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Contemporary Educational Technologies:
A Perspective from MIT
M.S. Vijay Kumar
Brandon Muramatsu
September 14, 2013
1
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Cite as: Kumar, V. & Muramatsu, B. (2013a, September). Contemporary educational technologies: a
perspective from MIT. Workshop presented to the EDC Pre-STEP Program. Lahore: Pakistan.
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Contemporary EdTech Agenda
 Part 1: Introduction
 Part 2: Setting the Stage
 Global drivers, EdTech Strategy at MIT, your experiences
 Break
 Part 3: EdTech Strategy at MIT and Highlights
 Remote Labs
 Active and Blended Learning
 Visualizations and Simulations
 Lunch
2
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Contemporary EdTech Agenda (cont.)
 Part 4: Activity
 Part 5: Highlights of Contemporary Practices, cont.
 Modularity
 MOOCs
 Break
 Part 6: Final Activity
 Wrap-up and Discussion
3
Part 1: Introductions
4
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Vijay’s Background
 B.Tech. in Chemical Engineering, M.S. in Industrial
Management & Ed.D. in Future Studies in
Education
 Taught courses in Instructional Computing,
Educational Planning, Teacher Education
 30+ years in EdTech – Developing, Managing,
Innovating educational uses of Information
Technologies
 10+ years in Open Education: Open Educational Resources
and OpenCourseWare
5
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Brandon’s Background
 B.S. & M.S. in Mechanical Engineering
 Taught multimedia design and open education
 20 years in EdTech
 ~10 years in educational digital libraries: Collections, nationwide
collaborations, quality and peer review
 9+ years in Open Education: Open Educational Resources and
OpenCourseWare
 “Been There, Done That”
 Multimedia courseware design and course support, course design,
video production software design, digital libraries, metadata,
learning objects, open educational resources/OpenCourseWare,
…
6
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About you!
 Please introduce yourselves with your Name and
Institution
 What do you hope to get out of the workshop?
7
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Participants’ Interests
 Different technologies used to
improve education
 Role in the quality of education
 Broaden understanding, what’s
being used
 Learn how to create education
technology, improve learning
tools
 How students can do
something special with
technology in learning
 Technology to fill the gap with
student preparation
 See examples to meet the
challenge of global
 How to use for teacher
education
 Teaching using educational
technology both inline and
offline
 See what are the possibilities
for new teacher education
programs
 See how to use Open
Educational Resources,
particularly for teacher
education, see practices from
MIT
8
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Participants’ Interests
 Technology models for
programs
 Using in face-to-face learning
 Interested in online especially
 How to use different modes of
technology in the classroom
 Learning technologies for
online teacher education,
distance learning
 Online resources for teaching
 How are technologies effective,
and how to utilize in education
 Have perceptions challenged
 Learn modern trends, and how
to effectively use them
 Learn what’s next…
 Introduce text-based content
into video
 When to use animations,
graphics
 Differences, strengths of
dissemination modes
9
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Participants’ Interests
 How to include OERs and
MOOCs in teaching
 How to use in teaching
practices
 How to use in traditional
modes of teaching, esp.
teacher education
 Insight into students and
how they view technology
 What learning resources are
available
 What LMS/VLE are available
and how they might be used
 See the possibilities of
integrating ICT
 Especially in the tribal and
rural areas
 Lots of resources that can
be shared – what are new
areas to help others
implement
 Learn the current practices
and trends
 How to use in K12/school
level
10
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What does Education Technology mean?
 Discussion
 Use of technology in
education
 Anything used to make
education effective
 Computer, multimedia
 Projected vs. non-
projected
 Three areas
mentioned:
 Educational Technology
 Learning Models
 Instructional design
models
 Mixture of terms
used
 Technology in education
 Education technology
(more than ICT,
whiteboard, paper, etc.)
11
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Synthesis of Participants’ Interests
 Learn about technology and how to improve
learning in the classroom, in online education
 Can we use similar, or the same, technologies in both?
 How can we combine online and in-person at the same time?
Blended Learning, Flipped Classrooms, All Online
 How can we leverage people and communities online?
 Specific considerations to consider?
 Infrastructure, tribal/rural areas vs. urban settings
 Are there more things we need to think about? Preparation of
faculty and students.
