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DISASTER
MANAGEMENT
Speakers :
CHETAN – Introduction to Disaster
Management and Disaster Impact
SOUMYA – Disaster Relief, Response,
Rehabilitation.
CHETAN KUMAR – Mitigation, Disaster
Preparedness, Policies
DARSHAN – Personal protection in
different types of Emergency
CHIDANAND – Manmade Disasters,
Disasters in India, Organizations.
Introduction to
Disaster
Management
By Chetan
Definition :
 A disaster can be defined as : “ Any
occurrence that causes damage, ecological
disruption, loss of human life or
deterioration of health and health services
on a scale sufficient to warrant an
extraordinary response from outside the
affected community or area”. BY - World Health
Organisation (WHO)
 “A disaster can be defined as an occurrence
either nature or manmade that causes human
suffering and creates human needs that
victims cannot alleviate without assistance”. BY -
When and Where it occurs ?
 Anytime and anywhere, not confined to any
part of the world.
 Some disasters can be predicted and
whereas some cannot be predicted.
 Warfare is a special category, because it is
well planned and damage is the intended goal
of action.
Factors affecting Disaster :
• Age
• Immunization status
• Degree of mobility
• Emotional stability
Host factors
• Physical Factors
• Chemical Factors
• Biological Factors
• Social Factors
• Psychological Factors
Environmental
factors
Effects of disaster :
 Population displacement
 Injury or Death
 Risk of epidemic of diseases
 Damage to infrastructure
 Psychological problems
 Food shortage
 Socioeconomic losses
 Shortage of drugs and medical supplies.
Types of Disasters :
Natural
Disasters
Earthquake
Floods
Cyclones
Tsunami
Landslide
and
Avalanches
Manmade
Disasters
Chemical
Disaster
Nuclear
Disaster
Biological
Disaster
Examples
• Natural disasters :
Earthquakes, landslides,
volcanic eruptions, floods
and cyclones
• Man-made disasters :
Stampedes, fires,
transport accidents,
industrial accidents, oil
spills and nuclear
explosions/radiation. War
and deliberate attacks
may also be put in this
category.
Severity of the impact :
 The severity of the impact depends upon many
factors :
1. Predictability : Some of the disasters such as
cyclones, floods can be predicted and the
degree of preparedness will be high.
2. Type of Disaster : In Earthquakes, the mortality
is high because the people get crushed below
the falling objects and collapsed buildings
3. Density and population distribution.
4. Opportunity of warning.
5. Condition of the environment.
 The scale is a normalized function whose
variables are scope (S), topography (T), and
rate of change (D), expressed as :
Rohn Emergency Formula :
E = EMERGENCY = f(S,T,D)
Measuring the severity :
Morbidity and Mortality :
 Earthquakes : Unpredictable, People get crushed because they
cannot escape and if it occurs in night, the people may even have
fracture pelvis, thorax or spine because they are lying in bed
 Volcanic eruptions : Mudslides and glowing clouds
of ash.
Bodies buried in volcanic
ash
Morbidity and Mortality (contd..)
:
 Floods : Collapsed dam or tidal waves.
 Droughts : Protein-calorie malnutrition and vitamin
deficiencies (Particularly Vit.A) leading to
Xerophthalmia and blindness. Even dehydration and
diarrhoea may occur.
India’s Vulnerability to Disasters
:
 57% land is vulnerable to earthquakes. Of these, 12% is vulnerable to severe
earthquakes.
 68% land is vulnerable to drought.
 12% land is vulnerable to floods.
 8% land is vulnerable to cyclones.
 Apart from natural disasters, some cities in India are also vulnerable to chemical and
industrial disasters and man-made disasters.
 Northern mountain region prone to land slides, snow–storms , earthquakes
 Eastern coastal area prone to severe floods ,cyclones
 Western desert prone to draughts
India’s Vulnerability to Disasters
:
Who will work ?
 Usually military force, police, BSF, volunteers from other region.
 Disaster management is a specialised training & is provided by
local, state, federal and private organizations.
 Undergraduate and Graduate degrees in disaster management or
a related field are provided. (Disaster Management Institute, Bhopal, M.P and
Disaster Mitigation Institute, Ahmadabad, Gujarat).
 Certified Emergency Manager (CEM) the most important degree.
The National Emergency Management Association and the
International Association of Emergency Managers are two examples
of these professional organizations.
Principles of disaster
management
 Comprehensive – disaster managers
consider and take into account all hazards, all
phases, and all impacts relevant to disasters.
 Progressive – anticipate future disasters and
take preventive and preparatory measures
 Risk-driven – use sound risk management
principles (hazard identification, risk analysis,
and impact analysis) in assigning priorities and
resources.
 Integrated – ensure unity of effort among all
levels of government and all elements of a
community.
Contd...
 Collaborative – create and sustain broad and
sincere relationships among individuals and
organizations .
 Coordinated – synchronize the activities to
achieve a common purpose.
 Flexible – use creative and innovative
approaches in solving disaster challenges.
 Professional – value a science and
knowledge-based approach for continuous
improvement.
International Organizations
International Organizations :
Organizations in INDIA :
FOR INFORMATION ON DISASTERS DIAL TOLL FREE No.
1070
Log on to http://www.ndmindia.nic.in
Volunteers :
They form an important non-professional supporting team in disaster
management.
Phases of Management :
 Disaster Response
 Disaster Rehabilitation
 Disaster Reconstruction
 Disaster Mitigation
 Disaster Preparedness
Recovery phase after
disaster
Risk reduction phase
before a disaster
Impact & Response :
 Greatest need for emergency care is in 1st few hours
after the impact.
 The management of mass casualties are divided into :
Search and Rescue
First Aid
Field care
Triage
Tagging
Identification of Dead
Search and Rescue & First-Aid
:
 For search and rescue the team should be organised and
work as one. Even with a good team the search may be a
small fraction in major disasters.
 The immediate help is usually obtained from the uninjured
survivors.
Field care :
 The injured people are brought to nearest health care
immediately by available means of transport and
people converge into health facilities.
 The hospitals must get ready to deal with mass input
of injured with new priorities for bed availability and
surgical services.
 Provision for food, shelter should be done.
 A centre to respond for the enquiries from patient’s
relatives and friends.
 Priority is given to :
a. victims identification and
b. adequate mortuary space.
Triage :
 It consists of rapidly classifying the injured on
the basis of the severity of their injuries and their
likelyhood of their survival with prompt medical
intervention.
 The principle of “First come, first serve” is NOT
FOLLOWED.
 High priority is given to those whose immediate or
long term prognosis can be changed dramatically
with simple intensive care.
 It is the only approach that can provide maximum
benefit to large population in a major disaster.
Colour coding in a Triage :
Internationally
accepted four
colour coding
system :
 Red – High
priority treatment
or transfer.
 Yellow –
Medium priority.
 Green –
Ambulatory
patients.
 Black – Dead or
Moribound
patients.
Triage should be carried out
at the site of the disaster.
Local health workers should
be taught the principles of
triage as a part of disaster
training.
People with minor injuries
should be treated in their
homes to avoid social
dislocation and drain the
resources which are needed
by severely injured person.
All persons should be
tagged with details – name,
age, place of origin, triage,
initial diagnosis and
Identification of Dead :
 Dead people care is most important in disaster management
because they impede the efficiency of rescue activities.
 Care of dead includes :
1. Proper Respect.
2. Removal of dead from the scene.
3. Shifting to mortuary.
4. Identification.
5. Reception of bereaved relatives.
#Cadavers must be removed from water sources as they
may cause outbreaks of gastroenteritis or food poisoning.
#The health hazards from the cadavers are outbreaks of
cholera, typhoid, leptospirosis, anthrax, plague etc.
Disaster Relief ,
Response and
Rehabilitation
By : Soumya
DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE
Relief phase :
 This phase begins when assistance from outside area starts reaching the
disaster site.
 The relief supplies are determined by two factors :
a. The type of disaster b. Availability of local supplies.
Relief phase :
 Important needs are :
1. Critical health supply and casualties.
2. Food, blanket, clothing, shelter, sanitary engineering.
3. Measures to prevent outbreak of communicable
diseases.
4. Donations(Funds)
5. Transportation, Storage and distribution of food,
medicines, vitamins.
6. The four distinct components in Relief phase are :
Acquisition of supplies, Transportation, Storage
and Distribution.
Disaster response
• Epidemiological surveillance
• Nutrition
• vaccination
Surveillance/early warning system :
 Rapid detection of cases of epidemic-prone diseases is
essential to ensure rapid control. A surveillance/early warning
system should be quickly established to detect outbreaks and
monitor priority endemic diseases.
 • Priority diseases to be included in the surveillance system. In
some situations, the threats may include rare diseases such as
viral haemorrhagic fevers, plague or tularaemia.
