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Disaster
Management

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What is disaster management
???
   “A disaster can be defined as any occurrence
    that cause damage, ecological disruption, loss of
    human life, deterioration of health and health
    services on a scale, sufficient to warrant an
    extraordinary response from outside the affected
    community or area”.
    (W.H.O.)

   “A disaster can be defined as an occurrence
    either nature or manmade that causes human
    suffering and creates human needs that victims
    cannot alleviate without assistance”.
    American Red Cross (ARC) ’
What is Disaster Management
What it involves ??
 Dealing with and avoiding both natural
  and man made disasters.
 Preparedness before disaster.
 Rebuilding and supporting society after
  natural disasters.
BACKGROUND

 Enormous      population     pressures     and
 urbanization

A   flood, a drought or an earthquake millions
 of peoples are affected each time a disaster
 occurs

 Large-scale   displacement and the loss of
 life, loss of property and agricultural crops
BACKGROUND
 The   reasons for this are varied including:
   an   increasing population pressures in urban
   areas

   an   increase in the extent of encroachment
   into lands, e.g., river beds or drainage
   courses, low lying areas etc.

   poor   or ignored zoning laws and policies

   lack   of proper risk management (insurance)
TYPES OF DISASTER
  Natural           Man-made
  Disasters          Disasters


   Meteorological     Technological




                        Industrial
   Topographical
                        accidents




   Environmental      Security related
FACTORS AFFECTING DISASTER

                 • Age
                 • Immunization status
  Host factors   • Degree of mobility
                 • Emotional stability



                 • Physical Factors
                 • Chemical Factors
 Environmental   • Biological Factors
    factors      • Social Factors
                 • Psychological Factors
CHARACTERISTIC OF DISASTER

   Predictability
   Controllability
   Speed of onset
   Length of
    forewarning
   Duration of impact
   Scope and intensity
    of impact
PHASES OF DISASTER
            Pre-impact
              phase



              Impact
               phase



            Post-impact
              phase
PRINCIPLES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT
   Disaster management is the responsibility of all
    spheres of government

   Disaster management should use resources that
    exist for a day-to-day purpose.

   Organizations should function as an extension of
    their core business

   Individuals are responsible for their own safety.

   Disaster management planning should focus on
    large-scale events.
Contd….
   DM planning should recognize the difference
    between incidents and disasters.

   DM planning must take account of the type of
    physical environment and the structure of the
    population.

   DM arrangements must recognise the involvement
    and potential role of non- government agencies.
PHASES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT

   Disaster Preparedness

   Disaster impact

   Disaster Response

   Rehabilitation

   Disaster Mitigation
Disaster preparedness
     Preparedness should be in the form of
 money, manpower and materials

 Evaluation   from past experiences about risk

 Location   of disaster prone areas

 Organization   of communication, information
 and warning system

 Ensuring   co-ordination and response
 mechanisms
Contd….
 Development     of public education
 programme

 Co-ordination   with media

 National   & international relations

 Keeping    stock of foods, drug and other
 essential commodities.
E.g.: Indian Meteorological department (IMD) plays a key role
    in forewarning the disaster of cyclone-storms by detection tracing. It has
    5 centres in Kolkata, Bhubaneswar, Vishakapatanam, Chennai &
    Mumbai. In addition there are 31 special observation posts setup a long
    the east coast of India.

The International Agencies which provides humanitarian assistance to the
   disaster strike areas are United Nation agencies.
 Office for the co-ordination of Humanitarian Affair (OCHA)
 World Health Organization (WHO)
 UNICEF
 World Food Programme (WFP)
 Food & Agricultural Organisation (FAD)



E.g.: Non Governmental Organizations
   Co-Operative American Relief Every where (CARE)
   International committee of Red cross
   International committee of Red cross
Disaster impact
Disaster response

 Epidemiologic   surveillance and disease
    control

   Vaccination

 Nutrition
Rehabilitation phase

 Water   supply

 Food    safety

 Basic   sanitation and personal hygiene

 Vector   control
Disaster mitigation
   This involves lessening the likely effects of emergencies.

   These include depending upon the disaster, protection of
    vulnerable population and structure.

    Eg. improving structural qualities of schools, houses and such other
    buildings so that medical causalities can be minimized.

   Similarly ensuring the safety of health facilities and public health
    services including water supply and sewerage system to reduce the
    cost of rehabilitation and reconstruction.

     This mitigation compliments the disaster preparedness and disaster
    response activities.
DISASTER-EFFECTS
   Deaths

   Disability

   Increase     in communicable disease

   Psychological    problems

   Food   shortage

   Socioeconomic      losses

   Shortage     of drugs and medical supplies.

