SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 51
Establishment of
Gardens
HORT-402
Muhammad Zeeshan Nazar
M.Phil Agriculture Entomology
mzeeshan_93@yahoo.com
Establishment of Gardens
• Horticulture is an important branch of agriculture dealing with,
many fruit, vegetables and flower crops, and if done
scientifically is a profitable enterprise.
• Financial returns can be increased many folds if careful
planning is done when selecting the specific crops to establish
in a particular region.
• The horticulture industry is a long-term investment, especially
the raising of fruit trees. e.g. citrus orchard takes five years for
commercial production and its production life is more than 40
years.
Different steps are involved in planning and
establishment of gardens and orchards are:
• Selection of proper locality and site
• Preparation of land
• Laying out garden
• Digging and refilling of pits
• Selection and purchase of plants
• Care of plants at arrival
• Setting of fruit plants
• Windbreaks
1: Selection of proper locality and site
• Locality refers to the geographical
circumstances of a place in relation to cities,
villages, railway stations, roads, etc.
• Horticultural crops are perishable, it is
therefore, important to cultivate these near
market to ensure sale of the produce with
minimum expense.
• Site refers to a specific place where one can
establish orchard: a citrus or mango orchard or
vineyard.
Site selection involved following factors;
1: Topography
• It refers to the contour of the land, its elevation and
similar features of land.
• Vegetable crops and herbaceous flowering plants are
usually grown on level and slightly sloping sites as
most of these crops need cultivation and harvesting
operations can efficiently be done than on sloping land.
• Fruit trees can be raised on steep slopes to some extend.
In case of contours, which cannot level, contour
plantation can be done, as that in case of temperate
fruits in hilly areas.
2: Soil
• Soil is the natural resource base for horticultural
production, as well as other form of agriculture. It is an
inner weathered layer of earth crust, which provides
nutrients, water and support to the plant.
• Soil conditions like texture, fertility, depth, alkalinity,
salinity, soil reaction, chemical content, drainage and
water logging can influence the growth and
development of horticultural crops.
• Horticultural crops can be grown in variety of soils.
Extremes are to be avoided, very heavy soils are
difficult to handle and sandy soils do not hold moisture
well and are infertile.
A loam or sandy loam soil is good for most of
horticultural crops and such soils are present in most parts
of Pakistan.
• Sandy soil Water melon, Musk melon,
Sweet potato
• Silt loam Apple, Pear
• Clay loam Plum, Peach, Apricot, Onion,
Cabbage
• Sandy loam Mango, Citrus, date palm,
cucurbits.
• Silt Banana
3: Climate
• It refers to meteorological conditions (changes in
atmosphere) in a given region. It is composed of factors
like temperature, humidity, wind, sunlight, frost, hail
storms, precipitation etc.
• Temperature is most important factors which effect the
distribution of horticultural crops it determines the
success or failure of each specific crop in a region.
• Tropical region Banana, Papaya,
• Sub- tropical Mango, Date palm, Citrus,
Guava, Vegetables, Jaman
• Temperate Apple, Pear, Peach, Grapes,
Pomegranate, Apricot
4: Water Supply
• A regular and adequate source of irrigation water is an
important consideration in site selection for commercial
horticulture as well as home gardens.
• Good plentiful water should be regularly available all
year round especially during the hot and dry season.
• Canal water is best for irrigating an orchard. Tube well
and well water can also be used if ground water is
sweet.
• Quality of water should also be considered as excess of
sodium and boron salts are harmful to most horticultural
plants.
5: Availability of Market
• Horticultural products are usually perishable,
and need to be transported and marketed as soon
as possible. Therefore, these should be planted
near to cities or at least big towns. If the produce
is to be sent to distant market there should be
railway station or main road in vicinity. Products
to be exported to foreign markets need a
standard packing house nearby.
6 : Transportation Requirements
• For transport of produce refrigerated trucks,
improved rail transportation and development of
economical air transport is needed.
7: Availability of Labor
• The growing of horticultural crops is a full time
occupation. The availability of labor in vicinity must be
considered before establishment because most garden
operations are still done by hand in Pakistan. Cheap and
regular labor, available close to the site is necessary for
carrying out various operations economically and on
time.
• Preparation of land, cleaning, leveling, ploughing,
installing systems for irrigation and drainage, planting
and post-planting care, pruning, hoeing, weeding,
application of fertilizers and manure, control of insect
pest and diseases, picking, packing, transportation and
marketing require regular and efficient labor.
8:Capital Requirement
• Horticultural crops require much more
investment than other agricultural crops for
establishment, maintenance and continuous
profitable returns. Capital requirement must be
estimated before deciding to establish a garden.
9:Personal Factors
• Success in raising a given horticultural crop
depends to a considerable extent on the ability of
the individual grower. Vegetable farming,
commercial flower production, fruit growing and
tunnel farming are choices for them.
2: Preparation of land
The preparation of the soil depends largely upon its
• Present condition,
• Previous history and
• The grower’s plan
If the land has been under cultivation and well maintained,
nothing further may be required. But if the site is new
and previously uncultivated, it should be thoroughly
surveyed for its size, topography, and flow of
irrigation water and fertility status.
The following operations should be done well in advance,
preferably a season before. Any of these operations, if
delayed, may cause a considerable loss.
1: Cleaning
Existing vegetation should be cleared, already existed
trees should be cut down and their stumps should be
removed to avoid competition.
2: Ploughing
After the site is cleared, it must be given a deep and
thorough ploughing twice or thrice in two directions.
Then planking should be done.
3: Leveling
The site should be leveled. A uniform gentle slope may
be provided in one direction to facilitate the flow of
irrigation water.
4: Irrigation System
The irrigation system should be planned and installed
before establishing the plantation. Different system of
irrigation are surface irrigation, sub surface irrigation,
drip irrigation can be used. Sprinkler irrigation system
is used if soil is not leveled.
5: Soil Enrichment
The soil can be enriched by raising cover crops,
preferably legumes. A green manure crop (jantar,
berseem, guara), in addition to FYM, is the most
economical means of increasing the organic matter
content of soil.
6: Fencing
It is done all round the site to prevent the entry of
animal pests like cattle, goats or wild pigs as well as
human thieves. Barbed wire is recommended, as it has
no shading effect and do not compete with plants for
nutrients. Rough lemon, roses can be used as fence but
it can be a hidden place of many insect/pest. Therefore,
it should be avoided.
3: Laying Out Gardens
• The systematic laying out of gardens is the first step
in a successful horticultural enterprise.
• Indicating the actual places for roads, footpaths,
irrigation channels, water tanks, manure pits, office or
residence blocks, water pump or tube well/water tank
and windbreaks and as well as spacing the plants in
the garden.
• Good site preparation and layout are extremely
important in successfully establishing fruit plantings.
• Eliminating potential problems before planting will
reduce money and effort needed in later management
practices for this long-term investment.
Advantages of proper layout
1. Cultivation can be done efficiently.
2. Pest management can be effectively.
3. Maximum no. of plants per unit area.
4. More yield can be obtained.
5. Products of higher quality are achieved.
6. Enhance aesthetic appearance of the garden
1. Planting Distance
• Planting distance depends upon many factors.
• Plant species and variety
• Climatic conditions
• Soil fertility
• Availability of water
• Pruning and training systems
2. Spacing in Fruit Trees
• Spacing is very important for fruit trees because,
• Permanency (Durability)
• Long bearing life
3. Disadvantages of Close plantation
• Lower yield
• Poor quality
• Reduce size and poor color development