Communicable diseases :
The potential risk of communicable
diseases are influenced by six types of
adverse changes. These are :
 changes in pre existent levels of
disease;
 ecological changes
 population
 displacement population
 density disruption public utilities; and
 interruption of basic public health
services.
Changes in pre existent levels
of disease
• Usually the risk of a communicable
disease in a Community affected by
disaster is proportional to the endemic
level.
• There is generally no risk of a given
disease when the organism causes it is
not present beforehand
• Relief workers can conceivably
introduce communicable disease into
areas affected by disaster.
Ecological changes caused by
the disaster
• Natural disasters, particularly droughts,
floods and hurricanes, frequently produce ecological
changes in environment which increase
or reduce the risk of communicable disease.
• Vector borne and water-borne diseases
are the most significantly affected.
Population displacement
• Movement of populations away from the areas affected by a disaster can
affect the relative risk from communicable diseases.
• If the population moves nearby, the existing facilities
some distance, the chances increase that the
displaced population will encounter diseases
not prevalent in their own community, to which
they are less susceptible .
POPULATION DENSITY
 Because of the destruction of houses, natural disasters almost invariably
contribute to increased population density.
• Survivors of severe disaster seek shelter, food and water in less affected
areas.
• When the damage is less severe,
crowding may occur in public places
like school and churches..
Disruption of public
utilities
• Electricity, water, sewage disposal and
other public utilities may be interrupted
after a disaster.
• Insufficient water for washing hands &
bathing also promotes the spread of
diseases transmitted by contact.
Interruption of basic public health
services
• The interruption of basic public health services
like vaccination, ambulatory treatment of
tuberculosis and programs for the control of
malaria and vectors are frequent, after disaster in
a developing country.
• The risk of transmission increases proportionally
to the extent and the duration of the disrupt.
Principals of preventing and
controlling communicable diseases
1)Implement as soon as possible
all public health measures,
to reduce the risk of disease transmission;
2)Organize a reliable reporting system
to identify outbreaks and
initiate suitable control measures;
3)Investigate all reports of
disease outbreaks immediately.
Preventive measures in
communicable diseases:
 1)Ensure safe water, sanitation
 2) Primary health-care services
 . The immediate impact of communicable
diseases can be mitigated with the following
 interventions:
 • Ensure early diagnosis and treatment of
diarrhoeal diseases and ARI,malaria.
 • Ensure availability of drugs included in the
interagency emergency health kit.
Disaster
Press/Media
Politics
Public
Health Authorities
Mass Vaccination Programme
•Requires large number of workers
•Supervision of sterilization is impossible
•Leads to false sense of security
about diseases.
•Then to neglect of effective control
measures.
VACCINATION :
Newer typhoid and cholera
vaccines :
 WHO does not recommend in routine endemic
areas.
 They have increased efficacy
 Since they are multidose vaccines compliance
is generally poor.
Tetanus :
 Significant cases of tetanus are not noted.
 So, generally tetanus vaccination is not
required in disaster areas.
 Best protection is maintenance of high level of
immunity in general population before disaster
occurs.
 If TT immunization was received more than
5yrs ago in a injured patient then booster dose
is given, if unimmunized then it is given as
directed by physician.
Measles and Hepatitis A vaccines:
• Mass measles
immunization together with
vitamin A supplementation are
immediate health priorities.
The priority age groups are 6
months to 5 years, and up to
15yr.
•Hepatitis A vaccine is
generally not recommended to
prevent outbreaks in the
disaster area.
NUTRITION
 Disaster affects nutritional status of the population by
affecting one or more components of food chain.
 Infants, children, pregnant women, nursing mothers and
sick persons are most commonly affected ones.
 STEPS FOR ENSURING FOOD RELIEF PROGRAM
WILL BE EFFECTIVE:
 1)Assessing the food supplies after the disaster
 2)Gauging the nutritional needs of the affected population
 3)Calculating daily food rations and need for large population
 4)Monitoring the nutritional status of affected people
Relief v/s rehabilitation :
• Relief and rehabilitation come immediately after the
disaster.
• The basic difference between them is that relief relates
to the immediate days and weeks after the disaster when
attempts are made to provide basic needs to the victims.
• Rehabilitation relates to the work undertaken in the
following weeks and months, for the restoration of basic
services to enable the population to return to normalcy.
Rehabilitation phase
Starts from the moment disaster strikes and ends
with restoration of normality.
• Water supply
• Food safety
• Basic sanitation and personal hygiene
• Vector control
WATER SUPPLY
 Survey of all public water supplies to be made
 Priority of ensuring water quality is by chlorination.
 Increase the residual chlorine level to about 0.2 to 0.5mg/litre.
 Existing and new water resources require the following:
1)Restrict access to people and animals.
2)Ensure excreta disposal at a safe distance from water source
3)Prohibit water washing methods
4)Upgrade wells to ensure they are not contaminated.
5)Estimate maximum yield of wells. Incase of emergency ,water
has to be trucked to disaster site or camps.
Food supply
 Poor hygiene is the major cause of food borne
diseases in disaster areas.
 Where feeding programmes are used, kitchen
sanitation is of utmost importance.
 Personal hygiene should be monitored in individuals
involved in food preparation.
Basic sanitation and
personal hygiene
 Many communicable diseases spread
through fecal contamination
of drinking water and food.
 Hence every effort should me made
to ensure sanitary disposal of excreta.
 Emergency toilet facilities should be
made available wherever they are destroyed.
 Washing, cleaning and bathing facilities
should be provided to displaced persons.
Vector control
 Control programme for vector borne diseases
should be intensified in the emergency and
rehabilitation period.
 Of special concern are1)Dengue fever
2)Malaria
3)Leptospirosis
4)Rat bite fever
5)Plague.
Flood water provides ample breeding
opportunities for mosquitoes.
Disaster mitigation
Emergency Preparedness
and Policies
By Chetankumar
Disaster mitigation
Disaster mitigation
 Mitigation is a key to national preparedness.
 This includes an assessment of possible risks
to personal/family health and to personal
property.
 For instance, in a flood plain, home owners
might not be aware of a property being exposed
to a hazard until trouble strikes. Specialists can
be hired to conduct risk identification and
assessment surveys.
Contd…
 Mitigation involves Structural and Non-
structural measures taken to limit the impact of
disasters.
 Structural mitigation are actions that change
the characteristics of a building or its
surrounding, examples include shelters,
window shutters, clearing forest around the
house.
 Non-structural mitigation on personal level
mainly takes the form of insurance or simply
moving house to a safer area.
DEFINITION
Disaster preparedness is “a programme of
long term development activities whose goals
are to strengthen the overall capacity and
capability of a country to manage efficiently all
types of emergency it should bring about an
orderly transition from through recovery, and
back to sustained development “
 THE OBJECTIVE
To ensure that appropriate systems, procedures
and resources are in place to provide prompt
effective assistance to disaster victims ,thus
facilitating relief measures and rehabilitation of
services .
Tasks to be followed in emergency
preparedness
1)Evaluate the risk of the country or
particular region to disaster.
India is vulnerable, in varying degrees, to a
large number of natural as well as man-made
disasters. 58.6 per cent of the landmass is prone
to earthquakes of moderate to very high intensity;
over 40 million hectares (12 per cent of land) is
prone to floods and river erosion.
2) Adopt standards and regulation
Following according to NDMA guidelines
Of the 7,516 km long coastline, close to 5,700 km is
prone to cyclones and tsunamis; 68 per cent of the
cultivable area is vulnerable to drought and hilly
areas are at risk from landslides and avalanches.
Vulnerability to disasters/ emergencies of Chemical,
Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) origin
also exists
contd…
3)Organize communication ,information and
warning system.
Warning system is any system of biological or
technical nature deployed by an individual or group
to inform of a future danger. Its purpose is to enable
the deployer of the warning system to prepare for
the danger and act accordingly to mitigate or avoid
it.
4)Ensure coordination end response
mechanism.
These mechanisms include the "cluster approach",
which groups agencies with a shared operational
interest, e.g. health, water and sanitation. This
approach helps to avoid gaps and duplications. It
also helps to ensure there is a clear lead
organization in each sector
5)Resource availability.
Ensuring that resource mobilization and financing
are handled in a common way, such as through a
Flash Appeal or the Central Emergency Response
Fund.
6)Develop public education programmes
If the public is to respond quickly and effectively to an
emergency involving toxic chemical agents, people
must be made aware of the risk from chemical agents
and the necessary protective actions well before an
emergency occurs. A carefully planned public
education program is needed to provide people
potentially at risk with the knowledge required to take
life-saving actions.
7)Coordinate information with news
media.
The media is an undeniable important player in
the disaster management matrix especially in
the area of risk reduction advocacy, disaster
mitigation preparedness and response.
A disaster drill is an exercise in which people simulate the
circumstances of a disaster so that they have an opportunity
to practice their responses.
8) DISASTER DRILL
 Efficacy of plans and Standard Operating
Procedures (SOPs) can be tested through
mock drills
Contd . . .
