SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Politeness in Other Cultures
Cultural Misunderstanding
Which way of greeting are you more
comfortable with?
Cultural misunderstanding
Cultures differ in what they think
politeness is
People think that politeness equals
good manners and good character
People assume that othercultures
are polite in the same way
Which is the more serious
mistake?
A: Would you like
to come over for
dinner on Friday?
B: Sorry I working
that night.
A: Would you like
to come over for
dinner on Friday?
B: I can’t.
Appropriate speech behavior
Native speakers are more forgiving
of grammatical mistakes than
inappropriate speech
Fornative speakers, appropriate
speech behavior– being polite – is
unconscious
Language learners do not have
unconscious knowledge of what is
appropriate speech behavior
Types of misunderstanding
Direct translation
Differences in appropriateness
Different cultures have different ways of
expressing politeness and interacting
Direct Translation
Language learner translates what
they want to say from their first
language
Creates a misunderstanding because
the rules for politeness are different
Are these the same?
Can you play the piano?
Can you run fast?
Can you speak French?
Can you pass the salt?
“Can you pass the salt?”
This is a request in English. It is not asking about
the other person’s ability to pass the salt
However, if directly translated into Russian, it is a
question for information
Thus, the English-speaking learner of Russian
would fail to communicate his or her meaning
Telephone conversation
P: Hello, is Mr. Simatapung there
please?
S: Yes.
P: Oh…may I speak to him please?
S: Yes.
P: Oh…are you Mr. Simatapung?
S: Yes, this is Mr. Simatapung.
Telephone conversation
The foreign student fails to understand
that the professor’s first question
Is not asking if he is there or not
Is a request to talk to him
Differences in Appropriateness
This type of misunderstanding is
directly related to cultural differences
What is appropriate in one culture is
not always appropriate in another
culture
American invitations
Americans often end invitations with a phrase like
“Come if you want to.”
Americans do not want to force people to accept
unwanted invitations
Japanese reactions
Japanese expect that the person who
invites another will urge the potential
guest to accept the invitation
When Japanese hear expressions like
“Come if you want to,” they feel hurt and
are uncertain about the sincerity of the
invitation
Other cultures, e.g., Arabs, also have
the same difficulty with American
invitations
What’s the difference?
It was nice talking to you. I’ve got to go, but let’s
get together Friday night.
It was nice talking to you. I’ve got to go, but let’s
get together sometime.
American offers
If you go to an American’s home, you
will probably be offered something to eat
or drink
If you refuse the first time, you will
probably be offered again.
You will probably not be offered more
than three times.
American offers
Guests who refuse may or may not be
seen as rude
Guests will be taken at their word. If
they refuse a third time, the host will
assume that they have refused because
they do not want something to eat or
drink
Reactions by people from other
cultures
Arabs are taught to refuse again and
again.
When they visit American homes,
they often leave confused and hungry
An Arab visited an American home
and was served some delicious
sandwiches. The hostess offered him
seconds, but he refused. The hostess
didn’t repeat the offer and so he had to
sit there looking at the delicious
Reactions by people from other
cultures
Malaysians feel that offers of food or
drink are inappropriate.
A host should serve something whether
the guest wants it or not.
Offers in other cultures
In the Ukraine the host will offer food or
drink to the guest seven or eight times.
For Americans who really don’t want
anything, they are in a difficult situation
because they will run out of ways to
refuse before the Ukraine host runs out
of ways to offer.
Both guest and host will feel upset.
Topics
In the Ukraine, income, politics, religion,
marital status are all acceptable topics
in talking to strangers
In the US and Britain, they are not
acceptable at all and would be regarded
as taboo
Cultural values
Individualism
Priority to individuals
High powerdistance
Hierarchical
Quantity of life
Value competition
High uncertainty
Avoid uncertainty
Long term
Focus on future
Collectivism
Priority to group
Low powerdistance
Equal treatment
Quality of life
Value on relationships
Low uncertainty
Comfortable with uncertainty
Short term
Focus on present
Japan and the US
Individualism US Japan Collectivism
High Power Japan US Low Power
Quantity of
Life
Japan & US
Quality of
life
High
uncertainty
Japan US
Low
uncertainty
Long term Japan US Short term
Cross-cultural differences
Each culture will have values that are
more important than others
In one culture hierarchy may be more
important
In another individualism may be more
important
In yet another avoiding uncertainty may be
more important
Status
Status in Japan depends to a large
degree on the prestige of the
organization one belongs to
Independent businessmen may have
less prestige than a manager in a large
well-known company
Wrong impressions
An American businessman created a bad
impression because at a business meeting he
paid more attention to a man who started and
developed his own company than to the middle
level executives of a big Japanese corporation
American & Japanese
businessmen
Japan value hierarchy
Hierarchy is very strong in business
American have a sense of hierarchy, but
it is not as strong
Americans value individualism
Americans respect people who have
made it on their own, e.g., Bill Gates &
Steve Jobs
Japanese respect individuality, e.g.,
Morita Akio & Matsushita Konosuke
Eliminating misunderstandings
Values that are important will often be
reflected in speech in speech behavior
Misunderstandings can work both ways
Have to have open mind
When learners of a language make
inappropriate questions, do not apologize
when they should, give compliments to the
wrong person, offer something too
frequently, etc. they are not necessarily
being impolite.
Have an open mind
When learners of a language
 Make inappropriate questions
 Do not apologize when they should
 Give compliments to the wrong person
 Offer something too frequently
They are not necessarily being impolite. They
using their own culture’s values for being
polite.