• Taller size trees
• Chances of wind injury are more
• Management practices are difficult
• Insufficient light penetration and ventilation
• Multiplication of disease organisms and insect/pests are more.
Different fruit plants with planting
distance
Types of tree Planting distance (m)
Mango, Jaman, Amla, Ber, Fig, Walnut 10-15
Guava, Mulberry, Loquat, Litchi, Olive 8-10
Citrus all spp 7-8
Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum, apricot,
Almond, Chery, Pomegranate
6.5-8
Date palm 5-7
Banana, Papaya, Grapes 3-4
Falsa 2.5
Vegetables planting
• Some vegetables (cabbage, cauliflower, chilies, onion,
tomato, lettuce etc.) are first raised in nursery and when
the seedlings reach a height of about 15-20 cm they are
transplanted to the field at specific p-p and line-line
distances.
• Some vegetables are sown directly in properly prepared
beds, maintaining the appropriate distances between
beds and between plants.
• Two types of beds are prepared for vegetables planting.
• Flat beds (Spinach, Coriander)
• Raised beds (musk melon, water melon, cucumber)
• Some vegetables are planted on ridges e.g.
potato (R x R = 60cm, P x P = 20)
• Some vegetables are planted in straight lines by
maintaining proper line-line distance. e.g.
cabbage (L x L = 60 cm, P x P = 30 cm),
onion ( L x L = 15 cm, P x P = 10 cm)
Ornamental Garden
• Formal design
– Referred as Muslim style
– Very simple and uncomplicated
– Based on geometric symmetry
– Trees are planted to give maximum shade
– Development of avenues
– Practice topiary work
• Informal design
– Referred as Japanese garden
– Give naturalistic look
– Curved and non-geometric
– Avoid symmetrical plantation
– Short lived seasonal plants
– Trees and ground covers are planted
Systems of Layout of Fruit Orchards
I. Square System
It is the most common and popular method of laying out fruit
orchards on flat ground. In this method plants are set at right
angles to each other with equal plant to plant and row to row
distance.
Merits
• It is good for permanent fruit trees like mango, citrus, guava,
and apple.
• It is simple and easy to lay out.
• Intercropping can be done.
• Two directional cultivation can be done.
• Management practice are easy.
Demerits
• Some unutilized space is left in center.
ii. Rectangular System
In this system plant-to-plant distance is kept half of the
row-to-row distance. In this system plants are set at the
corners of the rectangle.
Merits
• No. of plants are more which results in more early
production.
• It is good for medium size trees.
Demerits
• It is not good for long term plantation.
• Crowding will occur on two sides.
• Pruning requirement is more.
• One way cultivation is possible.
iii. Hexagonal System
This is the best system of layout because all plants are
equidistant from each other and no unutilized space is
left in the center. Six plants are planted at the corner of
hexagon with seventh one in the center of hexagon.
Merits
• 15% more plants can be planted as compare to square
system.
• Cultivation can be done in three directions.
Demerits
• It is difficult to layout.
iv. Quincunx System
This system is modification of square system. First
plants are planted according to square system and then
one plant is planted in the center of each square. The
additional plant is called filler. Filler must be quick
bearing and low height. Guava is mostly used as filler.
Merits
• No unutilized space is left.
• 70% more plants can be planted.
• Early return from fillers.
Demerits
• Fillers may adversely affect the growth of permanent
plants.
v. Triangular System
This system is modification of rectangular system. After
laying out a rectangular system one tree is planted at the
center of rectangle making a triangle.
Merits
• 50-60% more plants.
Demerits
• Crowding will occur at later stages of the orchard.
vi. Contour system
This system is used in hilly areas. Plants are
planted according to the contour of the land.
There is no specific row-to-row and plant-to-
plant distance.
4. Digging and Refilling of Pits
• After laying out orchards it is desirable to make pits
for plants.
• The main objective of digging pits is to provide a
suitable environment for the development of the plant
and its roots.
• If there is problem of hardpan present in soil can be
solve at this stage.
• The size of pit depends upon the type of soil and
species and variety of fruit. The size of the pit should
be 1x1x1 m3.
• This is the volume in which most of the roots
development occurs during the early days of plant
growth.
• While digging pits, 1/3rd upper soil should be kept on one side
and remaining 2/3rd soil should be scattered in the orchard.
• The pits are left open for 2-3 weeks for exposure to sun and
circulation of air.
• It is harmful to keep the pits open for longer time because their
surface gets hardened.
• These pits are then refilled with an equal mixture of soil, silt and
well rotten FYM.
• The pits should be filled a little higher 10-15 cm than the
surrounding soil.
• This will allow for soil settling after the first irrigation.
• The field is then irrigated heavily.
• After the field dries, the pits are leveled once again. Plants are set
in the centers of the pits and in straight rows on all sides.
5 Selection and Purchase of Plants
• The selection of a species and the varieties of fruit
plants to be raised is an important step in the
establishment of a new orchard.
Selection of Scion variety
Scion is the upper portion of the plant, which has to
give ultimate yield. Selection of scion should be done
by keeping following points in mind:
• Climatic suitability
• Resistance to insect/pest and diseases
• Market demand
• Requirement of pollinator
6 Care Of Plants at Arrival
• The 1st thing should be done on arrival of nursery plants
is to check them for variety, number of plants and
grade.
• The plants are then sprayed with lime and sulphur and
stored in the shade for about 48 hours. They should be
kept soaked with water and covered with straw during
storage.
• In case of deciduous plants, if the roots are dry should
be soaked in water for several hours before planting.
• Roots broken during lifting of the plants from the
nursery soil must be cut off with a clean cut.
• Pruning should be done by keeping in view the shape of
the plant.
7. Setting of Fruit Plan
1. Time of Planting
• Two principal planting seasons
• Spring (Feb-March)
• Autumn (Sept.-Oct.)
• Evergreen fruit plants can be set in both seasons, but
deciduous plants should be set in spring only.
• Care should be taken to set evergreen plants well
before the severe dry and cold season starts, and
deciduous plants should be planted when the danger of
frost and severe cold is over.
2. Actual Planting
• Plants of evergreen fruits should be planted as
soon as possible after they are dug from the
nursery. If deciduous plants are transplanted
while they are dormant, delay does little effect.
• The plants are set in the center of the pit keeping
the rows straight. The use of pegs and a planting
board is also recommended to help in keeping
the line of plants straight.
3. Post-planting care
• After plants are set following cares should be taken.
• Irrigate them sufficiently. (This will consolidate the soil
and helps the roots to establish soil contact and a supply
of water quickly). A basin should be made around the
plant for this purpose.
• Staking
• Heading back of deciduous plants.
• Protection from sun and frost by using sarkanda.
8.Wind breaks
• These are the rows of plants around the orchard
to protect the plants from strong winds. Before
planting an orchard, it is necessary to reserve
some space for the trees, which are to serve as
windbreaks. It is better to establish windbreaks
one or two years before the fruit trees are
planted.
• A channel of 1 m wide and 1.5 m deep is dug
about 4-5 m from the windbreak trees. This is
done to avoid competition.
Characteristics of windbreaks
• Adaptable to the soil and climate
• Strong mechanical frame
• Rapid growth
• Tall with dense foliage
• Deep rooted
• Tap rooted not fibrous root system
• Prefer those plants which can give income (jaman,
Muberry, ber)
Plants used as windbreaks are
• Jaman
• Mulbery
• Eucalyptus
• Kikar
• Simbal
• Popular
• Shisham
• Desi mango
• Ber
• Bamboo
• In temperate region different species of pine are used as
windbreaks.
Advantages of Windbreaks
• Reduce the damage by strong winds
• Protect from sunburn and frost.
• Minimize the wind erosion.
• Reduce the water loss by transpiration as caused by dry
winds.
Disadvantages of Windbreaks
• Plants adjoining to windbreaks are more affected by
insect/pest and diseases.
• They compete with adjoining fruit trees for nutrition
and light.
• Delayed maturity of fruit of adjoining plants to
windbreaks.
• Less color and size development.
Establishment of Garden