12
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Goals and Objectives
 Gain an understanding of how we think about
educational technologies, and how they support
pedagogy and learning
 See many examples of educational technologies,
and technology enabled pedagogies to help you
understand what’s possible
 Hopefully, inspire you to explore educational
technologies that you might use in your course(s)
 Today will not be a hands on workshop, though we may be able
to do demos over lunch and at the end of the workshop
13
Part 2: Setting the Stage
14
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Global Events Affecting Education…
 Global financial crisis
 Dramatic reduction in education budgets, continuing rise in
costs, and rise in student loan debt
 Changing perceptions of the value of a university
degree
 Rush for development in many countries
 Scale of the numbers of students eligible for education but for
whom there is no capacity
15
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A Time of Change…
 Rise of competency-based education / prior learning
assessment
 Recognition of the “half-life” of learning in many
disciplines
 Transition to continual learning in many career paths
 Rapidly changing learner attributes
 Rise of openly accessible learning materials and
opportunities, at scale
 Wikipedia, Open Educational Resources, OpenCourseWare,
Creative Commons licensing
 Khan Academy, Codecademy
16
CC-BY • Adapted From: Muramatsu, B. (2013, April). Rethinking education: Course consumption &
21st century learning. Invited Presentation at Harvard Business Publishing, April 22, 2013.
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Day of the MOOC
17
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AVC
 http://avc.com/
18
AVC Online Learning and Higher Ed
 http://www.avc.com/a_vc/2013/04/online-learning-
and-higher-ed.html
18
CC-BY • Wilson, F. (2013, April 21). Online learning and higher ed. Retrieved from http://www.avc.com/a_vc/2013/04/online-learning-and-higher-ed.html
But I am also a big fan of what
happens when a teacher and a small
group of students get together in a
classroom and real personal
interaction happens.
So if you are in the higher education
business, you had better be getting
your hands dirty with this stuff. The
only way to really learn something is
to do it yourself.
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Our Approach
 Our approach is technology in the service of
pedagogy
 Educational technology is not new
 Digital learning is becoming more dominant
 Current era is based in research and development going back
to the 1960s
19
Break
20
Educational Technology Strategy at MIT
21
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EdTech Strategy at MIT
 Support faculty and students with experimenting
and adopting innovative practices in teaching and
learning
 Innovative approach in delivering GIRs
 Make powerful tools and experiments accessible to students.
 Leverage content and resources across courses and programs
 Facilitate hands-on learning in new ways
 Develop educationally valuable software tools
22
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
EdTech Strategy at MIT
 Inform development of educational infrastructure
and services
 Develop platforms (not one-of) that render sustainability.
 Implement test-beds for promising educational technologies
and new services, to advance teaching and learning.
 Develop plans for the incubation, early implementation, and the
transitioning of delivery systems to long-term core service
providers
23
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
MIT Educational Technology Initiatives
Educational Value / Opportunity Potential Value / Impact
TEAL
(8.01, 8.02)
Create an active learning environment for
large lecture classes
Cost effective TEAL model for other
departments, Virtual TEAL
iLab Expand range of experiments available for
students via remote access to labs
Online lab courses, significantly
more lab experiences, more
sophisticated labs (utilization of
high cost/rare equipment)
Mathlets
(18.03, 8.07, 16.90)
Interactive applets to promote deeper
understanding of mathematical concepts
(relevance to systems behavior;
transference)
Utilization by other departments,
create additional Mathlets,
implement concept with other
content areas
STAR
(7.012, 7.03)
Bring research software into the classroom
bridging research and education
STAR resources enriching online
courses
HyperStudio
(Metamedia, Cultura)
Tools to support language and culture
education
Flexible online collaborative
environments
24
MIT Educational Technology Initiatives
Educational Value / Opportunity Potential Value / Impact
NB
(2.003, 24.02)
Collaboratively annotate and review
documents and problem sets
Online discussion of problem sets,
exams, solutions; enable
interaction around OCW PDFs
Math CI Online community where instructors of
communication-intensive courses in
mathematics can share materials and
actively discuss teaching ideas. of
communication-intensive courses; Promote
pedagogical knowledge sharing;
Being used by the entire Math
Department; Possible use at other
MIT departments and beyond
OpenCourseWare Sharing MIT’s course materials with the
world
Self-learners, faculty can view
models of MIT courses
Experimental
Learning
Environments
Classrooms to support faculty experiments,
T/L Innovations, e,g., Project-Based
Learning
Continuous curriculum
improvement
Athena Clusters Contemporary learning spaces; student
community spaces
Support new collaboration forms
25
Contemporary Practices:
Remote Labs
26
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U.S., Australia, China, India, Africa: iLabs
Consortium
iLabs:
“If you can’t come to the lab… the lab will come to you!”