More Related Content

What's hot

Language shift
Language shiftLanguage shift
Language shift
Bas Bas
 
The Communicative Approach
The Communicative ApproachThe Communicative Approach
Second Language Acquisition 631
Second Language Acquisition 631Second Language Acquisition 631
Second Language Acquisition 631
Maria Ivette Ortiz Rosado
 
Presentation on Code Switching
Presentation on Code SwitchingPresentation on Code Switching
Presentation on Code Switching
ASM Mustafizur Rahman
 
Pragmatic competence in Second Language Acquisition
Pragmatic competence in Second Language AcquisitionPragmatic competence in Second Language Acquisition
Pragmatic competence in Second Language Acquisition
Muhammad Faisal
 
Linguistic theories approaches and methods
Linguistic theories approaches and methodsLinguistic theories approaches and methods
Linguistic theories approaches and methods
EsraaAlobali
 
Regional variation
Regional variationRegional variation
Regional variation
H. R. Marasabessy
 
Technology in language teaching
Technology in language teachingTechnology in language teaching
Technology in language teaching
lauro delgado
 
Learning a new language
Learning a new languageLearning a new language
Learning a new language
Shooly Wa Bas
 
Second language acquisition
Second language acquisitionSecond language acquisition
Second language acquisition
ISP
 
Psycholinguistics
PsycholinguisticsPsycholinguistics
Psycholinguistics
Yantsuthung Erui
 
Teaching Grammar
Teaching GrammarTeaching Grammar
Teaching Grammar
Irina K
 
Grammar translation method
Grammar translation methodGrammar translation method
Grammar translation method
Sabilla Ramadhani
 
The recent history of second language learning research sla -presentation...
The recent history of second language learning research     sla -presentation...The recent history of second language learning research     sla -presentation...
The recent history of second language learning research sla -presentation...
jannesar_m
 
Pidgin & creoles
Pidgin & creolesPidgin & creoles
Pidgin & creoles
Syeda Baneen
 
Linguistic Imperialism
Linguistic ImperialismLinguistic Imperialism
Linguistic Imperialism
Aiden Yeh
 
Language varieties, dialect, register and style
Language varieties, dialect, register and styleLanguage varieties, dialect, register and style
Language varieties, dialect, register and style
M Ahlan Firdaus
 
Receptive skills reading and listening
Receptive skills reading and listeningReceptive skills reading and listening
Receptive skills reading and listening
Aisa Jadulco
 
Audiovisual translation (avt)
Audiovisual translation (avt)Audiovisual translation (avt)
Audiovisual translation (avt)
Mileyvi Paredes
 
World Englishes
World Englishes World Englishes
World Englishes
Alamgir Khan
 

What's hot (20)

Language shift
Language shiftLanguage shift
Language shift
 
The Communicative Approach
The Communicative ApproachThe Communicative Approach
The Communicative Approach
 
Second Language Acquisition 631
Second Language Acquisition 631Second Language Acquisition 631
Second Language Acquisition 631
 
Presentation on Code Switching
Presentation on Code SwitchingPresentation on Code Switching
Presentation on Code Switching
 
Pragmatic competence in Second Language Acquisition
Pragmatic competence in Second Language AcquisitionPragmatic competence in Second Language Acquisition
Pragmatic competence in Second Language Acquisition
 
Linguistic theories approaches and methods
Linguistic theories approaches and methodsLinguistic theories approaches and methods
Linguistic theories approaches and methods
 