More Related Content

What's hot

What's hot (20)

NURSERY MANAGEMENT.pptx
NURSERY MANAGEMENT.pptxNURSERY MANAGEMENT.pptx
NURSERY MANAGEMENT.pptx
 
Citrus ppt
Citrus pptCitrus ppt
Citrus ppt
 
Training and Pruning of Fruit Crops
Training and Pruning  of Fruit Crops Training and Pruning  of Fruit Crops
Training and Pruning of Fruit Crops
 
Planning and Layout of Garden Narender (2011A24BVIi)
Planning and Layout of Garden Narender (2011A24BVIi)Planning and Layout of Garden Narender (2011A24BVIi)
Planning and Layout of Garden Narender (2011A24BVIi)
 
Bioaesthetic planning
Bioaesthetic planningBioaesthetic planning
Bioaesthetic planning
 
Jerusalem artichoke
Jerusalem artichokeJerusalem artichoke
Jerusalem artichoke
 
Layering
LayeringLayering
Layering
 
VALUE ADDITION OF FLOWERS.pptx
VALUE ADDITION OF FLOWERS.pptxVALUE ADDITION OF FLOWERS.pptx
VALUE ADDITION OF FLOWERS.pptx
 
Orchard Establishment.pptx
Orchard Establishment.pptxOrchard Establishment.pptx
Orchard Establishment.pptx
 
Hi tech horticulture
Hi  tech horticultureHi  tech horticulture
Hi tech horticulture
 
Rootstock
Rootstock Rootstock
Rootstock
 
ORCHARD MANAGMENT
ORCHARD MANAGMENTORCHARD MANAGMENT
ORCHARD MANAGMENT
 
Principles of vegetable seed production
 Principles of vegetable seed production  Principles of vegetable seed production
Principles of vegetable seed production
 
Principles of orchard establishment
Principles of orchard establishmentPrinciples of orchard establishment
Principles of orchard establishment
 
Floriculture
Floriculture Floriculture
Floriculture
 
Horticulture ppt
Horticulture pptHorticulture ppt
Horticulture ppt
 
Role of rootstocks in horticultural crops
Role of rootstocks in horticultural cropsRole of rootstocks in horticultural crops
Role of rootstocks in horticultural crops
 
Scarification and stratification of seeds
Scarification and stratification of seedsScarification and stratification of seeds
Scarification and stratification of seeds
 
Seed, Seed Types and Seed Quality
Seed, Seed Types and Seed QualitySeed, Seed Types and Seed Quality
Seed, Seed Types and Seed Quality
 
Taining and pruning in horticultural crops
Taining and pruning in horticultural cropsTaining and pruning in horticultural crops
Taining and pruning in horticultural crops
 

Similar to Establishment of Garden

17.Site selection and lay out of orchard.pptx
17.Site selection and lay out of orchard.pptx17.Site selection and lay out of orchard.pptx
17.Site selection and lay out of orchard.pptxUmeshTimilsina1
 
Pomegranate flowchart
Pomegranate flowchartPomegranate flowchart
Pomegranate flowcharts_infiniti
 
vegetable cultivation under open and protected environment
vegetable cultivation under open and protected environmentvegetable cultivation under open and protected environment
vegetable cultivation under open and protected environmentamritpal singh
 