   Environmental     disruption
DISASTER RECOVERY
 Successful   Recovery Preparation

 Be   vigilant in Health teaching

 Psychological    support

 Referrals   to hospital as needed

 Remain    alert for environmental health

 Nurse   must be attentive to the danger
Major Disasters in India

 1984 Bhopal Gas Tragedy
 2001 Gujarat earthquake
 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami
 2008 Mumbai attacks
India’s Vulnerability to Disasters
    57% land is vulnerable to earthquakes. Of
     these, 12% is vulnerable to severe earthquakes.

    68% land is vulnerable to drought.

    12% land is vulnerable to floods.

    8% land is vulnerable to cyclones.

    Apart from natural disasters, some cities in India
     are also vulnerable to chemical and industrial
     disasters and man-made disasters.
GOI – NGO Disaster preparation
       and Response Committee
   Members
   World Vision of India
   SOS Children's Village India
   Ramakrishna Mission
   Plan international
   OXFAM India Trust
   Lutheran World Service India
   Red Cross
   Catholic Relief Services
   CASA
   CARITAS India
   Voluntary Health association Of India
   Action Aid
   Action for Food Production-AFPRO
   Indo German Social Services Society
Areas of Concern
   Activating an Early Warning System network and its
    close monitoring
   Mechanisms for integrating the
    scientific, technological and administrative agencies
    for effective disaster management
   Terrestrial communication links which collapse in the
    event of a rapid onset disaster
   Vulnerability of critical infrastructures (power
    supply, communication, water supply, transport, etc.)
    to disaster events
Contd…
   Funding : Primacy of relief as disaster response.

   Preparedness and Mitigation very often ignored.

   Lack of integrated efforts to collect and compile data,
    information and local knowledge on disaster history and
    traditional response patterns.

   Need for standardized efforts in compiling and interpreting
    geo-spatial data, satellite imagery and early warning signals.

   Weak areas continue to be forecasting, modeling, risk
    prediction, simulation and scenario analysis, etc.
Contd…
   Absence of a national level, state level, and district level
    directory of experts and inventory of resources.

   Absence of a National Disaster Management Plan, and
    State level and district level disaster management plans.

   Sustainability of efforts

   Effective Inter Agency Co-ordination and Standard
    Operating Procedures for stakeholder groups, especially
    critical first responder agencies.

   Emergency medicine, critical care medicine, triage, first
    aid
Nodal Agencies for Disaster Management

   Floods : Ministry of Water Resources, CWC

   Cyclones : Indian Meteorological Department

   Earthquakes : Indian Meteorological Department

   Epidemics : Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

   Avian Flu: Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment,

   Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
Nodal Agencies for Disaster Management

   Chemical Disasters : Ministry of Environment and
    Forests
   Industrial Disasters : Ministry of Labour
   Rail Accidents : Ministry of Railways
   Air Accidents : Ministry of Civil Aviation
   Fire : Ministry of Home Affairs
   Nuclear Incidents : Department of Atomic Energy
   Mine Disasters : Department of Mines
Dynamics of Disasters
   There is a high probability or a low probability for an
    event happening somewhere sometime soon…

   The unpredictability of disaster events and the high
    risk and vulnerability profiles make it imperative to
    strengthen disaster preparedness, mitigation and
    enforcement of guidelines, building codes and
    restrictions on construction of buildings in flood-prone
    areas and storm surge prone coastal areas.
New Directions for Disaster Management in
India
    The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) has

     been set up as the apex body for Disaster Management in

     India, with the Prime Minister as its Chairman.

    Disaster Management Authorities will be set up at the State

     and District Levels to be headed by the Chief Ministers and

     Collectors/Zilla Parishad Chairmen respectively.
New Directions for Disaster Management in
India
    A National Disaster Mitigation Fund will be administerd by NDMA.
     States and districts will administer mitigation funds.
    A National Disaster Response Fund will be administerd by NDMA
     through the National Executive Committee. States and Districts will
     administer state Disaster Response Fund and Disaster Response Fund
     respectively.
    8 Battalions of National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) are being
     trained and deployed with CSSR and MFR equipments and tools in
     eight strategic locations.
    A National Disaster Management Policy and National Disaster
     Response Plan will also be drawn up.
Lessons Learnt
 Be  Prepared : Preparedness and Mitigation is
  bound to yield more effective returns than
  distributing relief after a disaster.
 Create a Culture of Preparedness and
  Prevention.
 Evolve a code of conduct for all stake-holders
Future Directions
   Encourage and consolidate knowledge networks
   Mobilise and train disaster volunteers for more
    effective preparedness, mitigation and response
    (NSS, NCC, Scouts and Guides, NYK, Civil
    Defence, Homeguards)
   Increased capacity building leads to faster
    vulnerability reduction.
   Learn from best practices in disaster
    preparedness, mitigation and disaster response
Future Directions
   Mobilising stakeholder participation of Self Help
    Groups, Women’s Groups, Youth Groups, Panchayati
    Raj Institutions