Regional variation
Regional variationRegional variation
Regional variation
 
Technology in language teaching
Technology in language teachingTechnology in language teaching
Technology in language teaching
 
Learning a new language
Learning a new languageLearning a new language
Learning a new language
 
Second language acquisition
Second language acquisitionSecond language acquisition
Second language acquisition
 
Psycholinguistics
PsycholinguisticsPsycholinguistics
Psycholinguistics
 
Teaching Grammar
Teaching GrammarTeaching Grammar
Teaching Grammar
 
Grammar translation method
Grammar translation methodGrammar translation method
Grammar translation method
 
The recent history of second language learning research sla -presentation...
The recent history of second language learning research     sla -presentation...The recent history of second language learning research     sla -presentation...
The recent history of second language learning research sla -presentation...
 
Pidgin & creoles
Pidgin & creolesPidgin & creoles
Pidgin & creoles
 
Linguistic Imperialism
Linguistic ImperialismLinguistic Imperialism
Linguistic Imperialism
 
Language varieties, dialect, register and style
Language varieties, dialect, register and styleLanguage varieties, dialect, register and style
Language varieties, dialect, register and style
 
Receptive skills reading and listening
Receptive skills reading and listeningReceptive skills reading and listening
Receptive skills reading and listening
 
Audiovisual translation (avt)
Audiovisual translation (avt)Audiovisual translation (avt)
Audiovisual translation (avt)
 
World Englishes
World Englishes World Englishes
World Englishes
 

Viewers also liked

101-Cross cultural communication
101-Cross cultural communication101-Cross cultural communication
101-Cross cultural communication
Gloria Stoilova
 
How can we explain verbal misunderstandings
How can we explain verbal misunderstandingsHow can we explain verbal misunderstandings
How can we explain verbal misunderstandings
Ana Aguilar
 
Change at Individual Level
Change at Individual LevelChange at Individual Level
Change at Individual Level
Kathan Bhatt
 
Communication and Miscommunication
Communication and MiscommunicationCommunication and Miscommunication
Communication and MiscommunicationDamian T. Gordon
 
Cross cultural communication ppt
Cross cultural communication pptCross cultural communication ppt
Cross cultural communication ppt
SRI GANESH
 
Cross Culture Communication
Cross Culture CommunicationCross Culture Communication
Cross Culture Communication
venkat
 

Viewers also liked (6)

101-Cross cultural communication
101-Cross cultural communication101-Cross cultural communication
101-Cross cultural communication
 
How can we explain verbal misunderstandings
How can we explain verbal misunderstandingsHow can we explain verbal misunderstandings
How can we explain verbal misunderstandings
 
Change at Individual Level
Change at Individual LevelChange at Individual Level
Change at Individual Level
 
Communication and Miscommunication
Communication and MiscommunicationCommunication and Miscommunication
Communication and Miscommunication
 
Cross cultural communication ppt
Cross cultural communication pptCross cultural communication ppt
Cross cultural communication ppt
 
Cross Culture Communication
Cross Culture CommunicationCross Culture Communication
Cross Culture Communication
 

Similar to Cultural misunderstanding

Verbal communication Cross Cultural Communication
Verbal communication Cross Cultural  CommunicationVerbal communication Cross Cultural  Communication
Verbal communication Cross Cultural Communication
Sofiyana Danistha
 
Mentor Culture Training
Mentor Culture TrainingMentor Culture Training
Mentor Culture Training
prei20
 
1Unit 2 Cultural Interview AssignmentThis document includes.docx
1Unit 2 Cultural Interview AssignmentThis document includes.docx1Unit 2 Cultural Interview AssignmentThis document includes.docx
1Unit 2 Cultural Interview AssignmentThis document includes.docx
felicidaddinwoodie
 
CCM -Cultural_Diversity_Awareness.pptx
CCM -Cultural_Diversity_Awareness.pptxCCM -Cultural_Diversity_Awareness.pptx
CCM -Cultural_Diversity_Awareness.pptx
amelia naim indrajaya
 
Business and Social Customs Objectives Upon completion of th.pdf
Business and Social Customs Objectives Upon completion of th.pdfBusiness and Social Customs Objectives Upon completion of th.pdf
Business and Social Customs Objectives Upon completion of th.pdf
jaipur2
 
Rumble In The Dorms
Rumble In The DormsRumble In The Dorms
Rumble In The Dorms
Rousheen
 
Introduction to Business English - Day 2
Introduction to Business English - Day 2Introduction to Business English - Day 2
Introduction to Business English - Day 2
Luke Stapley
 