Exercises have 3 main purposes:
 to validate plans (validation)
 to develop staff competencies and give them
practice in carrying out their roles in the plans
(training)
 to test well-established procedures (testing)
There are 3 main types of
exercise:
 Discussion-based
 Table top
 Live
COMMUNITY
PREPAREDNESS
 Community members resources organizations,and and
administration should be the cornerstone of an
emergency programme
REASONS FOR COMMUNITY
PREPAREDNESS
 Members of the community are the most to to
lose from being vulnerable to disasters and the
most to gain to gain from effective and
appropriate emergency preparedness
programme.
 Those who respond first to an emergency come
from within the community .When transport and
communication are disrupted ,an external
emergency may not arrive for days.
 Resources are most easily pooled at community
level and every community posses capabilities
.Failure to explore these capabilities is poor
resource management .
 Sustained development is best achieved by
allowing emergency affected communities to
design ,manage and implement internal and
external assistance programme.
cont…
An example of reduced damage due to
preparedness
 On 12 November, 1970 a major cyclone hit the coastal belt of
Bangladesh at 223 km/hr. with a storm surge of six to nine
meters height, killing an estimated 500,000 people.
 Due to the Cyclone Preparedness Program, the April 1991
cyclone with wind speed of 225 km/hr. killed only 138,000 people
even though the coastal population had doubled by that time.
 In May 1994, in a similar cyclone with a wind speed of 250
km/hr. only 127 people lost their lives.
 In May 1997, in a cyclone with wind speed of 200 km/hr. only
111 people lost their lives.
POLICY DEVELOPMENT
POLICY DEVELOPMENT
It is “the formal statement of a course of
action”.
Policy is strategic in nature and performs the
following functions
 Establish long term goals .
 Assign responsibilities for achieving goals.
 Establish recommended work practice.
 Determine criteria for decision making.
 The form of emergency preparedness policies
varies from place to place . Six sectors are
required for response and recovery strategies .
 They are
Communication Police and security
Health Search and rescue
Social welfare Transport
National Policy on
Disaster
Management(NPDM)
On 23 December, 2005, the Government of India
took a defining step by enacting the Disaster
Management Act, 2005which envisaged the
creation of the National Disaster Management
Authority (NDMA), headed by the Prime Minister,
State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs)
headed by the Chief Ministers, and District
Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs)
headed by the Collector or District Magistrate or
Deputy Commissioner.
INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL
ARRANGEMENTS
 Disaster Management Act, 2005
The Act lays down institutional, legal, financial and coordination
mechanisms at the national, state, district and local levels.
These institutions are not parallel structures and will work in
close harmony.
 National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
 State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA)
National Disaster Management
Authority of India :
 It is a govt. Agency – under Ministry of Home Affairs.
 A group representing a public/private has recently
been formed by the Government of India.
 Some of the groups' early efforts involve the provision
of emergency management training for first
responders (a first in India), the creation of a single
emergency telephone number, and the establishment
of standards for EMS staff, equipment, and training.
 Efforts are being made in making this a nation-wide
effective group.
 It is funded primarily by a large India-based computer
company and aimed at improving the general
response of communities to emergencies.
cont……
 District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA).
 Local Authorities .
Local authorities would include Panchayati Raj Institutions
(PRI), Municipalities, District and Cantonment Boards and
Town Planning Authorities.
 National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM)
.
 National Disaster Response Force (NDRF).
cont……
 Armed Forces
 Central Para Military Forces
 Civil Defence and Home Guards
 State Police Forces and Fire Services
 State Disaster Response Force (SDRF)
FINANCIAL
ARRANGEMENTS
 The National Disaster Response and
Mitigation Fund
 The National Calamity Contingency Fund
(NCCF)
General measures during
emergency
 Do not use telephone except call for help,so as
to leave telephone lines free for the
organization to respond.
 Listen to the messages broadcast by radio and
various media so as to be informed of
development.
 Carry out the official instructions given over the
radio or by loudspeaker.
 Keep a family emergency kit ready.
HOME EMERGENCY KIT
Battery-operated radios,
batteries
Alternate heat sources
Extra warm clothing and
blankets
Cash
First aid kit
Ready-to-eat and high-
energy foods for 3 days
Bottled water
Extra prescription
medications
Baby supplies
Special needs items
Lanterns, flashlights,
lightsticks
EMERGENCY KITS
93
EMERGENCY KITS
TRAVEL EMERGENCY KIT
 Flashlight
 Flares or reflective
triangle
 First aid kit
 Basic tools including a
shovel
 Extra clothing including
hats and gloves
 Booster cables
 Sand or kitty litter
 Ice scraper and brush
 Blanket
 Non-perishable high
energy food
 Water
 Small candle in a tin
can, waterproof
matches
94
94
 Flashlight
 Flares or reflective
triangle
 First aid kit
 Basic tools including a
shovel
 Extra clothing including
hats and gloves
 Booster cables
 Sand or kitty litter
 Small candle in a tin can,
waterproof matches
 Water
 Ice scraper and brush
 Blanket
 Non-perishable high
energy food
TRAVEL EMERGENCY KIT
PERSONAL PROTECTION
IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF
EMERGENCIES
By Darshan
Before a Flood
To prepare for a flood, you should:
Avoid building in a flood prone area
unless you elevate and reinforce your home.
Elevate the furnace, water heater, and electric
panel if susceptible to flooding.
Install "check valves" in sewer traps to prevent floodwater from
backing up into the drains of your home.
Contact community officials to find out if they are planning to
construct barriers (levees, beams, floodwalls) to stop
floodwater from entering the homes in your area.
Seal the walls in your basement with waterproofing compounds
to avoid seepage
During a Flood
If a flood is likely in your area, you should:
Listen to the radio or television for information.
Be aware that flash flooding can occur. If there is any
possibility of a flash flood, move immediately to
higher ground. Do not wait for instructions to move.
Be aware of streams, drainage channels, canyons,
and other areas known to flood suddenly. Flash
floods can occur in these areas with or without such
typical warnings as rain clouds or heavy rain.
cont…
If you must prepare to evacuate, you should do the following:
Secure your home. If you have time, bring in outdoor furniture.
Move essential items to an upper floor.
Turn off utilities at the main switches or valves if instructed to do
so. Disconnect electrical appliances. Do not touch electrical
equipment if you are wet or standing in water.
If you have to leave your home, remember these evacuation tips:
Do not walk through moving water.. If you have to walk in
water, walk where the water is not moving. Use a stick to check
the firmness of the ground in front of you.
Do not drive into flooded areas.
After a Flood
The following are guidelines for the period following a
flood:
Listen for news reports to learn whether the
community’s water supply is safe to drink.
Avoid floodwaters; water may be contaminated by oil,
gasoline, or raw sewage. Water may also be
electrically charged from underground or downed
power lines.
Avoid moving water.
Be aware of areas where floodwaters have receded.
Roads may have weakened and could collapse under
the weight of a vehicle.
Stay away from downed power lines, and report them
to the power company.
Return home only when authorities indicate it
is safe.
Stay out of any building if it is surrounded by
floodwaters.
Use extreme caution when entering buildings;
there may be hidden damage, particularly in
foundations.
Service damaged septic tanks, cesspools,
pits, and leaching systems as soon as
possible. Damaged sewage systems are
serious health hazards.
Clean and disinfect everything that got wet.
Mud left from floodwater can contain sewage
cont…
STORMS,HURRICANES,TORNAD
OES
What to do before hand?
 choose a shelter in advance
 minimise the effect of storms
 take measures against flooding
 prepare a family emergency kit
1. During an emergency:
 Listen to the information and advice provided by
the authorities.
 Do not go out in car or boat once the storm has
been announced.
 Evacuate houses if requested
 Tie down any object liable to be blown away by
wind
 If caught outside in a storm,take refuge as quickly
as possible in a shelter
 In a thunderstorm keep away from
doors,windows,and electrical conductors,unplug
electrical appliances etc
 Donot use any electrical appliances or the
telephone
During an emergency (Contd. . )
:
Anyone who is outside should:
 Look for shelter in a building
 never take shelter under a tree
 if in a boat,get back to the shore
 keep away from fences and electric
cables
 kneel down rather than standing
After the emergency:
After the storm has subsided:
 Follow the instructions given by the authorities
 Stay indoors
 Give alert as quickly as possible
 Give first aid to the injured
 Make sure the water is safe to drink
 Check the exterior of dwellings and call for
assistance if there is a risk of falling
objects[tiles,guttering...]
EARTHQUAKES
What to do before hand :
 Repair deep plaster cracks in ceilings and
foundations. Get expert advice if there are signs of
structural defects.
 Hang heavy items such as pictures and Brace
overhead light and fan fixtures.
 Repair defective electrical wiring and leaky gas
connections. These are potential fire risks.