   Anticipatory Governance: Simulation exercises, Mock
    drills and Scenario Analysis

   Indigenous knowledge systems and coping practices

   Living with Risk: Community Based Disaster Risk
    Management
Invest in Preparedness
 Investments   in Preparedness and Prevention
 (Mitigation) will yield sustainable results, rather than
 spending money on relief after a disaster.
 Most   disasters are predictable, especially in their
 seasonality and the disaster-prone areas which are
 vulnerable.
 Communities    must be involved in disaster
 preparedness.
Future Directions
    Inclusive, participatory, gender sensitive, child
     friendly, eco-friendly and disabled friendly
     disaster management

    Technology driven but people owned

    Knowledge Management: Documentation and
     dissemination of good practices

    Public Private Partnership
Best Practices
   On 12 November, 1970 a major cyclone hit the coastal belt of
    Bangladesh at 223 km/hr. with a storm surge of six to nine
    meters height, killing an estimated 500,000 people.
   Due to the Cyclone Preparedness Program, the April 1991
    cyclone with wind speed of 225 km/hr. killed only 138,000
    people even though the coastal population had doubled by
    that time.
   In May 1994, in a similar cyclone with a wind speed of 250
    km/hr. only 127 people lost their lives.
   In May 1997, in a cyclone with wind speed of 200 km/hr. only
    111 people lost their lives.
New possibilities
 National   Urban Renewal Mission for 70 cities:
 recent experience of “unprecedented”
 extreme weather conditions in a few major
 metros and megacities
 100,000   Rural Knowledge Centres
 ( IT Kiosks): Need for Spatial e-Governance for
 informed decision making in disaster-prone
 areas: before, during and after disasters
Disaster Reduction Day
   NIDM observed "Disaster Reduction Day" on the
    12th October
   Rallies and special lectures were organized in the
    universities and colleges to mark the initiatives of
    awareness for disaster reduction amongst youth &
    children
   Children's Colour Activity Book for Disaster
    Preparedness
 FORINFORMATION ON DISASTERS DIAL
 TOLL FREE No. 1070

 Log   on to http://www.ndmindia.nic.in
DISASTER NURSING

  It   can be defined as the adaptation of
   professional nursing skills in recognizing
   and meeting the nursing, physical and
   emotional needs resulting from a
   disaster.
Any Questions ??