The Ugly American Stereotype
The Ugly American StereotypeThe Ugly American Stereotype
The Ugly American Stereotype
Kelly Burrello
 
Unit II Scholarly ActivityCultural InterviewPick a person to i.docx
Unit II Scholarly ActivityCultural InterviewPick a person to i.docxUnit II Scholarly ActivityCultural InterviewPick a person to i.docx
Unit II Scholarly ActivityCultural InterviewPick a person to i.docx
marilucorr
 
Business and Social Customs: Chapter 9
Business and Social Customs: Chapter 9Business and Social Customs: Chapter 9
Business and Social Customs: Chapter 9
Sawyer Education & Training
 
Culture shock
Culture shockCulture shock
Culture shock
Teddy Fiktorius
 
Cultural Differences In International Business Group 5 Final Presentation(Bus...
Cultural Differences In International Business Group 5 Final Presentation(Bus...Cultural Differences In International Business Group 5 Final Presentation(Bus...
Cultural Differences In International Business Group 5 Final Presentation(Bus...
Leon Clarke Jr
 
ANGLO-ARAB
ANGLO-ARABANGLO-ARAB
ANGLO-ARAB
Elinda Fariz
 
Cross culture understanding
Cross culture understandingCross culture understanding
Cross culture understanding
lailya rosyda
 
Interviewing Culturally Diverse Canadians
Interviewing Culturally Diverse CanadiansInterviewing Culturally Diverse Canadians
Interviewing Culturally Diverse Canadians
Monster.ca
 
Bridging the Gap in Education with Language Accomodation
Bridging the Gap in Education with Language AccomodationBridging the Gap in Education with Language Accomodation
Bridging the Gap in Education with Language Accomodation
Nicole Gestwite
 
Cross Cultural Understanding : Showing That You Understand
Cross Cultural Understanding : Showing That You Understand Cross Cultural Understanding : Showing That You Understand
Cross Cultural Understanding : Showing That You Understand
Aulia Hakim
 
Cross Cultural Conflict and Adjustment
Cross Cultural Conflict and AdjustmentCross Cultural Conflict and Adjustment
Cross Cultural Conflict and Adjustment
Elviyasa Siregar
 
Cross Cultural Conflict and Adjustment
Cross Cultural Conflict and AdjustmentCross Cultural Conflict and Adjustment
Cross Cultural Conflict and Adjustment
Elviyasa Siregar
 
English and Social Responsibility: Building that Bridge
English and Social Responsibility: Building that BridgeEnglish and Social Responsibility: Building that Bridge
English and Social Responsibility: Building that Bridge
Elisabeth Chan
 

Similar to Cultural misunderstanding (20)

Verbal communication Cross Cultural Communication
Verbal communication Cross Cultural  CommunicationVerbal communication Cross Cultural  Communication
Verbal communication Cross Cultural Communication
 
Mentor Culture Training
Mentor Culture TrainingMentor Culture Training
Mentor Culture Training
 
1Unit 2 Cultural Interview AssignmentThis document includes.docx
1Unit 2 Cultural Interview AssignmentThis document includes.docx1Unit 2 Cultural Interview AssignmentThis document includes.docx
1Unit 2 Cultural Interview AssignmentThis document includes.docx
 
CCM -Cultural_Diversity_Awareness.pptx
CCM -Cultural_Diversity_Awareness.pptxCCM -Cultural_Diversity_Awareness.pptx
CCM -Cultural_Diversity_Awareness.pptx
 
Business and Social Customs Objectives Upon completion of th.pdf
Business and Social Customs Objectives Upon completion of th.pdfBusiness and Social Customs Objectives Upon completion of th.pdf
Business and Social Customs Objectives Upon completion of th.pdf
 
Rumble In The Dorms
Rumble In The DormsRumble In The Dorms
Rumble In The Dorms
 
Introduction to Business English - Day 2
Introduction to Business English - Day 2Introduction to Business English - Day 2
Introduction to Business English - Day 2
 
The Ugly American Stereotype
The Ugly American StereotypeThe Ugly American Stereotype
The Ugly American Stereotype
 
Unit II Scholarly ActivityCultural InterviewPick a person to i.docx
Unit II Scholarly ActivityCultural InterviewPick a person to i.docxUnit II Scholarly ActivityCultural InterviewPick a person to i.docx
Unit II Scholarly ActivityCultural InterviewPick a person to i.docx
 
Business and Social Customs: Chapter 9
Business and Social Customs: Chapter 9Business and Social Customs: Chapter 9
Business and Social Customs: Chapter 9
 
Culture shock
Culture shockCulture shock
Culture shock
 
Cultural Differences In International Business Group 5 Final Presentation(Bus...
Cultural Differences In International Business Group 5 Final Presentation(Bus...Cultural Differences In International Business Group 5 Final Presentation(Bus...
Cultural Differences In International Business Group 5 Final Presentation(Bus...
 