 Secure a water heater, LPG cylinder etc., by strapping
it to the wall studs and bolting it to the floor.
 Store weed killers, pesticides, and flammable
products securely in closed cabinets with latches and
on bottom shelves
Identify safe places indoors and outdoors.
1 Under strong dining table, bed
2.Against an inside wall
3.Away from where glass could shatter around windows, mirrors,
pictures, or where heavy bookcases or other heavy furniture could
fall over
4.In the open, away from buildings, trees, telephone and electrical
lines, flyovers, bridges
5.Have a disaster emergency kit ready
If indoors:
 DROP to the ground; take COVER by getting under a sturdy table or other piece of
furniture; and HOLD ON until the shaking stops. If there isn’t a table or desk near you,
cover your face and head with your arms and crouch in an inside corner of the building.
 Protect yourself by staying under the lintel of an inner door, in the corner of a room, under a
table or even under a bed.
 Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and anything that could fall, such
as lighting fixtures or furniture.
 Stay in bed if you are there when the earthquake strikes. Hold on and protect your head with
a pillow, unless you are under a heavy light fixture that could fall.
 Stay inside until the shaking stops and it is safe to go outside. Research has shown that most
injuries occur when people inside buildings attempt to move to a different location inside
the building or try to leave.
DO NOT use the elevators.
 If you know that people have been buried, tell the rescue teams. Do
not rush and do not worsen the situation of injured persons or your
own situation.
 Avoid places where there are loose electric wires and do not touch
any metal object in contact with them.
 Do not drink water from open containers without having examined
it and filtered it through a sieve, a filter or an ordinary clean cloth.
 If your home is badly damaged, you will have to leave it. Collect
water containers, food, and ordinary and special medicines (for
persons with heart complaints, diabetes, etc.)
 Do not re-enter badly damaged buildings and do not go near
damaged structures.
 If outdoors
Stay there.
Move away from buildings, trees, streetlights, and
utility wires.
Once in the open, stay there until the shaking stops.
The greatest danger exists directly outside buildings, at
exits, and alongside exterior walls. Most earthquake-
related casualties result from collapsing walls, flying
glass.
 If in a moving vehicle
 Stop as quickly as safety permits and stay in the
vehicle. Avoid stopping near or under buildings, trees,
overpasses, and utility wires.
 Proceed cautiously once the earthquake has stopped.
Avoid roads, bridges, or ramps that might have been
damaged by the earthquake.
 If trapped under debris
 Do not move about or kick up dust.
 Cover your mouth with a handkerchief or clothing.
 Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can locate you. Use
a whistle if one is available. Shout only as a last
resort.
 After an earthquake
Keep calm, switch on the radio/TV and obey any instructions you hear on
it.
Keep away from beaches and low banks of rivers. Huge waves may sweep
in.
Expect aftershocks. Be prepared.
Turn off the water, gas and electricity.
Do not smoke and do not light matches or use a cigarette lighter. Do not
turn on switches. There may be gas leaks or short-circuits.
Make sure that the water is safe to drink and food stored at home is fit to
eat.
Clouds of toxic fumes
What to do before hand?
 Find about evacuation plans and facilities
 Familiarize with the alarm signals used in
emergencies
 Equip doors and windows with the tightest
possible fastenings
 Prepare family emergency kits
During an emergency
 Do not use the telephone;leave lines free for
rescue services
 Listen to messages given by radio and other
media
 Carry out the instructions given through media
 Close doors and windows
 Seal any cracks or gaps around windows and
doors with adhesive tapes
 Organise a reserve of water
 Turn off ventilators and air conditioners
After Emergency :
 Follow the authorities instructions and do
not go out until there is no longer any risk
 Carry out necessary decontamination
measures
MAN-MADE DISASTERS
By : Chidanand
“Humans are good at creating
disasters, and throughout history
we’ve rarely been afraid to prove it”.
Definition :
 Man-made disasters are the
threats having an element of
human intent, negligence, or error
; or involving a failure of a
human-made system.
 Human causation may be
accidental or intentional
Types of man made disasters
 Sudden disasters : such as Chernobyl disaster
and Bhopal gas tragedy,
 Insidious disasters : Chemical and radiation
exposure, global warming
Classification :
Sociological disasters
Terrorism
War and civil
conflicts
Technological
disasters
Industrial disasters
Structural collapse
and fire
CBRN disaster
Transportation
disasters
Sociological hazards
 Terrorism : The primary objective of a
terrorism is to create widespread fear.
 E.g. : On 11 September 2001 the World Trade
Centre in New York City was destroyed by
crashing American airlines and killed 2,752.
War :
 It is a conflict between relatively large groups of
people, which involves physical force by the
use of weapons .
 Warfare has destroyed entire cultures,
countries, economies and inflicted great
suffering on humanity.
 E.g. : World war I and II. Since world war II there
have been about 127 wars and
22 million war related deaths
have occurred
Civil conflicts (riots):
Any incident that disrupts a community,
where intervention is required to maintain
public safety.
 eg: 1984 Sikh massacre, a riot against the
Sikhs in response to assassination of
Indira Gandhi by her Sikh bodyguards
 More than 11,000 people were killed
Technological hazards
 Industrial disasters :
 E.g.-The Nuclear Power
Plant Explosion in Chernobyl,
Russia : On April 26th 1986,
which resulted in the
atmospheric release of
radioactive material four
hundred times more
radioactive than Hiroshima.
 Structural collapse :often
caused by engineering
failures E.g.: recently building
collapse in Bangladesh
,Kolkata and thane
:
 Fire : mainly forest fire , mine fire.
 E.g. : In 2003, fire at Iraqi sulphur
plant releasing Sulphur dioxide
which killed people by causing
respiratory problems and also
creates acid rain which destroys
crops.
 Transportation disaster: air, Rail,
and Space disasters and traffic
collisions
 E.g.: Mangalore air crash on
22 May 2010. Only eight
passengers survived in 160.
CBRN Disasters :
CBRN (chemical , biological , radiation and
nuclear ) disasters : release of CBRN hazardous
material into air, soil, water leads to serious
hazards
 E.g. : Fukushima nuclear disaster on march
2011 which was triggered by earthquake and
tsunami in nearby Tohoku region.
Worst disasters in India
Bhopal Gas Tragedy :1984
 Worlds worst man made disaster in which methyl
isocyanate gas was leaked at Union Carbide Pesticide
Plant
 More than 20,000 people have been killed till date
 Today, in Bhopal 1,20,000 people are suffering from
chronic diseases like Emphysema, Cancer etc.
Worst disasters in
India(cont…)
 In 1999, Orissa had super cyclone ,in which
thousands lost their lives
 In 2001, Gujarat had a severe earthquake in
which 16500 people died and lakhs became
homeless
 In 2004, Indian ocean earthquake and
Tsunami killed more than 200,000 people in
December 2004
 In 2008 ,terror attack in Mumbai
Prevention of man made
disaster
 Tighter regulation of chemical plants and other
hazardous facilities
 Chemical plants be built away from the dense
populous areas
 Appropriate engineering and technological
measures
 Early warnings and protection against human
errors
ORGANIZATIONS CONCERNED WITH
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
 NATIONAL
 INTERNATIONA
L
 NGOs :
International Organisations :
OCHA : United Nations Office for the
Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
 It was designed to strengthen the UN's
response to complex emergencies and natural
disasters by creating the Department of
Humanitarian Affairs (DHA)
International Organisations
(contd..) :
WHO : World Health Organization
 The role is to reduce avoidable loss of life
and the burden of disease and disability.
FAO :The Food and Agriculture Organisation of
the UN provides early warning
of impending food crises, and
assesses global food supply problems.
International Organisations
(contd..) :
IOM : The International Organisation
for Migration is an intergovernmental
agency which helps transfer refugees.
IRP : The International Recovery
Platform serve as a catalyst for the
development of tools, resources, and
capacity for disaster recovery
WFP : The World Food Programme is
the principle supplier of relief food
aid.
UNDP : The United Nations
Development Programme
UNICEF : The United Nations
Children’s Emergency Fund
NGOs
IFRC : International Federation of Red Cross
and Red Crescent Societies
 Pivotal roles in responding to emergencies .
Field Assessment and Coordination Team –
(FACT) to the affected country if requested by
the national Red Cross or Red Crescent
Society.
CARE : The Cooperative for Assistance and
Relief Everywhere is a humanitarian
organisation fighting global poverty .
It also delivers emergency aid to survivors of
war and natural disasters, and helps people
rebuild their lives.
NetHope :
Founded in 2001, is international NGOs that
specializes in improving IT connectivity among
humanitarian organizations in developing
countries and areas affected by disaster.
 Organization has partnerships with
Microsoft, Cisco Systems, Intel, and
Accenture.
 HVO :Health Volunteers Overseas is a network of
health care professionals, organisations,
corporations and donors united in a common
commitment to improving global health through
education
 IRC :International Rescue Committee offers
lifesaving care and life-changing assistance to
refugees forced to flee from war or disaster
 HI: Handicap
International works in
partnership with local
organisations and
government institutions. .