Seed production awareness programme for farmers
Seed production awareness programme for farmersSeed production awareness programme for farmers
Seed production awareness programme for farmersDr. P.B.Dharmasena
 
Citrus Production
Citrus ProductionCitrus Production
Citrus ProductionDENNIS90
 
Rwandan chilli scopes -package of practice ,financial assistance,processing t...
Rwandan chilli scopes -package of practice ,financial assistance,processing t...Rwandan chilli scopes -package of practice ,financial assistance,processing t...
Rwandan chilli scopes -package of practice ,financial assistance,processing t...Er. Amal jose
 
Tillage Practices and types
Tillage Practices and typesTillage Practices and types
Tillage Practices and typesArunMK17
 
nurserymanagement-220602143004-4574a13a.pdf
nurserymanagement-220602143004-4574a13a.pdfnurserymanagement-220602143004-4574a13a.pdf
nurserymanagement-220602143004-4574a13a.pdfDebbyUstari1
 
Nursery management in horticultural crops
Nursery management in horticultural cropsNursery management in horticultural crops
Nursery management in horticultural cropsHamzaRasheed26
 
Haricot bean Production technical POP MAY 2014.pptx
Haricot bean Production technical POP MAY 2014.pptxHaricot bean Production technical POP MAY 2014.pptx
Haricot bean Production technical POP MAY 2014.pptxakolasuminter
 
Organic Farming
Organic FarmingOrganic Farming
Organic FarmingUmar Nawaz
 
CABBAGE AND CAULIFLOWER (1).ppt
CABBAGE AND CAULIFLOWER (1).pptCABBAGE AND CAULIFLOWER (1).ppt
CABBAGE AND CAULIFLOWER (1).pptAMBIKABHANDARI5
 
NURSERY MANGEMENT IN FLORICULTURE ppt.pptx
NURSERY MANGEMENT IN  FLORICULTURE ppt.pptxNURSERY MANGEMENT IN  FLORICULTURE ppt.pptx
NURSERY MANGEMENT IN FLORICULTURE ppt.pptxBhaktiParyekar
 

Similar to Establishment of Garden (20)

17.Site selection and lay out of orchard.pptx
17.Site selection and lay out of orchard.pptx17.Site selection and lay out of orchard.pptx
17.Site selection and lay out of orchard.pptx
 
Pomegranate flowchart
Pomegranate flowchartPomegranate flowchart
Pomegranate flowchart
 
vegetable cultivation under open and protected environment
vegetable cultivation under open and protected environmentvegetable cultivation under open and protected environment
vegetable cultivation under open and protected environment
 
Vegetable Gardens - Kitchen Garden or Nutrition Garden; Gardening Guidebook f...
Vegetable Gardens - Kitchen Garden or Nutrition Garden; Gardening Guidebook f...Vegetable Gardens - Kitchen Garden or Nutrition Garden; Gardening Guidebook f...
Vegetable Gardens - Kitchen Garden or Nutrition Garden; Gardening Guidebook f...
 
Seed production awareness programme for farmers
Seed production awareness programme for farmersSeed production awareness programme for farmers
Seed production awareness programme for farmers
 
Citrus Production
Citrus ProductionCitrus Production
Citrus Production
 
Rwandan chilli scopes -package of practice ,financial assistance,processing t...
Rwandan chilli scopes -package of practice ,financial assistance,processing t...Rwandan chilli scopes -package of practice ,financial assistance,processing t...
Rwandan chilli scopes -package of practice ,financial assistance,processing t...
 
Tillage Practices and types
Tillage Practices and typesTillage Practices and types
Tillage Practices and types
 
nurserymanagement-220602143004-4574a13a.pdf
nurserymanagement-220602143004-4574a13a.pdfnurserymanagement-220602143004-4574a13a.pdf
nurserymanagement-220602143004-4574a13a.pdf
 
Nursery management in horticultural crops
Nursery management in horticultural cropsNursery management in horticultural crops
Nursery management in horticultural crops
 
Haricot bean Production technical POP MAY 2014.pptx
Haricot bean Production technical POP MAY 2014.pptxHaricot bean Production technical POP MAY 2014.pptx
Haricot bean Production technical POP MAY 2014.pptx
 
Fsc 605 unit 5
Fsc 605 unit 5Fsc 605 unit 5
Fsc 605 unit 5
 
Organic Farming
Organic FarmingOrganic Farming
Organic Farming
 
LECTURE.ppt
LECTURE.pptLECTURE.ppt
LECTURE.ppt
 
CABBAGE AND CAULIFLOWER (1).ppt
CABBAGE AND CAULIFLOWER (1).pptCABBAGE AND CAULIFLOWER (1).ppt
CABBAGE AND CAULIFLOWER (1).ppt
 
P2 vegetable gardens
P2  vegetable gardensP2  vegetable gardens
P2 vegetable gardens
 
NURSERY MANGEMENT IN FLORICULTURE ppt.pptx
NURSERY MANGEMENT IN  FLORICULTURE ppt.pptxNURSERY MANGEMENT IN  FLORICULTURE ppt.pptx
NURSERY MANGEMENT IN FLORICULTURE ppt.pptx
 
Chilli slide
Chilli slideChilli slide
Chilli slide
 
Membangun kebun buah (6)
Membangun kebun buah (6)Membangun kebun buah (6)
Membangun kebun buah (6)
 
Criwmp cascade lecture part 4
Criwmp cascade lecture part 4Criwmp cascade lecture part 4
Criwmp cascade lecture part 4
 

More from Bahuddin Zakariya University, Multan

Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Competitive Modulators/Agonists
Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Competitive Modulators/AgonistsNicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Competitive Modulators/Agonists
Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Competitive Modulators/AgonistsBahuddin Zakariya University, Multan
 
Effectiveness and safety of some essential oils oon the growth and silk produ...
Effectiveness and safety of some essential oils oon the growth and silk produ...Effectiveness and safety of some essential oils oon the growth and silk produ...
Effectiveness and safety of some essential oils oon the growth and silk produ...Bahuddin Zakariya University, Multan
 

More from Bahuddin Zakariya University, Multan (20)