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Disaster management ppt

  • 2. What is disaster management ???  “A disaster can be defined as any occurrence that cause damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life, deterioration of health and health services on a scale, sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area”. (W.H.O.)  “A disaster can be defined as an occurrence either nature or manmade that causes human suffering and creates human needs that victims cannot alleviate without assistance”. American Red Cross (ARC) ’
  • 3. What is Disaster Management
  • 4. What it involves ??  Dealing with and avoiding both natural and man made disasters.  Preparedness before disaster.  Rebuilding and supporting society after natural disasters.
  • 5. BACKGROUND  Enormous population pressures and urbanization A flood, a drought or an earthquake millions of peoples are affected each time a disaster occurs  Large-scale displacement and the loss of life, loss of property and agricultural crops
  • 6. BACKGROUND  The reasons for this are varied including:  an increasing population pressures in urban areas  an increase in the extent of encroachment into lands, e.g., river beds or drainage courses, low lying areas etc.  poor or ignored zoning laws and policies  lack of proper risk management (insurance)
  • 7. TYPES OF DISASTER Natural Man-made Disasters Disasters Meteorological Technological Industrial Topographical accidents Environmental Security related
  • 8. FACTORS AFFECTING DISASTER • Age • Immunization status Host factors • Degree of mobility • Emotional stability • Physical Factors • Chemical Factors Environmental • Biological Factors factors • Social Factors • Psychological Factors
  • 9. CHARACTERISTIC OF DISASTER  Predictability  Controllability  Speed of onset  Length of forewarning  Duration of impact  Scope and intensity of impact
  • 10. PHASES OF DISASTER Pre-impact phase Impact phase Post-impact phase
  • 11.
  • 12. PRINCIPLES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT  Disaster management is the responsibility of all spheres of government  Disaster management should use resources that exist for a day-to-day purpose.  Organizations should function as an extension of their core business  Individuals are responsible for their own safety.  Disaster management planning should focus on large-scale events.
  • 13. Contd….  DM planning should recognize the difference between incidents and disasters.  DM planning must take account of the type of physical environment and the structure of the population.  DM arrangements must recognise the involvement and potential role of non- government agencies.
  • 14. PHASES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT Disaster Preparedness Disaster impact Disaster Response Rehabilitation Disaster Mitigation
  • 15. Disaster preparedness Preparedness should be in the form of money, manpower and materials  Evaluation from past experiences about risk  Location of disaster prone areas  Organization of communication, information and warning system  Ensuring co-ordination and response mechanisms
  • 16. Contd….  Development of public education programme  Co-ordination with media  National & international relations  Keeping stock of foods, drug and other essential commodities.
  • 17. E.g.: Indian Meteorological department (IMD) plays a key role in forewarning the disaster of cyclone-storms by detection tracing. It has 5 centres in Kolkata, Bhubaneswar, Vishakapatanam, Chennai & Mumbai. In addition there are 31 special observation posts setup a long the east coast of India. The International Agencies which provides humanitarian assistance to the disaster strike areas are United Nation agencies.  Office for the co-ordination of Humanitarian Affair (OCHA)  World Health Organization (WHO)  UNICEF  World Food Programme (WFP)  Food & Agricultural Organisation (FAD) E.g.: Non Governmental Organizations  Co-Operative American Relief Every where (CARE)  International committee of Red cross  International committee of Red cross
  • 19. Disaster response  Epidemiologic surveillance and disease control  Vaccination  Nutrition
  • 20. Rehabilitation phase  Water supply  Food safety  Basic sanitation and personal hygiene  Vector control
  • 21. Disaster mitigation  This involves lessening the likely effects of emergencies.  These include depending upon the disaster, protection of vulnerable population and structure. Eg. improving structural qualities of schools, houses and such other buildings so that medical causalities can be minimized.  Similarly ensuring the safety of health facilities and public health services including water supply and sewerage system to reduce the cost of rehabilitation and reconstruction. This mitigation compliments the disaster preparedness and disaster response activities.
  • 22. DISASTER-EFFECTS  Deaths  Disability  Increase in communicable disease  Psychological problems  Food shortage  Socioeconomic losses  Shortage of drugs and medical supplies.  Environmental disruption
  • 23. DISASTER RECOVERY  Successful Recovery Preparation  Be vigilant in Health teaching  Psychological support  Referrals to hospital as needed  Remain alert for environmental health  Nurse must be attentive to the danger
  • 24. Major Disasters in India  1984 Bhopal Gas Tragedy  2001 Gujarat earthquake  2004 Indian Ocean tsunami  2008 Mumbai attacks
  • 25. India’s Vulnerability to Disasters  57% land is vulnerable to earthquakes. Of these, 12% is vulnerable to severe earthquakes.  68% land is vulnerable to drought.  12% land is vulnerable to floods.  8% land is vulnerable to cyclones.  Apart from natural disasters, some cities in India are also vulnerable to chemical and industrial disasters and man-made disasters.
  • 26. GOI – NGO Disaster preparation and Response Committee  Members  World Vision of India  SOS Children's Village India  Ramakrishna Mission  Plan international  OXFAM India Trust  Lutheran World Service India  Red Cross  Catholic Relief Services  CASA  CARITAS India  Voluntary Health association Of India  Action Aid  Action for Food Production-AFPRO  Indo German Social Services Society
  • 27. Areas of Concern  Activating an Early Warning System network and its close monitoring  Mechanisms for integrating the scientific, technological and administrative agencies for effective disaster management  Terrestrial communication links which collapse in the event of a rapid onset disaster  Vulnerability of critical infrastructures (power supply, communication, water supply, transport, etc.) to disaster events