 MSF: Médecins Sans
Frontières provides medical
services in emergency
situations.
 RI: Rehabilitation
International is a global
network of expert
INDIAN NGO’s :
Aniruddha’s Academy of Disaster
Management(AADM) :
 Non-Profit Organization in Mumbai, India with 'Disaster
Management' as its principal objective.
 Basic aim of AADM is to save life and property in the
event of a disaster, be it natural or manmade.
 Successfully trained 60,000 citizens, the Disaster
Management Volunteers (DMVs) to handle various
disasters and disaster situations effectively.
 AADM has build up a volunteer base, that assists the
Government authorities during the disaster relief and
rehabilitation work.
References :
 K Park – Text book of community medicine
 www.ndmindia.nic.in
 WIKIPEDIA
 Other information from various websites
with help of google
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Disaster management

  • 2. Speakers : CHETAN – Introduction to Disaster Management and Disaster Impact SOUMYA – Disaster Relief, Response, Rehabilitation. CHETAN KUMAR – Mitigation, Disaster Preparedness, Policies DARSHAN – Personal protection in different types of Emergency CHIDANAND – Manmade Disasters, Disasters in India, Organizations.
  • 4. Definition :  A disaster can be defined as : “ Any occurrence that causes damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life or deterioration of health and health services on a scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area”. BY - World Health Organisation (WHO)  “A disaster can be defined as an occurrence either nature or manmade that causes human suffering and creates human needs that victims cannot alleviate without assistance”. BY -
  • 5. When and Where it occurs ?  Anytime and anywhere, not confined to any part of the world.  Some disasters can be predicted and whereas some cannot be predicted.  Warfare is a special category, because it is well planned and damage is the intended goal of action.
  • 6. Factors affecting Disaster : • Age • Immunization status • Degree of mobility • Emotional stability Host factors • Physical Factors • Chemical Factors • Biological Factors • Social Factors • Psychological Factors Environmental factors
  • 7. Effects of disaster :  Population displacement  Injury or Death  Risk of epidemic of diseases  Damage to infrastructure  Psychological problems  Food shortage  Socioeconomic losses  Shortage of drugs and medical supplies.
  • 8. Types of Disasters : Natural Disasters Earthquake Floods Cyclones Tsunami Landslide and Avalanches Manmade Disasters Chemical Disaster Nuclear Disaster Biological Disaster Examples • Natural disasters : Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, floods and cyclones • Man-made disasters : Stampedes, fires, transport accidents, industrial accidents, oil spills and nuclear explosions/radiation. War and deliberate attacks may also be put in this category.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11. Severity of the impact :  The severity of the impact depends upon many factors : 1. Predictability : Some of the disasters such as cyclones, floods can be predicted and the degree of preparedness will be high. 2. Type of Disaster : In Earthquakes, the mortality is high because the people get crushed below the falling objects and collapsed buildings 3. Density and population distribution. 4. Opportunity of warning. 5. Condition of the environment.
  • 12.  The scale is a normalized function whose variables are scope (S), topography (T), and rate of change (D), expressed as : Rohn Emergency Formula : E = EMERGENCY = f(S,T,D) Measuring the severity :
  • 13. Morbidity and Mortality :  Earthquakes : Unpredictable, People get crushed because they cannot escape and if it occurs in night, the people may even have fracture pelvis, thorax or spine because they are lying in bed  Volcanic eruptions : Mudslides and glowing clouds of ash. Bodies buried in volcanic ash
  • 14. Morbidity and Mortality (contd..) :  Floods : Collapsed dam or tidal waves.  Droughts : Protein-calorie malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies (Particularly Vit.A) leading to Xerophthalmia and blindness. Even dehydration and diarrhoea may occur.
  • 15. India’s Vulnerability to Disasters :  57% land is vulnerable to earthquakes. Of these, 12% is vulnerable to severe earthquakes.  68% land is vulnerable to drought.  12% land is vulnerable to floods.  8% land is vulnerable to cyclones.  Apart from natural disasters, some cities in India are also vulnerable to chemical and industrial disasters and man-made disasters.  Northern mountain region prone to land slides, snow–storms , earthquakes  Eastern coastal area prone to severe floods ,cyclones  Western desert prone to draughts
  • 17. Who will work ?  Usually military force, police, BSF, volunteers from other region.  Disaster management is a specialised training & is provided by local, state, federal and private organizations.  Undergraduate and Graduate degrees in disaster management or a related field are provided. (Disaster Management Institute, Bhopal, M.P and Disaster Mitigation Institute, Ahmadabad, Gujarat).  Certified Emergency Manager (CEM) the most important degree. The National Emergency Management Association and the International Association of Emergency Managers are two examples of these professional organizations.
  • 18. Principles of disaster management  Comprehensive – disaster managers consider and take into account all hazards, all phases, and all impacts relevant to disasters.  Progressive – anticipate future disasters and take preventive and preparatory measures  Risk-driven – use sound risk management principles (hazard identification, risk analysis, and impact analysis) in assigning priorities and resources.  Integrated – ensure unity of effort among all levels of government and all elements of a community.
  • 19. Contd...  Collaborative – create and sustain broad and sincere relationships among individuals and organizations .  Coordinated – synchronize the activities to achieve a common purpose.  Flexible – use creative and innovative approaches in solving disaster challenges.  Professional – value a science and knowledge-based approach for continuous improvement.
  • 22. Organizations in INDIA : FOR INFORMATION ON DISASTERS DIAL TOLL FREE No. 1070 Log on to http://www.ndmindia.nic.in
  • 23. Volunteers : They form an important non-professional supporting team in disaster management.
  • 24. Phases of Management :  Disaster Response  Disaster Rehabilitation  Disaster Reconstruction  Disaster Mitigation  Disaster Preparedness Recovery phase after disaster Risk reduction phase before a disaster
  • 25. Impact & Response :  Greatest need for emergency care is in 1st few hours after the impact.  The management of mass casualties are divided into : Search and Rescue First Aid Field care Triage Tagging Identification of Dead
  • 26. Search and Rescue & First-Aid :  For search and rescue the team should be organised and work as one. Even with a good team the search may be a small fraction in major disasters.  The immediate help is usually obtained from the uninjured survivors.
  • 27. Field care :  The injured people are brought to nearest health care immediately by available means of transport and people converge into health facilities.  The hospitals must get ready to deal with mass input of injured with new priorities for bed availability and surgical services.  Provision for food, shelter should be done.  A centre to respond for the enquiries from patient’s relatives and friends.  Priority is given to : a. victims identification and b. adequate mortuary space.
  • 28. Triage :  It consists of rapidly classifying the injured on the basis of the severity of their injuries and their likelyhood of their survival with prompt medical intervention.  The principle of “First come, first serve” is NOT FOLLOWED.  High priority is given to those whose immediate or long term prognosis can be changed dramatically with simple intensive care.  It is the only approach that can provide maximum benefit to large population in a major disaster.
  • 29. Colour coding in a Triage : Internationally accepted four colour coding system :  Red – High priority treatment or transfer.  Yellow – Medium priority.  Green – Ambulatory patients.  Black – Dead or Moribound patients. Triage should be carried out at the site of the disaster. Local health workers should be taught the principles of triage as a part of disaster training. People with minor injuries should be treated in their homes to avoid social dislocation and drain the resources which are needed by severely injured person. All persons should be tagged with details – name, age, place of origin, triage, initial diagnosis and
  • 30.
  • 31. Identification of Dead :  Dead people care is most important in disaster management because they impede the efficiency of rescue activities.  Care of dead includes : 1. Proper Respect. 2. Removal of dead from the scene. 3. Shifting to mortuary. 4. Identification. 5. Reception of bereaved relatives. #Cadavers must be removed from water sources as they may cause outbreaks of gastroenteritis or food poisoning. #The health hazards from the cadavers are outbreaks of cholera, typhoid, leptospirosis, anthrax, plague etc.
  • 32. Disaster Relief , Response and Rehabilitation By : Soumya
  • 34. Relief phase :  This phase begins when assistance from outside area starts reaching the disaster site.  The relief supplies are determined by two factors : a. The type of disaster b. Availability of local supplies.
  • 35. Relief phase :  Important needs are : 1. Critical health supply and casualties. 2. Food, blanket, clothing, shelter, sanitary engineering. 3. Measures to prevent outbreak of communicable diseases. 4. Donations(Funds) 5. Transportation, Storage and distribution of food, medicines, vitamins. 6. The four distinct components in Relief phase are : Acquisition of supplies, Transportation, Storage and Distribution.