Rose
RoseRose
Rose
 
Citrus
CitrusCitrus
Citrus
 
Plant Growth Regulators
Plant Growth RegulatorsPlant Growth Regulators
Plant Growth Regulators
 
Game Reserves in Pakistan
Game Reserves in PakistanGame Reserves in Pakistan
Game Reserves in Pakistan
 
Fruiting bodies of Ascomycota
Fruiting bodies of AscomycotaFruiting bodies of Ascomycota
Fruiting bodies of Ascomycota
 
Classification of Horticultural Crops
Classification of Horticultural CropsClassification of Horticultural Crops
Classification of Horticultural Crops
 
Ecosystems of Pakistan and World
Ecosystems of Pakistan and WorldEcosystems of Pakistan and World
Ecosystems of Pakistan and World
 
National Parks of Pakistan
National Parks of PakistanNational Parks of Pakistan
National Parks of Pakistan
 
Morphology, Classification and Control of Mites
Morphology, Classification and Control of MitesMorphology, Classification and Control of Mites
Morphology, Classification and Control of Mites
 
Host Finding Behavior of Insects
Host Finding Behavior of InsectsHost Finding Behavior of Insects
Host Finding Behavior of Insects
 
Viral Disease of Plants
Viral Disease of PlantsViral Disease of Plants
Viral Disease of Plants
 
Ecdysone Receptor Agonists
Ecdysone Receptor AgonistsEcdysone Receptor Agonists
Ecdysone Receptor Agonists
 
Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Competitive Modulators/Agonists
Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Competitive Modulators/AgonistsNicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Competitive Modulators/Agonists
Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Competitive Modulators/Agonists
 
Effectiveness and safety of some essential oils oon the growth and silk produ...
Effectiveness and safety of some essential oils oon the growth and silk produ...Effectiveness and safety of some essential oils oon the growth and silk produ...
Effectiveness and safety of some essential oils oon the growth and silk produ...
 
Pyrethroids
PyrethroidsPyrethroids
Pyrethroids
 
Locust - Locusta migratoria
Locust - Locusta migratoriaLocust - Locusta migratoria
Locust - Locusta migratoria
 
Insects orders
Insects ordersInsects orders
Insects orders
 
Wild life
Wild lifeWild life
Wild life
 
Feeding Behaviors of Forest Insect Pest
Feeding Behaviors of  Forest Insect Pest Feeding Behaviors of  Forest Insect Pest
Feeding Behaviors of Forest Insect Pest
 
Isoptera
IsopteraIsoptera
Isoptera
 

Recently uploaded

Biochemistry and Biomolecules - Science - 9th Grade by Slidesgo.pptx
Biochemistry and Biomolecules - Science - 9th Grade by Slidesgo.pptxBiochemistry and Biomolecules - Science - 9th Grade by Slidesgo.pptx
Biochemistry and Biomolecules - Science - 9th Grade by Slidesgo.pptxjayabahari688
 
Film Coated Tablet and Film Coating raw materials.pdf
Film Coated Tablet and Film Coating raw materials.pdfFilm Coated Tablet and Film Coating raw materials.pdf
Film Coated Tablet and Film Coating raw materials.pdfPharmatech-rx
 
Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243
Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243
Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243Sérgio Sacani
 
Extensive Pollution of Uranus and Neptune’s Atmospheres by Upsweep of Icy Mat...
Extensive Pollution of Uranus and Neptune’s Atmospheres by Upsweep of Icy Mat...Extensive Pollution of Uranus and Neptune’s Atmospheres by Upsweep of Icy Mat...
Extensive Pollution of Uranus and Neptune’s Atmospheres by Upsweep of Icy Mat...Sérgio Sacani
 
Cellular Communication and regulation of communication mechanisms to sing the...
Cellular Communication and regulation of communication mechanisms to sing the...Cellular Communication and regulation of communication mechanisms to sing the...
Cellular Communication and regulation of communication mechanisms to sing the...Nistarini College, Purulia (W.B) India
 
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday Life
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday LifeGBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday Life
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday LifeAreesha Ahmad
 
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...Sérgio Sacani
 
In-pond Race way systems for Aquaculture (IPRS).pptx
In-pond Race way systems for Aquaculture (IPRS).pptxIn-pond Race way systems for Aquaculture (IPRS).pptx
In-pond Race way systems for Aquaculture (IPRS).pptxMAGOTI ERNEST
 
Virulence Analysis of Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citr...
Virulence Analysis of Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citr...Virulence Analysis of Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citr...
Virulence Analysis of Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citr...TALAPATI ARUNA CHENNA VYDYANAD
 
Plasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyan
Plasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyanPlasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyan
Plasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyanmuralinath2
 
ERTHROPOIESIS: Dr. E. Muralinath & R. Gnana Lahari
ERTHROPOIESIS: Dr. E. Muralinath & R. Gnana LahariERTHROPOIESIS: Dr. E. Muralinath & R. Gnana Lahari
ERTHROPOIESIS: Dr. E. Muralinath & R. Gnana Laharimuralinath2
 
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of Carbohydrates
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of CarbohydratesGBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of Carbohydrates
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of CarbohydratesAreesha Ahmad
 
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptx
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptxMicrobial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptx
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptxCherry
 
VILLAGE ATTACHMENT For rural agriculture PPT.pptx
VILLAGE ATTACHMENT For rural agriculture  PPT.pptxVILLAGE ATTACHMENT For rural agriculture  PPT.pptx
VILLAGE ATTACHMENT For rural agriculture PPT.pptxAQIBRASOOL4
 
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. MuralinathHemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinathmuralinath2
 
PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND ITS IMPORTANCE
PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND ITS IMPORTANCEPLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND ITS IMPORTANCE
PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND ITS IMPORTANCETALAPATI ARUNA CHENNA VYDYANAD
 
NuGOweek 2024 programme final FLYER short.pdf
NuGOweek 2024 programme final FLYER short.pdfNuGOweek 2024 programme final FLYER short.pdf
NuGOweek 2024 programme final FLYER short.pdfpablovgd
 
Erythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C Kalyan
Erythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C KalyanErythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C Kalyan
Erythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C Kalyanmuralinath2
 
The solar dynamo begins near the surface
The solar dynamo begins near the surfaceThe solar dynamo begins near the surface
The solar dynamo begins near the surfaceSérgio Sacani
 