27
Shake table (Civil Eng., 2004)
Dynamic signal analyzer (EECS, 2004)
Order of magnitude more lab experiences
More lab time to users/researchers
More sophisticated labs available
Communities of scholars created around iLabs
Sharing educational & research content
Contemporary Practices:
Active and Blended Learning
28
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Electricity & Magnetism with Studio Physics
 Studio format
 Visualization /
simulation
 Desktop lab
experiments
 Student teams
29
Contemporary Practices:
Visualizations and Simulations
30
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STAR: Software Tools for Academics and Researchers
Innovative tools to bring the practice of research to
the process of learning
31
StarGenetics
StarBiochem
protein visualization
genetic cross simulator
StarOrf
gene finder
StarMolSim
materials modeling
StarHydro
hydrology visualization
StarHPC
parallel programming
http://star.mit.edu
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
PhET: phet.ucolorado.edu
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
ARTEMiS: Interactive Content and Applications
33
3D Interactive Earth Cycles
3D Interactive Tectonics
ARTEMiS
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
ARTEMiS: Visualization Intensive Learning Experiences
34
Fluvial Environment
Gravity Vignette (SUTD)
Glacial Structures
Lunch
35
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What course or topics
are you teaching that you believe
would be improved with the use of
educational technologies?
36
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
What can be improved with educational technology?
 Biology Course: Use some of sites
(STAR, Curriki) and have students
work with them
 TeacherEd Course: Bringing the
school classroom into courses thru
video of student teachers, building
learning
 Many subjects: Improve
understanding (videos of English),
can make lecture more interesting
(use films to teach history; use
images of maps on the computer to
teach geography)
 Classroom Assessment Course:
Online formative
assessment/assignment
 ICT in Education: NGrid, Google
Earth and Google Maps
 Collaborative projects between
schools
 Collaborate with teachers at other
schools
 Collaboratively develop questions
 Use sites to work with individual
students
 Videos of different teaching
strategies, advantages and
disadvantages of prospective
students
 Videos to motivate
 Need to pair the use of these
technologies with an assessment –
it’s just good teaching practice
37
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What can be improved with educational technology?
 Examples:
 Spreadsheets,
PowerPoint, Word
 Facebook
 Google documents /
drive / forms /
hangouts
 DropBox
 Skype
 Video
 Watching them
 Producing them
 Online Collections
 STAR, Curriki, PhET
38
Contemporary Practices:
Digital Humanities
39
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
 http://visualizingcultures.mit.edu/
Visualizing Cultures
40
Contemporary Practices:
MOOCs
41
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Massively “Open” Online Course
 “Open” has multiple meanings
 In the Open University sense, open enrollment
 In the licensing sense, Creative Commons licensing
 In the cost sense, Free or low cost for a certificate
 Course
 There is an instructor or instructional team
 Often little or no interaction with the instructional team, support
provided by peers through discussion forums (in some cases
self-forming study groups)
 Formal “certification” varies
42
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Massively “Open” Online Course (cont.)
 Participants have multiple reasons for participating
 Independent learners
 Professionals upgrading skills
 Students with no access to the course or the perceived level of
sophistication
 Students taking a similar course for credit looking for additional
practice, learning opportunities
 And many, many more…
 Engagement
 Varies greatly depending on the reason for participating
 Registrants -> Completion for Certificate 7-10%
43
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What’s unique?
 Scale
 Thousands – Tens of Thousands – Hundreds of Thousands of
simultaneous participants
 Have to mostly get it right the first time, in “regular” classes
there’s lots of opportunity to redirect and clarify
 Content (mostly video) and (formative)
assessments are tightly coupled
 Many innovative activities / assessments
 Circuit Simulator, etc.
 Automatically evaluated
44
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Who has taken, or is taking, a MOOC?
What are your thoughts about the
educational technologies being used in
the MOOC(s)? How effective are they?
45
Contemporary Practices: Modularity
46
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Modularity of Content and Activities
 Pros:
 Promotes reusability, and perhaps learner choice
 Aligns with learning sciences: Many short activities
 Aligns with competency-based learning: Focus on specific skills
 Cons:
 Modularity for modularity’s sake, same problem with learning
objects
 May lead to desire to over-structure courses and activities
47
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Student Attention in 50 Minute Lecture
 Attention
48
Attention
Minutes
Hartley, J. & Davies, I. (1978)
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Breaking Up a Class into Blocks of Time
 Segmenting lectures tablet
49
CC-BY-NC-SA • Aleman, L. & Brauneis, A.. (2013). Best practices for teaching and learning.