ANGLO-ARAB
ANGLO-ARABANGLO-ARAB
ANGLO-ARAB
 
Cross culture understanding
Cross culture understandingCross culture understanding
Cross culture understanding
 
Interviewing Culturally Diverse Canadians
Interviewing Culturally Diverse CanadiansInterviewing Culturally Diverse Canadians
Interviewing Culturally Diverse Canadians
 
Bridging the Gap in Education with Language Accomodation
Bridging the Gap in Education with Language AccomodationBridging the Gap in Education with Language Accomodation
Bridging the Gap in Education with Language Accomodation
 
Cross Cultural Understanding : Showing That You Understand
Cross Cultural Understanding : Showing That You Understand Cross Cultural Understanding : Showing That You Understand
Cross Cultural Understanding : Showing That You Understand
 
Cross Cultural Conflict and Adjustment
Cross Cultural Conflict and AdjustmentCross Cultural Conflict and Adjustment
Cross Cultural Conflict and Adjustment
 
Cross Cultural Conflict and Adjustment
Cross Cultural Conflict and AdjustmentCross Cultural Conflict and Adjustment
Cross Cultural Conflict and Adjustment
 
English and Social Responsibility: Building that Bridge
English and Social Responsibility: Building that BridgeEnglish and Social Responsibility: Building that Bridge
English and Social Responsibility: Building that Bridge
 

More from Alan Bessette

Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - reading comprehension
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - reading comprehensionTest taking strategies for the TOEIC - reading comprehension
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - reading comprehension
Alan Bessette
 
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - text completion
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - text completionTest taking strategies for the TOEIC - text completion
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - text completion
Alan Bessette
 
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - incomplete sentences
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - incomplete sentencesTest taking strategies for the TOEIC - incomplete sentences
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - incomplete sentences
Alan Bessette
 
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - talks
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - talksTest taking strategies for the TOEIC - talks
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - talks
Alan Bessette
 
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - conversations
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - conversationsTest taking strategies for the TOEIC - conversations
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - conversations
Alan Bessette
 
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - question-response
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - question-responseTest taking strategies for the TOEIC - question-response
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - question-response
Alan Bessette
 
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - photographs
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - photographsTest taking strategies for the TOEIC - photographs
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - photographs
Alan Bessette
 
Invasion of the lionfish
Invasion of the lionfishInvasion of the lionfish
Invasion of the lionfish
Alan Bessette
 
Voice thread for student presentations
Voice thread for student presentationsVoice thread for student presentations
Voice thread for student presentations
Alan Bessette
 
Bruschetta
BruschettaBruschetta
Bruschetta
Alan Bessette
 
Slang
SlangSlang
Politeness
PolitenessPoliteness
Politeness
Alan Bessette
 
Conversational styles take 2012
Conversational styles take   2012Conversational styles take   2012
Conversational styles take 2012
Alan Bessette
 
Language and bias new
Language and bias newLanguage and bias new
Language and bias new
Alan Bessette
 
Language and social class
Language and social classLanguage and social class
Language and social class
Alan Bessette
 
Factors that influence speech
Factors that influence speechFactors that influence speech
Factors that influence speech
Alan Bessette
 
Intro to sociolinguistics
Intro to sociolinguisticsIntro to sociolinguistics
Intro to sociolinguistics
Alan Bessette
 
Using voice thread to create student presentations
Using voice thread to create student presentationsUsing voice thread to create student presentations
Using voice thread to create student presentations
Alan Bessette
 
Learner differences affective factors
Learner differences   affective factorsLearner differences   affective factors
Learner differences affective factors
Alan Bessette
 
Learner language
Learner languageLearner language
Learner language
Alan Bessette
 

More from Alan Bessette (20)

Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - reading comprehension
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - reading comprehensionTest taking strategies for the TOEIC - reading comprehension
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - reading comprehension
 
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - text completion
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - text completionTest taking strategies for the TOEIC - text completion
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - text completion
 
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - incomplete sentences
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - incomplete sentencesTest taking strategies for the TOEIC - incomplete sentences
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - incomplete sentences
 
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - talks
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - talksTest taking strategies for the TOEIC - talks
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - talks
 