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interaction
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interactionGBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interaction
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interactionAreesha Ahmad
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Biochemistry and Biomolecules - Science - 9th Grade by Slidesgo.pptx
Biochemistry and Biomolecules - Science - 9th Grade by Slidesgo.pptxBiochemistry and Biomolecules - Science - 9th Grade by Slidesgo.pptx
Biochemistry and Biomolecules - Science - 9th Grade by Slidesgo.pptx
 
Film Coated Tablet and Film Coating raw materials.pdf
Film Coated Tablet and Film Coating raw materials.pdfFilm Coated Tablet and Film Coating raw materials.pdf
Film Coated Tablet and Film Coating raw materials.pdf
 
Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243
Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243
Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243
 
Extensive Pollution of Uranus and Neptune’s Atmospheres by Upsweep of Icy Mat...
Extensive Pollution of Uranus and Neptune’s Atmospheres by Upsweep of Icy Mat...Extensive Pollution of Uranus and Neptune’s Atmospheres by Upsweep of Icy Mat...
Extensive Pollution of Uranus and Neptune’s Atmospheres by Upsweep of Icy Mat...
 
Cellular Communication and regulation of communication mechanisms to sing the...
Cellular Communication and regulation of communication mechanisms to sing the...Cellular Communication and regulation of communication mechanisms to sing the...
Cellular Communication and regulation of communication mechanisms to sing the...
 
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday Life
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday LifeGBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday Life
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday Life
 
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
 
In-pond Race way systems for Aquaculture (IPRS).pptx
In-pond Race way systems for Aquaculture (IPRS).pptxIn-pond Race way systems for Aquaculture (IPRS).pptx
In-pond Race way systems for Aquaculture (IPRS).pptx
 
Virulence Analysis of Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citr...
Virulence Analysis of Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citr...Virulence Analysis of Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citr...
Virulence Analysis of Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citr...
 
Plasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyan
Plasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyanPlasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyan
Plasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyan
 
ERTHROPOIESIS: Dr. E. Muralinath & R. Gnana Lahari
ERTHROPOIESIS: Dr. E. Muralinath & R. Gnana LahariERTHROPOIESIS: Dr. E. Muralinath & R. Gnana Lahari
ERTHROPOIESIS: Dr. E. Muralinath & R. Gnana Lahari
 
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of Carbohydrates
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of CarbohydratesGBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of Carbohydrates
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of Carbohydrates
 
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptx
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptxMicrobial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptx
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptx
 
VILLAGE ATTACHMENT For rural agriculture PPT.pptx
VILLAGE ATTACHMENT For rural agriculture  PPT.pptxVILLAGE ATTACHMENT For rural agriculture  PPT.pptx
VILLAGE ATTACHMENT For rural agriculture PPT.pptx
 
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. MuralinathHemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
 
PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND ITS IMPORTANCE
PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND ITS IMPORTANCEPLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND ITS IMPORTANCE
PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND ITS IMPORTANCE
 
NuGOweek 2024 programme final FLYER short.pdf
NuGOweek 2024 programme final FLYER short.pdfNuGOweek 2024 programme final FLYER short.pdf
NuGOweek 2024 programme final FLYER short.pdf
 
Erythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C Kalyan
Erythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C KalyanErythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C Kalyan
Erythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C Kalyan
 
The solar dynamo begins near the surface
The solar dynamo begins near the surfaceThe solar dynamo begins near the surface
The solar dynamo begins near the surface
 
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interaction
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interactionGBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interaction
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interaction
 