  • 36. Disaster response • Epidemiological surveillance • Nutrition • vaccination
  • 37. Surveillance/early warning system :  Rapid detection of cases of epidemic-prone diseases is essential to ensure rapid control. A surveillance/early warning system should be quickly established to detect outbreaks and monitor priority endemic diseases.  • Priority diseases to be included in the surveillance system. In some situations, the threats may include rare diseases such as viral haemorrhagic fevers, plague or tularaemia.
  • 38.
  • 39. Communicable diseases : The potential risk of communicable diseases are influenced by six types of adverse changes. These are :  changes in pre existent levels of disease;  ecological changes  population  displacement population  density disruption public utilities; and  interruption of basic public health services.
  • 40. Changes in pre existent levels of disease • Usually the risk of a communicable disease in a Community affected by disaster is proportional to the endemic level. • There is generally no risk of a given disease when the organism causes it is not present beforehand • Relief workers can conceivably introduce communicable disease into areas affected by disaster.
  • 41. Ecological changes caused by the disaster • Natural disasters, particularly droughts, floods and hurricanes, frequently produce ecological changes in environment which increase or reduce the risk of communicable disease. • Vector borne and water-borne diseases are the most significantly affected.
  • 42. Population displacement • Movement of populations away from the areas affected by a disaster can affect the relative risk from communicable diseases. • If the population moves nearby, the existing facilities some distance, the chances increase that the displaced population will encounter diseases not prevalent in their own community, to which they are less susceptible .
  • 43. POPULATION DENSITY  Because of the destruction of houses, natural disasters almost invariably contribute to increased population density. • Survivors of severe disaster seek shelter, food and water in less affected areas. • When the damage is less severe, crowding may occur in public places like school and churches..
  • 44. Disruption of public utilities • Electricity, water, sewage disposal and other public utilities may be interrupted after a disaster. • Insufficient water for washing hands & bathing also promotes the spread of diseases transmitted by contact.
  • 45. Interruption of basic public health services • The interruption of basic public health services like vaccination, ambulatory treatment of tuberculosis and programs for the control of malaria and vectors are frequent, after disaster in a developing country. • The risk of transmission increases proportionally to the extent and the duration of the disrupt.
  • 46. Principals of preventing and controlling communicable diseases 1)Implement as soon as possible all public health measures, to reduce the risk of disease transmission; 2)Organize a reliable reporting system to identify outbreaks and initiate suitable control measures; 3)Investigate all reports of disease outbreaks immediately.
  • 47. Preventive measures in communicable diseases:  1)Ensure safe water, sanitation  2) Primary health-care services  . The immediate impact of communicable diseases can be mitigated with the following  interventions:  • Ensure early diagnosis and treatment of diarrhoeal diseases and ARI,malaria.  • Ensure availability of drugs included in the interagency emergency health kit.
  • 48. Disaster Press/Media Politics Public Health Authorities Mass Vaccination Programme •Requires large number of workers •Supervision of sterilization is impossible •Leads to false sense of security about diseases. •Then to neglect of effective control measures. VACCINATION :
  • 49. Newer typhoid and cholera vaccines :  WHO does not recommend in routine endemic areas.  They have increased efficacy  Since they are multidose vaccines compliance is generally poor.
  • 50. Tetanus :  Significant cases of tetanus are not noted.  So, generally tetanus vaccination is not required in disaster areas.  Best protection is maintenance of high level of immunity in general population before disaster occurs.  If TT immunization was received more than 5yrs ago in a injured patient then booster dose is given, if unimmunized then it is given as directed by physician.
  • 51. Measles and Hepatitis A vaccines: • Mass measles immunization together with vitamin A supplementation are immediate health priorities. The priority age groups are 6 months to 5 years, and up to 15yr. •Hepatitis A vaccine is generally not recommended to prevent outbreaks in the disaster area.
  • 52. NUTRITION  Disaster affects nutritional status of the population by affecting one or more components of food chain.  Infants, children, pregnant women, nursing mothers and sick persons are most commonly affected ones.  STEPS FOR ENSURING FOOD RELIEF PROGRAM WILL BE EFFECTIVE:  1)Assessing the food supplies after the disaster  2)Gauging the nutritional needs of the affected population  3)Calculating daily food rations and need for large population  4)Monitoring the nutritional status of affected people
  • 53. Relief v/s rehabilitation : • Relief and rehabilitation come immediately after the disaster. • The basic difference between them is that relief relates to the immediate days and weeks after the disaster when attempts are made to provide basic needs to the victims. • Rehabilitation relates to the work undertaken in the following weeks and months, for the restoration of basic services to enable the population to return to normalcy.
  • 54. Rehabilitation phase Starts from the moment disaster strikes and ends with restoration of normality. • Water supply • Food safety • Basic sanitation and personal hygiene • Vector control
  • 55. WATER SUPPLY  Survey of all public water supplies to be made  Priority of ensuring water quality is by chlorination.  Increase the residual chlorine level to about 0.2 to 0.5mg/litre.  Existing and new water resources require the following: 1)Restrict access to people and animals. 2)Ensure excreta disposal at a safe distance from water source 3)Prohibit water washing methods 4)Upgrade wells to ensure they are not contaminated. 5)Estimate maximum yield of wells. Incase of emergency ,water has to be trucked to disaster site or camps.
  • 56. Food supply  Poor hygiene is the major cause of food borne diseases in disaster areas.  Where feeding programmes are used, kitchen sanitation is of utmost importance.  Personal hygiene should be monitored in individuals involved in food preparation.
  • 57. Basic sanitation and personal hygiene  Many communicable diseases spread through fecal contamination of drinking water and food.  Hence every effort should me made to ensure sanitary disposal of excreta.  Emergency toilet facilities should be made available wherever they are destroyed.  Washing, cleaning and bathing facilities should be provided to displaced persons.
  • 58. Vector control  Control programme for vector borne diseases should be intensified in the emergency and rehabilitation period.  Of special concern are1)Dengue fever 2)Malaria 3)Leptospirosis 4)Rat bite fever 5)Plague. Flood water provides ample breeding opportunities for mosquitoes.
  • 61. Disaster mitigation  Mitigation is a key to national preparedness.  This includes an assessment of possible risks to personal/family health and to personal property.  For instance, in a flood plain, home owners might not be aware of a property being exposed to a hazard until trouble strikes. Specialists can be hired to conduct risk identification and assessment surveys.
  • 62. Contd…  Mitigation involves Structural and Non- structural measures taken to limit the impact of disasters.  Structural mitigation are actions that change the characteristics of a building or its surrounding, examples include shelters, window shutters, clearing forest around the house.  Non-structural mitigation on personal level mainly takes the form of insurance or simply moving house to a safer area.
  • 63.
  • 64. DEFINITION Disaster preparedness is “a programme of long term development activities whose goals are to strengthen the overall capacity and capability of a country to manage efficiently all types of emergency it should bring about an orderly transition from through recovery, and back to sustained development “
  • 65.  THE OBJECTIVE To ensure that appropriate systems, procedures and resources are in place to provide prompt effective assistance to disaster victims ,thus facilitating relief measures and rehabilitation of services .
  • 66. Tasks to be followed in emergency preparedness 1)Evaluate the risk of the country or particular region to disaster. India is vulnerable, in varying degrees, to a large number of natural as well as man-made disasters. 58.6 per cent of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of moderate to very high intensity; over 40 million hectares (12 per cent of land) is prone to floods and river erosion.
  • 67. 2) Adopt standards and regulation Following according to NDMA guidelines Of the 7,516 km long coastline, close to 5,700 km is prone to cyclones and tsunamis; 68 per cent of the cultivable area is vulnerable to drought and hilly areas are at risk from landslides and avalanches. Vulnerability to disasters/ emergencies of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) origin also exists contd…
  • 68. 3)Organize communication ,information and warning system. Warning system is any system of biological or technical nature deployed by an individual or group to inform of a future danger. Its purpose is to enable the deployer of the warning system to prepare for the danger and act accordingly to mitigate or avoid it.
  • 69. 4)Ensure coordination end response mechanism. These mechanisms include the "cluster approach", which groups agencies with a shared operational interest, e.g. health, water and sanitation. This approach helps to avoid gaps and duplications. It also helps to ensure there is a clear lead organization in each sector
  • 70. 5)Resource availability. Ensuring that resource mobilization and financing are handled in a common way, such as through a Flash Appeal or the Central Emergency Response Fund.
  • 71. 6)Develop public education programmes If the public is to respond quickly and effectively to an emergency involving toxic chemical agents, people must be made aware of the risk from chemical agents and the necessary protective actions well before an emergency occurs. A carefully planned public education program is needed to provide people potentially at risk with the knowledge required to take life-saving actions.
  • 72. 7)Coordinate information with news media. The media is an undeniable important player in the disaster management matrix especially in the area of risk reduction advocacy, disaster mitigation preparedness and response.
  • 73. A disaster drill is an exercise in which people simulate the circumstances of a disaster so that they have an opportunity to practice their responses. 8) DISASTER DRILL
  • 74.  Efficacy of plans and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) can be tested through mock drills Contd . . .