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - conversations
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - conversationsTest taking strategies for the TOEIC - conversations
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - conversations
 
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - question-response
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - question-responseTest taking strategies for the TOEIC - question-response
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - question-response
 
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - photographs
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - photographsTest taking strategies for the TOEIC - photographs
Test taking strategies for the TOEIC - photographs
 
Invasion of the lionfish
Invasion of the lionfishInvasion of the lionfish
Invasion of the lionfish
 
Voice thread for student presentations
Voice thread for student presentationsVoice thread for student presentations
Voice thread for student presentations
 
Bruschetta
BruschettaBruschetta
Bruschetta
 
Slang
SlangSlang
Slang
 
Politeness
PolitenessPoliteness
Politeness
 
Conversational styles take 2012
Conversational styles take   2012Conversational styles take   2012
Conversational styles take 2012
 
Language and bias new
Language and bias newLanguage and bias new
Language and bias new
 
Language and social class
Language and social classLanguage and social class
Language and social class
 
Factors that influence speech
Factors that influence speechFactors that influence speech
Factors that influence speech
 
Intro to sociolinguistics
Intro to sociolinguisticsIntro to sociolinguistics
Intro to sociolinguistics
 
Using voice thread to create student presentations
Using voice thread to create student presentationsUsing voice thread to create student presentations
Using voice thread to create student presentations
 
Learner differences affective factors
Learner differences   affective factorsLearner differences   affective factors
Learner differences affective factors
 
Learner language
Learner languageLearner language
Learner language
 

Recently uploaded

Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsxData Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Prof. Dr. K. Adisesha
 
220711130100 udita Chakraborty Aims and objectives of national policy on inf...
220711130100 udita Chakraborty  Aims and objectives of national policy on inf...220711130100 udita Chakraborty  Aims and objectives of national policy on inf...
220711130100 udita Chakraborty Aims and objectives of national policy on inf...
Kalna College
 
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation resultsTemple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Krassimira Luka
 
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
Mohammad Al-Dhahabi
 
How to Setup Default Value for a Field in Odoo 17
How to Setup Default Value for a Field in Odoo 17How to Setup Default Value for a Field in Odoo 17
How to Setup Default Value for a Field in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Skimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S Eliot
Skimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S EliotSkimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S Eliot
Skimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S Eliot
nitinpv4ai
 
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptxContiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Kalna College
 
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptxSWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
zuzanka
 
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
deepaannamalai16
 
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxSimple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
RandolphRadicy
 
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
nitinpv4ai
 
Information and Communication Technology in Education
Information and Communication Technology in EducationInformation and Communication Technology in Education
Information and Communication Technology in Education
MJDuyan
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
سمير بسيوني
 
How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17
How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17
How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) CurriculumPhilippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
MJDuyan
 
BPSC-105 important questions for june term end exam
BPSC-105 important questions for june term end examBPSC-105 important questions for june term end exam
BPSC-105 important questions for june term end exam
sonukumargpnirsadhan
 
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptxRESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
zuzanka
 
220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT Internet resources for social science
220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT  Internet resources for social science220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT  Internet resources for social science
220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT Internet resources for social science
Kalna College
 
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
TechSoup
 
CIS 4200-02 Group 1 Final Project Report (1).pdf
CIS 4200-02 Group 1 Final Project Report (1).pdfCIS 4200-02 Group 1 Final Project Report (1).pdf
CIS 4200-02 Group 1 Final Project Report (1).pdf
blueshagoo1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsxData Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
 
220711130100 udita Chakraborty Aims and objectives of national policy on inf...
220711130100 udita Chakraborty  Aims and objectives of national policy on inf...220711130100 udita Chakraborty  Aims and objectives of national policy on inf...
220711130100 udita Chakraborty Aims and objectives of national policy on inf...
 
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation resultsTemple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
 
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
 
How to Setup Default Value for a Field in Odoo 17
How to Setup Default Value for a Field in Odoo 17How to Setup Default Value for a Field in Odoo 17
How to Setup Default Value for a Field in Odoo 17
 
Skimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S Eliot
Skimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S EliotSkimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S Eliot
Skimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S Eliot
 
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptxContiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
 
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptxSWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
 
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
 
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxSimple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
 
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
 
Information and Communication Technology in Education
Information and Communication Technology in EducationInformation and Communication Technology in Education
Information and Communication Technology in Education
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
 
How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17
How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17
How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17
 
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) CurriculumPhilippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
 