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Modularity through “Concept Based Approaches”
 Focus on learning outcomes…
 …or describing content / activities by concepts or
topics
 MIT is developing tools and infrastructure
 Video Concept Browser (showing today)
 Concept map authoring, linking concepts and content (not
showing today)
50
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Video Recordings of University Lectures
 Rationale
 Resource for students that miss class / want to review
 Use for distance learning
 Typically replay the lecture as a whole
 Pros
 “Easy” from an institutional perspective
51
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Video Recordings of University Lectures
 Cons
 Not necessarily interactive, even if the original class was highly
interactive
 Doesn’t necessarily support learning
 Typically lecture as a whole – 1 hour, 1.5 hours long
(e.g., OpenCourseWare videos)
 Can form the basis for MOOCs, or distance learning
 “Easy” to do, but is it representing your institution well, or
serving student learning well?
52
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
MIT’s Approach: OEIT Video Concept Browser
 Record lectures as normal
 In MIT’s case there is we have a professional camera operator
using a professional HD camera
 Tag videos with concepts / topics during the lecture
 Teaching assistant (or top student)
 Concept + time (e.g., Bloom’s Taxonomy definition / 11:32 am)
 No special tools or technology needed! (Though we’re now
using some to help.)
 This would be even more effective if the segments were tied to
learning otcomes
53
“Easy”
“Easy”
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
OEIT Video Concept Browser
 Concept-tagged video on web for student viewing
 “Bookmarks” to playback video from the concept at the
specified time
 What’s needed?
 Video tagged by concept and time
 Video player and hosting that can play video from an arbitrary
time
 YouTube or Amazon S3/Cloudfront with free / low-cost 3rd
party player (e.g., JWPlayer, Flowplayer, Sublime player)
 That’s it! (We built a simple web app to make this easier)
54
Idea from Stanford Learning Lab circa late 1990s
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Screenshot of TechTV with Bookmarks
55
s
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Screenshot of oeit-vcb.mit.edu
 Screenshot
 Demo http://oeit-vcb.mit.edu/
56
Contemporary Practices:
Embedded Assessment
57
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Embedded Assessment
 What is it?
 Putting mechanisms for students to check their understanding /
mastery of concepts directly in course materials
 Primarily for formative (self-check, understanding) not
summative (exams or formal assignments)
 Why is it different?
 Current tools (Virtual Learning Environments and Learning
Management Systems) separate the act of taking a quiz /
answering a question from reading or interacting with course
content
 Assessments, anywhere, anytime
58
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Open Embedded Assessment
 Screenshot
 Demo http://oea.herokuapp.com/
59
Break
60
Wrap-Up and Discussion
61
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Construct a course/activity/project in
collaboration, with a colleague at another
university, that uses educational technologies
to improve teacher education.
What is the educational problem to address?
How might you address the problem with an
educational technology?
What are the obstacles?
Be specific!
62
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Possible Projects
 Divide virtual classrooms into smaller groups
 Divide into small groups, discussion boards within the forums
 Online courses
 Use webinars to conduct live online sessions, to support all
existing content
 Videos of lectures
 Establish iLab for a universities
 Seek collaborators to participate, including those that have
resources to host labs, etc.
 Link iLab to link universities together
63
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Possible Projects (cont.)
 Student understanding in courses—misconception
analysis
 MUD Card – “What’s the muddiest, unclear, point in a course
 Could use MOOCs and analytics to get to aggregated
misconceptions
 Content repository
 Share videos, lectures by universities
 Share quality materials
 Develop a web page for each subject in a program
 Content, video, etc.
 And social community of people interested in the program/topic
 Subject forum—for teachers and student teachers
64
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Possible Projects (cont.)
 General Methods of Teaching Course
 Students often forget the general methods in subsequent
courses
 Students can upload the best practices in teaching practicum,
match these real life experiences with
 Lack of practical labs
 Share videos of examples of student teaching
65
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Participants’ Important Take Aways
 Different resource sites (iLabs, PhET, etc.)
 Video lectures and tagging
 MOOCs
 Need to use technology
 Blended learning: and how to bring technology into
teaching
 Focus on learning!