  • 75. Exercises have 3 main purposes:  to validate plans (validation)  to develop staff competencies and give them practice in carrying out their roles in the plans (training)  to test well-established procedures (testing)
  • 76. There are 3 main types of exercise:  Discussion-based  Table top  Live
  • 77. COMMUNITY PREPAREDNESS  Community members resources organizations,and and administration should be the cornerstone of an emergency programme
  • 78. REASONS FOR COMMUNITY PREPAREDNESS  Members of the community are the most to to lose from being vulnerable to disasters and the most to gain to gain from effective and appropriate emergency preparedness programme.  Those who respond first to an emergency come from within the community .When transport and communication are disrupted ,an external emergency may not arrive for days.
  • 79.  Resources are most easily pooled at community level and every community posses capabilities .Failure to explore these capabilities is poor resource management .  Sustained development is best achieved by allowing emergency affected communities to design ,manage and implement internal and external assistance programme. cont…
  • 80. An example of reduced damage due to preparedness  On 12 November, 1970 a major cyclone hit the coastal belt of Bangladesh at 223 km/hr. with a storm surge of six to nine meters height, killing an estimated 500,000 people.  Due to the Cyclone Preparedness Program, the April 1991 cyclone with wind speed of 225 km/hr. killed only 138,000 people even though the coastal population had doubled by that time.  In May 1994, in a similar cyclone with a wind speed of 250 km/hr. only 127 people lost their lives.  In May 1997, in a cyclone with wind speed of 200 km/hr. only 111 people lost their lives.
  • 82. POLICY DEVELOPMENT It is “the formal statement of a course of action”. Policy is strategic in nature and performs the following functions  Establish long term goals .  Assign responsibilities for achieving goals.  Establish recommended work practice.  Determine criteria for decision making.
  • 83.  The form of emergency preparedness policies varies from place to place . Six sectors are required for response and recovery strategies .  They are Communication Police and security Health Search and rescue Social welfare Transport
  • 84. National Policy on Disaster Management(NPDM) On 23 December, 2005, the Government of India took a defining step by enacting the Disaster Management Act, 2005which envisaged the creation of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), headed by the Prime Minister, State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) headed by the Chief Ministers, and District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs) headed by the Collector or District Magistrate or Deputy Commissioner.
  • 85. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL ARRANGEMENTS  Disaster Management Act, 2005 The Act lays down institutional, legal, financial and coordination mechanisms at the national, state, district and local levels. These institutions are not parallel structures and will work in close harmony.  National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)  State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA)
  • 86. National Disaster Management Authority of India :  It is a govt. Agency – under Ministry of Home Affairs.  A group representing a public/private has recently been formed by the Government of India.  Some of the groups' early efforts involve the provision of emergency management training for first responders (a first in India), the creation of a single emergency telephone number, and the establishment of standards for EMS staff, equipment, and training.  Efforts are being made in making this a nation-wide effective group.  It is funded primarily by a large India-based computer company and aimed at improving the general response of communities to emergencies.
  • 87. cont……  District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA).  Local Authorities . Local authorities would include Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI), Municipalities, District and Cantonment Boards and Town Planning Authorities.  National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) .  National Disaster Response Force (NDRF).
  • 88.
  • 89. cont……  Armed Forces  Central Para Military Forces  Civil Defence and Home Guards  State Police Forces and Fire Services  State Disaster Response Force (SDRF)
  • 90. FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS  The National Disaster Response and Mitigation Fund  The National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF)
  • 91. General measures during emergency  Do not use telephone except call for help,so as to leave telephone lines free for the organization to respond.  Listen to the messages broadcast by radio and various media so as to be informed of development.  Carry out the official instructions given over the radio or by loudspeaker.  Keep a family emergency kit ready.
  • 92. HOME EMERGENCY KIT Battery-operated radios, batteries Alternate heat sources Extra warm clothing and blankets Cash First aid kit Ready-to-eat and high- energy foods for 3 days Bottled water Extra prescription medications Baby supplies Special needs items Lanterns, flashlights, lightsticks
  • 94. TRAVEL EMERGENCY KIT  Flashlight  Flares or reflective triangle  First aid kit  Basic tools including a shovel  Extra clothing including hats and gloves  Booster cables  Sand or kitty litter  Ice scraper and brush  Blanket  Non-perishable high energy food  Water  Small candle in a tin can, waterproof matches 94 94  Flashlight  Flares or reflective triangle  First aid kit  Basic tools including a shovel  Extra clothing including hats and gloves  Booster cables  Sand or kitty litter  Small candle in a tin can, waterproof matches  Water  Ice scraper and brush  Blanket  Non-perishable high energy food TRAVEL EMERGENCY KIT
  • 95. PERSONAL PROTECTION IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF EMERGENCIES By Darshan
  • 96.
  • 97. Before a Flood To prepare for a flood, you should: Avoid building in a flood prone area unless you elevate and reinforce your home. Elevate the furnace, water heater, and electric panel if susceptible to flooding. Install "check valves" in sewer traps to prevent floodwater from backing up into the drains of your home. Contact community officials to find out if they are planning to construct barriers (levees, beams, floodwalls) to stop floodwater from entering the homes in your area. Seal the walls in your basement with waterproofing compounds to avoid seepage
  • 98. During a Flood If a flood is likely in your area, you should: Listen to the radio or television for information. Be aware that flash flooding can occur. If there is any possibility of a flash flood, move immediately to higher ground. Do not wait for instructions to move. Be aware of streams, drainage channels, canyons, and other areas known to flood suddenly. Flash floods can occur in these areas with or without such typical warnings as rain clouds or heavy rain.
  • 99. cont… If you must prepare to evacuate, you should do the following: Secure your home. If you have time, bring in outdoor furniture. Move essential items to an upper floor. Turn off utilities at the main switches or valves if instructed to do so. Disconnect electrical appliances. Do not touch electrical equipment if you are wet or standing in water. If you have to leave your home, remember these evacuation tips: Do not walk through moving water.. If you have to walk in water, walk where the water is not moving. Use a stick to check the firmness of the ground in front of you. Do not drive into flooded areas.
  • 100. After a Flood The following are guidelines for the period following a flood: Listen for news reports to learn whether the community’s water supply is safe to drink. Avoid floodwaters; water may be contaminated by oil, gasoline, or raw sewage. Water may also be electrically charged from underground or downed power lines. Avoid moving water. Be aware of areas where floodwaters have receded. Roads may have weakened and could collapse under the weight of a vehicle. Stay away from downed power lines, and report them to the power company.
  • 101. Return home only when authorities indicate it is safe. Stay out of any building if it is surrounded by floodwaters. Use extreme caution when entering buildings; there may be hidden damage, particularly in foundations. Service damaged septic tanks, cesspools, pits, and leaching systems as soon as possible. Damaged sewage systems are serious health hazards. Clean and disinfect everything that got wet. Mud left from floodwater can contain sewage cont…
  • 102.
  • 103. STORMS,HURRICANES,TORNAD OES What to do before hand?  choose a shelter in advance  minimise the effect of storms  take measures against flooding  prepare a family emergency kit
  • 104. 1. During an emergency:  Listen to the information and advice provided by the authorities.  Do not go out in car or boat once the storm has been announced.  Evacuate houses if requested  Tie down any object liable to be blown away by wind  If caught outside in a storm,take refuge as quickly as possible in a shelter  In a thunderstorm keep away from doors,windows,and electrical conductors,unplug electrical appliances etc  Donot use any electrical appliances or the telephone
  • 105. During an emergency (Contd. . ) : Anyone who is outside should:  Look for shelter in a building  never take shelter under a tree  if in a boat,get back to the shore  keep away from fences and electric cables  kneel down rather than standing
  • 106. After the emergency: After the storm has subsided:  Follow the instructions given by the authorities  Stay indoors  Give alert as quickly as possible  Give first aid to the injured  Make sure the water is safe to drink  Check the exterior of dwellings and call for assistance if there is a risk of falling objects[tiles,guttering...]
  • 107.
  • 108.
  • 109. EARTHQUAKES What to do before hand :  Repair deep plaster cracks in ceilings and foundations. Get expert advice if there are signs of structural defects.  Hang heavy items such as pictures and Brace overhead light and fan fixtures.  Repair defective electrical wiring and leaky gas connections. These are potential fire risks.  Secure a water heater, LPG cylinder etc., by strapping it to the wall studs and bolting it to the floor.  Store weed killers, pesticides, and flammable products securely in closed cabinets with latches and on bottom shelves
  • 110. Identify safe places indoors and outdoors. 1 Under strong dining table, bed 2.Against an inside wall 3.Away from where glass could shatter around windows, mirrors, pictures, or where heavy bookcases or other heavy furniture could fall over 4.In the open, away from buildings, trees, telephone and electrical lines, flyovers, bridges 5.Have a disaster emergency kit ready
  • 111. If indoors:  DROP to the ground; take COVER by getting under a sturdy table or other piece of furniture; and HOLD ON until the shaking stops. If there isn’t a table or desk near you, cover your face and head with your arms and crouch in an inside corner of the building.  Protect yourself by staying under the lintel of an inner door, in the corner of a room, under a table or even under a bed.  Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and anything that could fall, such as lighting fixtures or furniture.  Stay in bed if you are there when the earthquake strikes. Hold on and protect your head with a pillow, unless you are under a heavy light fixture that could fall.  Stay inside until the shaking stops and it is safe to go outside. Research has shown that most injuries occur when people inside buildings attempt to move to a different location inside the building or try to leave. DO NOT use the elevators.