Establishment of Garden

  • 1. Establishment of Gardens HORT-402 Muhammad Zeeshan Nazar M.Phil Agriculture Entomology mzeeshan_93@yahoo.com
  • 2. Establishment of Gardens • Horticulture is an important branch of agriculture dealing with, many fruit, vegetables and flower crops, and if done scientifically is a profitable enterprise. • Financial returns can be increased many folds if careful planning is done when selecting the specific crops to establish in a particular region. • The horticulture industry is a long-term investment, especially the raising of fruit trees. e.g. citrus orchard takes five years for commercial production and its production life is more than 40 years.
  • 3. Different steps are involved in planning and establishment of gardens and orchards are: • Selection of proper locality and site • Preparation of land • Laying out garden • Digging and refilling of pits • Selection and purchase of plants • Care of plants at arrival • Setting of fruit plants • Windbreaks
  • 4. 1: Selection of proper locality and site • Locality refers to the geographical circumstances of a place in relation to cities, villages, railway stations, roads, etc. • Horticultural crops are perishable, it is therefore, important to cultivate these near market to ensure sale of the produce with minimum expense. • Site refers to a specific place where one can establish orchard: a citrus or mango orchard or vineyard.
  • 5. Site selection involved following factors; 1: Topography • It refers to the contour of the land, its elevation and similar features of land. • Vegetable crops and herbaceous flowering plants are usually grown on level and slightly sloping sites as most of these crops need cultivation and harvesting operations can efficiently be done than on sloping land. • Fruit trees can be raised on steep slopes to some extend. In case of contours, which cannot level, contour plantation can be done, as that in case of temperate fruits in hilly areas.
  • 6. 2: Soil • Soil is the natural resource base for horticultural production, as well as other form of agriculture. It is an inner weathered layer of earth crust, which provides nutrients, water and support to the plant. • Soil conditions like texture, fertility, depth, alkalinity, salinity, soil reaction, chemical content, drainage and water logging can influence the growth and development of horticultural crops. • Horticultural crops can be grown in variety of soils. Extremes are to be avoided, very heavy soils are difficult to handle and sandy soils do not hold moisture well and are infertile.
  • 7. A loam or sandy loam soil is good for most of horticultural crops and such soils are present in most parts of Pakistan. • Sandy soil Water melon, Musk melon, Sweet potato • Silt loam Apple, Pear • Clay loam Plum, Peach, Apricot, Onion, Cabbage • Sandy loam Mango, Citrus, date palm, cucurbits. • Silt Banana
  • 8. 3: Climate • It refers to meteorological conditions (changes in atmosphere) in a given region. It is composed of factors like temperature, humidity, wind, sunlight, frost, hail storms, precipitation etc. • Temperature is most important factors which effect the distribution of horticultural crops it determines the success or failure of each specific crop in a region. • Tropical region Banana, Papaya, • Sub- tropical Mango, Date palm, Citrus, Guava, Vegetables, Jaman • Temperate Apple, Pear, Peach, Grapes, Pomegranate, Apricot
  • 9. 4: Water Supply • A regular and adequate source of irrigation water is an important consideration in site selection for commercial horticulture as well as home gardens. • Good plentiful water should be regularly available all year round especially during the hot and dry season. • Canal water is best for irrigating an orchard. Tube well and well water can also be used if ground water is sweet. • Quality of water should also be considered as excess of sodium and boron salts are harmful to most horticultural plants.
  • 10. 5: Availability of Market • Horticultural products are usually perishable, and need to be transported and marketed as soon as possible. Therefore, these should be planted near to cities or at least big towns. If the produce is to be sent to distant market there should be railway station or main road in vicinity. Products to be exported to foreign markets need a standard packing house nearby.
  • 11. 6 : Transportation Requirements • For transport of produce refrigerated trucks, improved rail transportation and development of economical air transport is needed.
  • 12. 7: Availability of Labor • The growing of horticultural crops is a full time occupation. The availability of labor in vicinity must be considered before establishment because most garden operations are still done by hand in Pakistan. Cheap and regular labor, available close to the site is necessary for carrying out various operations economically and on time. • Preparation of land, cleaning, leveling, ploughing, installing systems for irrigation and drainage, planting and post-planting care, pruning, hoeing, weeding, application of fertilizers and manure, control of insect pest and diseases, picking, packing, transportation and marketing require regular and efficient labor.
  • 13. 8:Capital Requirement • Horticultural crops require much more investment than other agricultural crops for establishment, maintenance and continuous profitable returns. Capital requirement must be estimated before deciding to establish a garden. 9:Personal Factors • Success in raising a given horticultural crop depends to a considerable extent on the ability of the individual grower. Vegetable farming, commercial flower production, fruit growing and tunnel farming are choices for them.
  • 14. 2: Preparation of land The preparation of the soil depends largely upon its • Present condition, • Previous history and • The grower’s plan If the land has been under cultivation and well maintained, nothing further may be required. But if the site is new and previously uncultivated, it should be thoroughly surveyed for its size, topography, and flow of irrigation water and fertility status.
  • 15. The following operations should be done well in advance, preferably a season before. Any of these operations, if delayed, may cause a considerable loss. 1: Cleaning Existing vegetation should be cleared, already existed trees should be cut down and their stumps should be removed to avoid competition. 2: Ploughing After the site is cleared, it must be given a deep and thorough ploughing twice or thrice in two directions. Then planking should be done.
  • 16. 3: Leveling The site should be leveled. A uniform gentle slope may be provided in one direction to facilitate the flow of irrigation water. 4: Irrigation System The irrigation system should be planned and installed before establishing the plantation. Different system of irrigation are surface irrigation, sub surface irrigation, drip irrigation can be used. Sprinkler irrigation system is used if soil is not leveled.
  • 17. 5: Soil Enrichment The soil can be enriched by raising cover crops, preferably legumes. A green manure crop (jantar, berseem, guara), in addition to FYM, is the most economical means of increasing the organic matter content of soil. 6: Fencing It is done all round the site to prevent the entry of animal pests like cattle, goats or wild pigs as well as human thieves. Barbed wire is recommended, as it has no shading effect and do not compete with plants for nutrients. Rough lemon, roses can be used as fence but it can be a hidden place of many insect/pest. Therefore, it should be avoided.
  • 18. 3: Laying Out Gardens • The systematic laying out of gardens is the first step in a successful horticultural enterprise. • Indicating the actual places for roads, footpaths, irrigation channels, water tanks, manure pits, office or residence blocks, water pump or tube well/water tank and windbreaks and as well as spacing the plants in the garden. • Good site preparation and layout are extremely important in successfully establishing fruit plantings. • Eliminating potential problems before planting will reduce money and effort needed in later management practices for this long-term investment.
  • 19. Advantages of proper layout 1. Cultivation can be done efficiently. 2. Pest management can be effectively. 3. Maximum no. of plants per unit area. 4. More yield can be obtained. 5. Products of higher quality are achieved. 6. Enhance aesthetic appearance of the garden
  • 20. 1. Planting Distance • Planting distance depends upon many factors. • Plant species and variety • Climatic conditions • Soil fertility • Availability of water • Pruning and training systems
  • 21. 2. Spacing in Fruit Trees • Spacing is very important for fruit trees because, • Permanency (Durability) • Long bearing life 3. Disadvantages of Close plantation • Lower yield • Poor quality • Reduce size and poor color development • Taller size trees • Chances of wind injury are more • Management practices are difficult • Insufficient light penetration and ventilation • Multiplication of disease organisms and insect/pests are more.
