the T-region of the Tiplasmid are transferred and stable integrated into the plant genome.
  • 17.  Food and fiber production  Increased yield  Nutritional quality  Insect and disease control  Weed and a biotic stress tolerance  Medicine and food processing Transgenic Crop Plants: Traits
  • 18.  First reported from diseased silkworm from Japan.  Berliner coined the name Bacillus thuringiensis, isolated the strain from a grain mill in German district of Thuriengien  First commercial preparation prepared in 1927  First large scale Bt based product released for sale in 1957 by Sandoz Corp.  It was a Bt variety kurstaki strain marketed as “Thuricide”.
  • 19.
  • 20.  Insecticidal activity in crystalline bodies produced during sporulation of the bacteria.  Composed of proteins (delta endotoxins).  The crystals dissolve in the alkaline conditions of insect midgut.  Release proteins (protoxins) of relative molecular mass 65KD-160KD.  These are proteolytically processed by midgut proteases to yield smaller toxic fragments (65KD).
  • 21.  The activated protein crosses the peritrophic membrane  Binds to receptors on the midgut epithelium  Gut paralysis  Midgut lining disintegrates  Larva stops feeding  Dies in 2-3 days.
  • 22.  Low efficacy  UV-degradable, short field persistence.  Poor Coverage
  • 23.  Human health risks. i. Risk of possible allergies ii. Extensive testing required. iii. Labeling of GM food required. vi. Fear of danger to human health from foreign gene.  Environmental risks. i. Unintended harm to other organisms ii. Pests develop resistance to transgenics. iii. Gene transfer to non-target species.
  • 24.  Economic concerns. I. Fear of economic concentration. II. Intellectual property rights & ethics. III. Failure to exercise regulatory oversight
  • 25.  Evaluation of risk before release of transgenic.  Base decisions on validated information.  Regulating transgenics by Government.  Safety testing.  International policies and trade.  Public awareness and education.
  • 26. 26 Agencies Involved in Rules,1989 of EPAct 1986 GOVERNMENT OF INDIA Dept. of BiotechnologyDept. of Environment RCGMGEAC IBSC PI/ Applicant SBCC Large Scale Imports, Production and Release DLC Applicant Monitoring -cum- Evaluation Committee R&D, Limited experimental field trials and imports for R&D.
  • 27. It involves: i. Regulations ii. Risk Assessment iii. Release It needs: i. Regulatory Agencies ii. Research Organizations
  • 28. Sub-threshold Protection in B.t Cotton Economic Threshold level Non Bt cotton insecticide application triggered Rs.Rs. Time Population(Damage) Rs.Rs. Rs.Rs. Rs.Rs. Rs.Rs. Bt cotton Savings
  • 29.  Bt cotton provides in built protection to cotton against Lepidopteran pests (Helicoverpa)  Can significantly reduce the number of sprays for Helicoverpa therefore reducing farmers costs and debt  Potential for large yield increase  It is safe to crop  Fits into the IPM strategy in India  Peace of Mind
  • 30.  1994 Formation of IBSC & application for seed import  1995 Permit to import seed (100 gm )  1996 Imported seed, Greenhouse trial  1996 Limited field trial -1 Location  1997-98 Limited field trials-5 Locations  1998 Ruminant (goat) and Allerginicity studies  1998-99 Multi centric replicated trials-15-25 Locations  1999-00 Multi centric replicated trials-11 Locations  2000-01 Large Scale field Trials & Hybrid Seed Production, Conduction of various Studies, ICAR Trials  2001-02 Large Scale & ICAR trials, Hybrid Seed Prodn.  2002: Approval for commercialization by GEAC
  • 31. Research on Bt cotton development in India Mahyco - Cry1Ac Monsanto Cry1Ac+2Ab Nath seeds Cry1Ac modified (China) JK seeds Cry1Ac modified (IIT Khargpur Syngenta Vip3A Dow Agri. Science Cry1F ICAR Cry1Aa3 Cry1F Cry1Ia5 Cry1Ab (Japan) Cry1Ac (Canada) NBRI Cry1Ec
  • 32. Recommended Bt cotton hybrids for commercial cultivation in India North Zone Central Zone South Zone (6) (12) (10) MRC-6301 MECH-12 MECH-12 MRC-6304 MECH-162 MECH-162 RCH-134 MECH-184 MECH-184 RCH-317 MRC-6301 RCH-2(2004) Ankur-651 RCH-2 (2004) RCH-20 Ankur-2534 RCH-118 RCH-368 RCH-138 MRC-6322 RCH-144 MRC-6918(HB) Ankur-651 Bunny Ankur-09 Mallika Bunny Mallika
  • 33. “India has avoided famine. But hunger continues even today” Prof. Amartya Sen,Prof. Amartya Sen, Nobel Prize Laureate for Economics ,Nobel Prize Laureate for Economics , 19981998
  • 34.  AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS AT GLANCE 2012.  Dhaliwal Ramesh Arora G.S Integrated Pest Management kalyani Publishers , 2006, 259-263.  www.cab.com  www.cci.com  www.cicr.com  www.economictimes.com  www.mahyco.co.in

Editor's Notes

  1. The result is in essence a more precise and understood way to improve our crops. Whilst it is absulutely true that the initial stages of genetic modification are random and unpreictable, it is all the testing that follows which gives it its precision - The final plants are understood at the molecular level - you might say we know more about these plants than any other crops we have ever bred.
  2. “INDIA HAS AVOIDED FAMINE. BUT HUNGER CONTINUES EVEN TODAY” Professor Amartya Sen (Nobel Prize for Economics – 1998) Welfare Economic and Philosopher from India (Bangladesh) We can make a difference…BUT, where we are tomorrow will be very different from today. The world continues to change. In science, we must ID a point in the future and target our research to meet the predicted needs. If we don’t, the outcome could be devastating. Agriculture touches all of us – those from the city and those who live in the country