  • 112.  If you know that people have been buried, tell the rescue teams. Do not rush and do not worsen the situation of injured persons or your own situation.  Avoid places where there are loose electric wires and do not touch any metal object in contact with them.  Do not drink water from open containers without having examined it and filtered it through a sieve, a filter or an ordinary clean cloth.  If your home is badly damaged, you will have to leave it. Collect water containers, food, and ordinary and special medicines (for persons with heart complaints, diabetes, etc.)  Do not re-enter badly damaged buildings and do not go near damaged structures.
  • 113.  If outdoors Stay there. Move away from buildings, trees, streetlights, and utility wires. Once in the open, stay there until the shaking stops. The greatest danger exists directly outside buildings, at exits, and alongside exterior walls. Most earthquake- related casualties result from collapsing walls, flying glass.
  • 114.  If in a moving vehicle  Stop as quickly as safety permits and stay in the vehicle. Avoid stopping near or under buildings, trees, overpasses, and utility wires.  Proceed cautiously once the earthquake has stopped. Avoid roads, bridges, or ramps that might have been damaged by the earthquake.  If trapped under debris  Do not move about or kick up dust.  Cover your mouth with a handkerchief or clothing.  Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can locate you. Use a whistle if one is available. Shout only as a last resort.
  • 115.  After an earthquake Keep calm, switch on the radio/TV and obey any instructions you hear on it. Keep away from beaches and low banks of rivers. Huge waves may sweep in. Expect aftershocks. Be prepared. Turn off the water, gas and electricity. Do not smoke and do not light matches or use a cigarette lighter. Do not turn on switches. There may be gas leaks or short-circuits. Make sure that the water is safe to drink and food stored at home is fit to eat.
  • 116. Clouds of toxic fumes What to do before hand?  Find about evacuation plans and facilities  Familiarize with the alarm signals used in emergencies  Equip doors and windows with the tightest possible fastenings  Prepare family emergency kits
  • 117. During an emergency  Do not use the telephone;leave lines free for rescue services  Listen to messages given by radio and other media  Carry out the instructions given through media  Close doors and windows  Seal any cracks or gaps around windows and doors with adhesive tapes  Organise a reserve of water  Turn off ventilators and air conditioners
  • 118. After Emergency :  Follow the authorities instructions and do not go out until there is no longer any risk  Carry out necessary decontamination measures
  • 120. “Humans are good at creating disasters, and throughout history we’ve rarely been afraid to prove it”.
  • 121. Definition :  Man-made disasters are the threats having an element of human intent, negligence, or error ; or involving a failure of a human-made system.  Human causation may be accidental or intentional
  • 122. Types of man made disasters  Sudden disasters : such as Chernobyl disaster and Bhopal gas tragedy,  Insidious disasters : Chemical and radiation exposure, global warming
  • 123. Classification : Sociological disasters Terrorism War and civil conflicts Technological disasters Industrial disasters Structural collapse and fire CBRN disaster Transportation disasters
  • 124. Sociological hazards  Terrorism : The primary objective of a terrorism is to create widespread fear.  E.g. : On 11 September 2001 the World Trade Centre in New York City was destroyed by crashing American airlines and killed 2,752.
  • 125. War :  It is a conflict between relatively large groups of people, which involves physical force by the use of weapons .  Warfare has destroyed entire cultures, countries, economies and inflicted great suffering on humanity.  E.g. : World war I and II. Since world war II there have been about 127 wars and 22 million war related deaths have occurred
  • 126. Civil conflicts (riots): Any incident that disrupts a community, where intervention is required to maintain public safety.  eg: 1984 Sikh massacre, a riot against the Sikhs in response to assassination of Indira Gandhi by her Sikh bodyguards  More than 11,000 people were killed
  • 127. Technological hazards  Industrial disasters :  E.g.-The Nuclear Power Plant Explosion in Chernobyl, Russia : On April 26th 1986, which resulted in the atmospheric release of radioactive material four hundred times more radioactive than Hiroshima.  Structural collapse :often caused by engineering failures E.g.: recently building collapse in Bangladesh ,Kolkata and thane :
  • 128.  Fire : mainly forest fire , mine fire.  E.g. : In 2003, fire at Iraqi sulphur plant releasing Sulphur dioxide which killed people by causing respiratory problems and also creates acid rain which destroys crops.  Transportation disaster: air, Rail, and Space disasters and traffic collisions  E.g.: Mangalore air crash on 22 May 2010. Only eight passengers survived in 160.
  • 129. CBRN Disasters : CBRN (chemical , biological , radiation and nuclear ) disasters : release of CBRN hazardous material into air, soil, water leads to serious hazards  E.g. : Fukushima nuclear disaster on march 2011 which was triggered by earthquake and tsunami in nearby Tohoku region.
  • 130. Worst disasters in India Bhopal Gas Tragedy :1984  Worlds worst man made disaster in which methyl isocyanate gas was leaked at Union Carbide Pesticide Plant  More than 20,000 people have been killed till date  Today, in Bhopal 1,20,000 people are suffering from chronic diseases like Emphysema, Cancer etc.
  • 131. Worst disasters in India(cont…)  In 1999, Orissa had super cyclone ,in which thousands lost their lives  In 2001, Gujarat had a severe earthquake in which 16500 people died and lakhs became homeless  In 2004, Indian ocean earthquake and Tsunami killed more than 200,000 people in December 2004  In 2008 ,terror attack in Mumbai
  • 132.
  • 133. Prevention of man made disaster  Tighter regulation of chemical plants and other hazardous facilities  Chemical plants be built away from the dense populous areas  Appropriate engineering and technological measures  Early warnings and protection against human errors
  • 134. ORGANIZATIONS CONCERNED WITH DISASTER MANAGEMENT  NATIONAL  INTERNATIONA L  NGOs :
  • 135. International Organisations : OCHA : United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs  It was designed to strengthen the UN's response to complex emergencies and natural disasters by creating the Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA)
  • 136. International Organisations (contd..) : WHO : World Health Organization  The role is to reduce avoidable loss of life and the burden of disease and disability. FAO :The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the UN provides early warning of impending food crises, and assesses global food supply problems.
  • 137. International Organisations (contd..) : IOM : The International Organisation for Migration is an intergovernmental agency which helps transfer refugees. IRP : The International Recovery Platform serve as a catalyst for the development of tools, resources, and capacity for disaster recovery
  • 138. WFP : The World Food Programme is the principle supplier of relief food aid. UNDP : The United Nations Development Programme UNICEF : The United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund
  • 139. NGOs IFRC : International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies  Pivotal roles in responding to emergencies . Field Assessment and Coordination Team – (FACT) to the affected country if requested by the national Red Cross or Red Crescent Society.
  • 140. CARE : The Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere is a humanitarian organisation fighting global poverty . It also delivers emergency aid to survivors of war and natural disasters, and helps people rebuild their lives.
  • 141. NetHope : Founded in 2001, is international NGOs that specializes in improving IT connectivity among humanitarian organizations in developing countries and areas affected by disaster.  Organization has partnerships with Microsoft, Cisco Systems, Intel, and Accenture.
  • 142.  HVO :Health Volunteers Overseas is a network of health care professionals, organisations, corporations and donors united in a common commitment to improving global health through education  IRC :International Rescue Committee offers lifesaving care and life-changing assistance to refugees forced to flee from war or disaster
  • 143.  HI: Handicap International works in partnership with local organisations and government institutions. .  MSF: Médecins Sans Frontières provides medical services in emergency situations.  RI: Rehabilitation International is a global network of expert
  • 144. INDIAN NGO’s : Aniruddha’s Academy of Disaster Management(AADM) :  Non-Profit Organization in Mumbai, India with 'Disaster Management' as its principal objective.  Basic aim of AADM is to save life and property in the event of a disaster, be it natural or manmade.  Successfully trained 60,000 citizens, the Disaster Management Volunteers (DMVs) to handle various disasters and disaster situations effectively.  AADM has build up a volunteer base, that assists the Government authorities during the disaster relief and rehabilitation work.
  • 145. References :  K Park – Text book of community medicine  www.ndmindia.nic.in  WIKIPEDIA  Other information from various websites with help of google

Editor's Notes

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