  • 22.
  • 23. Different fruit plants with planting distance Types of tree Planting distance (m) Mango, Jaman, Amla, Ber, Fig, Walnut 10-15 Guava, Mulberry, Loquat, Litchi, Olive 8-10 Citrus all spp 7-8 Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum, apricot, Almond, Chery, Pomegranate 6.5-8 Date palm 5-7 Banana, Papaya, Grapes 3-4 Falsa 2.5
  • 24. Vegetables planting • Some vegetables (cabbage, cauliflower, chilies, onion, tomato, lettuce etc.) are first raised in nursery and when the seedlings reach a height of about 15-20 cm they are transplanted to the field at specific p-p and line-line distances. • Some vegetables are sown directly in properly prepared beds, maintaining the appropriate distances between beds and between plants.
  • 25. • Two types of beds are prepared for vegetables planting. • Flat beds (Spinach, Coriander) • Raised beds (musk melon, water melon, cucumber) • Some vegetables are planted on ridges e.g. potato (R x R = 60cm, P x P = 20) • Some vegetables are planted in straight lines by maintaining proper line-line distance. e.g. cabbage (L x L = 60 cm, P x P = 30 cm), onion ( L x L = 15 cm, P x P = 10 cm)
  • 26. Ornamental Garden • Formal design – Referred as Muslim style – Very simple and uncomplicated – Based on geometric symmetry – Trees are planted to give maximum shade – Development of avenues – Practice topiary work • Informal design – Referred as Japanese garden – Give naturalistic look – Curved and non-geometric – Avoid symmetrical plantation – Short lived seasonal plants – Trees and ground covers are planted
  • 27. Systems of Layout of Fruit Orchards I. Square System It is the most common and popular method of laying out fruit orchards on flat ground. In this method plants are set at right angles to each other with equal plant to plant and row to row distance. Merits • It is good for permanent fruit trees like mango, citrus, guava, and apple. • It is simple and easy to lay out. • Intercropping can be done. • Two directional cultivation can be done. • Management practice are easy. Demerits • Some unutilized space is left in center.
  • 28.
  • 29. ii. Rectangular System In this system plant-to-plant distance is kept half of the row-to-row distance. In this system plants are set at the corners of the rectangle. Merits • No. of plants are more which results in more early production. • It is good for medium size trees. Demerits • It is not good for long term plantation. • Crowding will occur on two sides. • Pruning requirement is more. • One way cultivation is possible.
  • 30.
  • 31. iii. Hexagonal System This is the best system of layout because all plants are equidistant from each other and no unutilized space is left in the center. Six plants are planted at the corner of hexagon with seventh one in the center of hexagon. Merits • 15% more plants can be planted as compare to square system. • Cultivation can be done in three directions. Demerits • It is difficult to layout.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34. iv. Quincunx System This system is modification of square system. First plants are planted according to square system and then one plant is planted in the center of each square. The additional plant is called filler. Filler must be quick bearing and low height. Guava is mostly used as filler. Merits • No unutilized space is left. • 70% more plants can be planted. • Early return from fillers. Demerits • Fillers may adversely affect the growth of permanent plants.
  • 35.
  • 36. v. Triangular System This system is modification of rectangular system. After laying out a rectangular system one tree is planted at the center of rectangle making a triangle. Merits • 50-60% more plants. Demerits • Crowding will occur at later stages of the orchard.
  • 37.
  • 38. vi. Contour system This system is used in hilly areas. Plants are planted according to the contour of the land. There is no specific row-to-row and plant-to- plant distance.
  • 39.
  • 40. 4. Digging and Refilling of Pits • After laying out orchards it is desirable to make pits for plants. • The main objective of digging pits is to provide a suitable environment for the development of the plant and its roots. • If there is problem of hardpan present in soil can be solve at this stage. • The size of pit depends upon the type of soil and species and variety of fruit. The size of the pit should be 1x1x1 m3. • This is the volume in which most of the roots development occurs during the early days of plant growth.
  • 41. • While digging pits, 1/3rd upper soil should be kept on one side and remaining 2/3rd soil should be scattered in the orchard. • The pits are left open for 2-3 weeks for exposure to sun and circulation of air. • It is harmful to keep the pits open for longer time because their surface gets hardened. • These pits are then refilled with an equal mixture of soil, silt and well rotten FYM. • The pits should be filled a little higher 10-15 cm than the surrounding soil. • This will allow for soil settling after the first irrigation. • The field is then irrigated heavily. • After the field dries, the pits are leveled once again. Plants are set in the centers of the pits and in straight rows on all sides.
  • 42. 5 Selection and Purchase of Plants • The selection of a species and the varieties of fruit plants to be raised is an important step in the establishment of a new orchard. Selection of Scion variety Scion is the upper portion of the plant, which has to give ultimate yield. Selection of scion should be done by keeping following points in mind: • Climatic suitability • Resistance to insect/pest and diseases • Market demand • Requirement of pollinator
  • 43. 6 Care Of Plants at Arrival • The 1st thing should be done on arrival of nursery plants is to check them for variety, number of plants and grade. • The plants are then sprayed with lime and sulphur and stored in the shade for about 48 hours. They should be kept soaked with water and covered with straw during storage. • In case of deciduous plants, if the roots are dry should be soaked in water for several hours before planting. • Roots broken during lifting of the plants from the nursery soil must be cut off with a clean cut. • Pruning should be done by keeping in view the shape of the plant.
  • 44. 7. Setting of Fruit Plan 1. Time of Planting • Two principal planting seasons • Spring (Feb-March) • Autumn (Sept.-Oct.) • Evergreen fruit plants can be set in both seasons, but deciduous plants should be set in spring only. • Care should be taken to set evergreen plants well before the severe dry and cold season starts, and deciduous plants should be planted when the danger of frost and severe cold is over.
  • 45. 2. Actual Planting • Plants of evergreen fruits should be planted as soon as possible after they are dug from the nursery. If deciduous plants are transplanted while they are dormant, delay does little effect. • The plants are set in the center of the pit keeping the rows straight. The use of pegs and a planting board is also recommended to help in keeping the line of plants straight.
  • 46. 3. Post-planting care • After plants are set following cares should be taken. • Irrigate them sufficiently. (This will consolidate the soil and helps the roots to establish soil contact and a supply of water quickly). A basin should be made around the plant for this purpose. • Staking • Heading back of deciduous plants. • Protection from sun and frost by using sarkanda.
  • 47. 8.Wind breaks • These are the rows of plants around the orchard to protect the plants from strong winds. Before planting an orchard, it is necessary to reserve some space for the trees, which are to serve as windbreaks. It is better to establish windbreaks one or two years before the fruit trees are planted. • A channel of 1 m wide and 1.5 m deep is dug about 4-5 m from the windbreak trees. This is done to avoid competition.
  • 48. Characteristics of windbreaks • Adaptable to the soil and climate • Strong mechanical frame • Rapid growth • Tall with dense foliage • Deep rooted • Tap rooted not fibrous root system • Prefer those plants which can give income (jaman, Muberry, ber)
  • 49. Plants used as windbreaks are • Jaman • Mulbery • Eucalyptus • Kikar • Simbal • Popular • Shisham • Desi mango • Ber • Bamboo • In temperate region different species of pine are used as windbreaks.
  • 50. Advantages of Windbreaks • Reduce the damage by strong winds • Protect from sunburn and frost. • Minimize the wind erosion. • Reduce the water loss by transpiration as caused by dry winds. Disadvantages of Windbreaks • Plants adjoining to windbreaks are more affected by insect/pest and diseases. • They compete with adjoining fruit trees for nutrition and light. • Delayed maturity of fruit of adjoining plants to windbreaks. • Less color and size development.