BPSC-105 important questions for june term end exam
BPSC-105 important questions for june term end examBPSC-105 important questions for june term end exam
BPSC-105 important questions for june term end exam
 
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptxRESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
 
220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT Internet resources for social science
220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT  Internet resources for social science220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT  Internet resources for social science
220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT Internet resources for social science
 
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
 
CIS 4200-02 Group 1 Final Project Report (1).pdf
CIS 4200-02 Group 1 Final Project Report (1).pdfCIS 4200-02 Group 1 Final Project Report (1).pdf
CIS 4200-02 Group 1 Final Project Report (1).pdf
 

Cultural misunderstanding

  • 1. Politeness in Other Cultures Cultural Misunderstanding
  • 2. Which way of greeting are you more comfortable with?
  • 3. Cultural misunderstanding Cultures differ in what they think politeness is People think that politeness equals good manners and good character People assume that othercultures are polite in the same way
  • 4. Which is the more serious mistake? A: Would you like to come over for dinner on Friday? B: Sorry I working that night. A: Would you like to come over for dinner on Friday? B: I can’t.
  • 5. Appropriate speech behavior Native speakers are more forgiving of grammatical mistakes than inappropriate speech Fornative speakers, appropriate speech behavior– being polite – is unconscious Language learners do not have unconscious knowledge of what is appropriate speech behavior
  • 6. Types of misunderstanding Direct translation Differences in appropriateness Different cultures have different ways of expressing politeness and interacting
  • 7. Direct Translation Language learner translates what they want to say from their first language Creates a misunderstanding because the rules for politeness are different
  • 8. Are these the same? Can you play the piano? Can you run fast? Can you speak French? Can you pass the salt?
  • 9. “Can you pass the salt?” This is a request in English. It is not asking about the other person’s ability to pass the salt However, if directly translated into Russian, it is a question for information Thus, the English-speaking learner of Russian would fail to communicate his or her meaning
  • 10. Telephone conversation P: Hello, is Mr. Simatapung there please? S: Yes. P: Oh…may I speak to him please? S: Yes. P: Oh…are you Mr. Simatapung? S: Yes, this is Mr. Simatapung.
  • 11. Telephone conversation The foreign student fails to understand that the professor’s first question Is not asking if he is there or not Is a request to talk to him
  • 12. Differences in Appropriateness This type of misunderstanding is directly related to cultural differences What is appropriate in one culture is not always appropriate in another culture
  • 13. American invitations Americans often end invitations with a phrase like “Come if you want to.” Americans do not want to force people to accept unwanted invitations
  • 14. Japanese reactions Japanese expect that the person who invites another will urge the potential guest to accept the invitation When Japanese hear expressions like “Come if you want to,” they feel hurt and are uncertain about the sincerity of the invitation Other cultures, e.g., Arabs, also have the same difficulty with American invitations
  • 15. What’s the difference? It was nice talking to you. I’ve got to go, but let’s get together Friday night. It was nice talking to you. I’ve got to go, but let’s get together sometime.
  • 16. American offers If you go to an American’s home, you will probably be offered something to eat or drink If you refuse the first time, you will probably be offered again. You will probably not be offered more than three times.
  • 17. American offers Guests who refuse may or may not be seen as rude Guests will be taken at their word. If they refuse a third time, the host will assume that they have refused because they do not want something to eat or drink
  • 18. Reactions by people from other cultures Arabs are taught to refuse again and again. When they visit American homes, they often leave confused and hungry An Arab visited an American home and was served some delicious sandwiches. The hostess offered him seconds, but he refused. The hostess didn’t repeat the offer and so he had to sit there looking at the delicious
  • 19. Reactions by people from other cultures Malaysians feel that offers of food or drink are inappropriate. A host should serve something whether the guest wants it or not.
  • 20. Offers in other cultures In the Ukraine the host will offer food or drink to the guest seven or eight times. For Americans who really don’t want anything, they are in a difficult situation because they will run out of ways to refuse before the Ukraine host runs out of ways to offer. Both guest and host will feel upset.
  • 21. Topics In the Ukraine, income, politics, religion, marital status are all acceptable topics in talking to strangers In the US and Britain, they are not acceptable at all and would be regarded as taboo
  • 22. Cultural values Individualism Priority to individuals High powerdistance Hierarchical Quantity of life Value competition High uncertainty Avoid uncertainty Long term Focus on future Collectivism Priority to group Low powerdistance Equal treatment Quality of life Value on relationships Low uncertainty Comfortable with uncertainty Short term Focus on present
  • 23. Japan and the US Individualism US Japan Collectivism High Power Japan US Low Power Quantity of Life Japan & US Quality of life High uncertainty Japan US Low uncertainty Long term Japan US Short term
  • 24. Cross-cultural differences Each culture will have values that are more important than others In one culture hierarchy may be more important In another individualism may be more important In yet another avoiding uncertainty may be more important
  • 25. Status Status in Japan depends to a large degree on the prestige of the organization one belongs to Independent businessmen may have less prestige than a manager in a large well-known company
  • 26. Wrong impressions An American businessman created a bad impression because at a business meeting he paid more attention to a man who started and developed his own company than to the middle level executives of a big Japanese corporation
  • 27. American & Japanese businessmen Japan value hierarchy Hierarchy is very strong in business American have a sense of hierarchy, but it is not as strong Americans value individualism Americans respect people who have made it on their own, e.g., Bill Gates & Steve Jobs Japanese respect individuality, e.g., Morita Akio & Matsushita Konosuke
  • 28. Eliminating misunderstandings Values that are important will often be reflected in speech in speech behavior Misunderstandings can work both ways Have to have open mind When learners of a language make inappropriate questions, do not apologize when they should, give compliments to the wrong person, offer something too frequently, etc. they are not necessarily being impolite.
  • 29. Have an open mind When learners of a language  Make inappropriate questions  Do not apologize when they should  Give compliments to the wrong person  Offer something too frequently They are not necessarily being impolite. They using their own culture’s values for being polite.