  • 28. Contd…  Funding : Primacy of relief as disaster response.  Preparedness and Mitigation very often ignored.  Lack of integrated efforts to collect and compile data, information and local knowledge on disaster history and traditional response patterns.  Need for standardized efforts in compiling and interpreting geo-spatial data, satellite imagery and early warning signals.  Weak areas continue to be forecasting, modeling, risk prediction, simulation and scenario analysis, etc.
  • 29. Contd…  Absence of a national level, state level, and district level directory of experts and inventory of resources.  Absence of a National Disaster Management Plan, and State level and district level disaster management plans.  Sustainability of efforts  Effective Inter Agency Co-ordination and Standard Operating Procedures for stakeholder groups, especially critical first responder agencies.  Emergency medicine, critical care medicine, triage, first aid
  • 30. Nodal Agencies for Disaster Management  Floods : Ministry of Water Resources, CWC  Cyclones : Indian Meteorological Department  Earthquakes : Indian Meteorological Department  Epidemics : Ministry of Health and Family Welfare  Avian Flu: Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment,  Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
  • 31. Nodal Agencies for Disaster Management  Chemical Disasters : Ministry of Environment and Forests  Industrial Disasters : Ministry of Labour  Rail Accidents : Ministry of Railways  Air Accidents : Ministry of Civil Aviation  Fire : Ministry of Home Affairs  Nuclear Incidents : Department of Atomic Energy  Mine Disasters : Department of Mines
  • 32. Dynamics of Disasters  There is a high probability or a low probability for an event happening somewhere sometime soon…  The unpredictability of disaster events and the high risk and vulnerability profiles make it imperative to strengthen disaster preparedness, mitigation and enforcement of guidelines, building codes and restrictions on construction of buildings in flood-prone areas and storm surge prone coastal areas.
  • 33. New Directions for Disaster Management in India  The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) has been set up as the apex body for Disaster Management in India, with the Prime Minister as its Chairman.  Disaster Management Authorities will be set up at the State and District Levels to be headed by the Chief Ministers and Collectors/Zilla Parishad Chairmen respectively.
  • 34. New Directions for Disaster Management in India  A National Disaster Mitigation Fund will be administerd by NDMA. States and districts will administer mitigation funds.  A National Disaster Response Fund will be administerd by NDMA through the National Executive Committee. States and Districts will administer state Disaster Response Fund and Disaster Response Fund respectively.  8 Battalions of National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) are being trained and deployed with CSSR and MFR equipments and tools in eight strategic locations.  A National Disaster Management Policy and National Disaster Response Plan will also be drawn up.
  • 35. Lessons Learnt  Be Prepared : Preparedness and Mitigation is bound to yield more effective returns than distributing relief after a disaster.  Create a Culture of Preparedness and Prevention.  Evolve a code of conduct for all stake-holders
  • 36. Future Directions  Encourage and consolidate knowledge networks  Mobilise and train disaster volunteers for more effective preparedness, mitigation and response (NSS, NCC, Scouts and Guides, NYK, Civil Defence, Homeguards)  Increased capacity building leads to faster vulnerability reduction.  Learn from best practices in disaster preparedness, mitigation and disaster response
  • 37. Future Directions  Mobilising stakeholder participation of Self Help Groups, Women’s Groups, Youth Groups, Panchayati Raj Institutions  Anticipatory Governance: Simulation exercises, Mock drills and Scenario Analysis  Indigenous knowledge systems and coping practices  Living with Risk: Community Based Disaster Risk Management
  • 38. Invest in Preparedness  Investments in Preparedness and Prevention (Mitigation) will yield sustainable results, rather than spending money on relief after a disaster.  Most disasters are predictable, especially in their seasonality and the disaster-prone areas which are vulnerable.  Communities must be involved in disaster preparedness.
  • 39. Future Directions  Inclusive, participatory, gender sensitive, child friendly, eco-friendly and disabled friendly disaster management  Technology driven but people owned  Knowledge Management: Documentation and dissemination of good practices  Public Private Partnership
  • 40. Best Practices  On 12 November, 1970 a major cyclone hit the coastal belt of Bangladesh at 223 km/hr. with a storm surge of six to nine meters height, killing an estimated 500,000 people.  Due to the Cyclone Preparedness Program, the April 1991 cyclone with wind speed of 225 km/hr. killed only 138,000 people even though the coastal population had doubled by that time.  In May 1994, in a similar cyclone with a wind speed of 250 km/hr. only 127 people lost their lives.  In May 1997, in a cyclone with wind speed of 200 km/hr. only 111 people lost their lives.
  • 41. New possibilities  National Urban Renewal Mission for 70 cities: recent experience of “unprecedented” extreme weather conditions in a few major metros and megacities  100,000 Rural Knowledge Centres ( IT Kiosks): Need for Spatial e-Governance for informed decision making in disaster-prone areas: before, during and after disasters
  • 42. Disaster Reduction Day  NIDM observed "Disaster Reduction Day" on the 12th October  Rallies and special lectures were organized in the universities and colleges to mark the initiatives of awareness for disaster reduction amongst youth & children  Children's Colour Activity Book for Disaster Preparedness
  • 43.  FORINFORMATION ON DISASTERS DIAL TOLL FREE No. 1070  Log on to http://www.ndmindia.nic.in
  • 44. DISASTER NURSING  It can be defined as the adaptation of professional nursing skills in recognizing and meeting the nursing, physical and emotional needs resulting from a disaster.