Editor's Notes

  1. If the pairs were women? If the pairs were men & women?
  2. Left: there is a grammatical mistake Right: Response is inappropriate. Refusal requires expression of regret and reason.
  3. Mistakes related to grammar and strategic competence do not reflect character or good manners. Speakers are more forgiving for these kind of errors.
  4. Transfer from L1 to L2
  5. Shio wo watasu koto ga dekimasu ka?
  6. After Americans invite people and tell them when and where a social gathering will take place, they often end the invitation with a phrase like “Come if you want to.”
  7. Let’s get together sometime is a closing and not an invitation
  8. Americans expect to be believed
  9. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory Individualism (IDV) vs. collectivism: “The degree to which individuals are integrated into groups”. In individualistic societies, the stress is put on personal achievements and individual rights. People are expected to stand up for themselves and their immediate family, and to choose their own affiliations. In contrast, in collectivist societies, individuals act predominantly as members of a life-long and cohesive group or organization. Power distance index (PDI): “Power distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.” Cultures that endorse low power distance expect and accept power relations that are more consultative or democratic. People relate to one another more as equals regardless of formal positions. Subordinates are more comfortable with and demand the right to contribute to and critique the decision making of those in power. In high power distance countries, less powerful accept power relations that are more autocratic and paternalistic. Subordinates acknowledge the power of others simply based on where they are situated in certain formal, hierarchical positions. Quantity (MAS), vs. Quality of life: “The distribution of emotional roles between the genders”. Quantity’ values are competitiveness, assertiveness, materialism, ambition and power, whereas feminine cultures place more value on relationships and quality of life. In masculine cultures, the differences between gender roles are more dramatic and less fluid than in feminine cultures where men and women have the same values emphasizing modesty and caring. Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI): “a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity”. It reflects the extent to which members of a society attempt to cope with anxiety by minimizing uncertainty. People in cultures with high uncertainty avoidance tend to be more emotional. They try to minimize the occurrence of unknown and unusual circumstances and to proceed with careful changes step by step by planning and by implementing rules, laws and regulations. In contrast, low uncertainty avoidance cultures accept and feel comfortable in unstructured situations or changeable environments and try to have as few rules as possible. People in these cultures tend to be more pragmatic, they are more tolerant of change. Long term orientation (LTO), vs. short term orientation: First called “Confucian dynamism”, it describes societies’ time horizon. Long term oriented societies attach more importance to the future. They foster pragmatic values oriented towards rewards, including persistence, saving and capacity for adaptation. In short term oriented societies, values promoted are related to the past and the present, including steadiness, respect for tradition, preservation of one’s face, reciprocation and fulfilling social obligations.
  10. No country is 100% on one scale For each country some values are more important; some less AND individuals in a country will vary as well.
  11. Americans value directness and their offers and refusals reflect this. They will offer only once or twice and “no” means no. Japanese value status and keigo is evidence of this value. It does not mean that Americans do not value hierarchy or that Japanese do not value directness.
  12. Manager at Sony vs. the owner of a small company in Osaka