66
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Simple, Proven, Compatible & Adaptable
 Simple
 Easy to use, doesn’t
 Proven
 Activities, educational technologies need to work for what we
want to do
 Compatible
 With the culture of the course
 Adaptable
 Usable in multiple settings, by multiple audiences, shouldn’t
have to rewrite everything for each possible use
67
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Resources
 ARTEMiS: http://mit-artemis.org/
 CritiqueIt: http://edu.critiqueit.com
 Curriki: http://www.curriki.org/
 NMC Horizon Report:
http://www.nmc.org/horizon-project/horizon-reports/horizon-report-higher-ed-edition
 OEIT: http://oeit.mit.edu/
 P2PU: http://p2pu.org
 PhET: http://phet.ucolorado.edu/
 Project Kaleidoscope: http://projectkaleidoscope.org/
 Russian Revolution: http://web.mit.edu/russia1917/
 STAR: http://star.mit.edu/
 Visualizing Cultures: http://visualizingcultures.mit.edu/
68

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Contemporary Educational Technologies: A Perspective from MIT

  • 1. Contemporary Educational Technologies: A Perspective from MIT M.S. Vijay Kumar Brandon Muramatsu September 14, 2013 1 Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Cite as: Kumar, V. & Muramatsu, B. (2013a, September). Contemporary educational technologies: a perspective from MIT. Workshop presented to the EDC Pre-STEP Program. Lahore: Pakistan.
  • 2. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Contemporary EdTech Agenda  Part 1: Introduction  Part 2: Setting the Stage  Global drivers, EdTech Strategy at MIT, your experiences  Break  Part 3: EdTech Strategy at MIT and Highlights  Remote Labs  Active and Blended Learning  Visualizations and Simulations  Lunch 2
  • 3. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Contemporary EdTech Agenda (cont.)  Part 4: Activity  Part 5: Highlights of Contemporary Practices, cont.  Modularity  MOOCs  Break  Part 6: Final Activity  Wrap-up and Discussion 3
  • 5. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Vijay’s Background  B.Tech. in Chemical Engineering, M.S. in Industrial Management & Ed.D. in Future Studies in Education  Taught courses in Instructional Computing, Educational Planning, Teacher Education  30+ years in EdTech – Developing, Managing, Innovating educational uses of Information Technologies  10+ years in Open Education: Open Educational Resources and OpenCourseWare 5
  • 6. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Brandon’s Background  B.S. & M.S. in Mechanical Engineering  Taught multimedia design and open education  20 years in EdTech  ~10 years in educational digital libraries: Collections, nationwide collaborations, quality and peer review  9+ years in Open Education: Open Educational Resources and OpenCourseWare  “Been There, Done That”  Multimedia courseware design and course support, course design, video production software design, digital libraries, metadata, learning objects, open educational resources/OpenCourseWare, … 6
  • 7. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. About you!  Please introduce yourselves with your Name and Institution  What do you hope to get out of the workshop? 7
  • 8. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Participants’ Interests  Different technologies used to improve education  Role in the quality of education  Broaden understanding, what’s being used  Learn how to create education technology, improve learning tools  How students can do something special with technology in learning  Technology to fill the gap with student preparation  See examples to meet the challenge of global  How to use for teacher education  Teaching using educational technology both inline and offline  See what are the possibilities for new teacher education programs  See how to use Open Educational Resources, particularly for teacher education, see practices from MIT 8
  • 9. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Participants’ Interests  Technology models for programs  Using in face-to-face learning  Interested in online especially  How to use different modes of technology in the classroom  Learning technologies for online teacher education, distance learning  Online resources for teaching  How are technologies effective, and how to utilize in education  Have perceptions challenged  Learn modern trends, and how to effectively use them  Learn what’s next…  Introduce text-based content into video  When to use animations, graphics  Differences, strengths of dissemination modes 9
  • 10. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Participants’ Interests  How to include OERs and MOOCs in teaching  How to use in teaching practices  How to use in traditional modes of teaching, esp. teacher education  Insight into students and how they view technology  What learning resources are available  What LMS/VLE are available and how they might be used  See the possibilities of integrating ICT  Especially in the tribal and rural areas  Lots of resources that can be shared – what are new areas to help others implement  Learn the current practices and trends  How to use in K12/school level 10
  • 11. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. What does Education Technology mean?  Discussion  Use of technology in education  Anything used to make education effective  Computer, multimedia  Projected vs. non- projected  Three areas mentioned:  Educational Technology  Learning Models  Instructional design models  Mixture of terms used  Technology in education  Education technology (more than ICT, whiteboard, paper, etc.) 11
  • 12. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Synthesis of Participants’ Interests  Learn about technology and how to improve learning in the classroom, in online education  Can we use similar, or the same, technologies in both?  How can we combine online and in-person at the same time? Blended Learning, Flipped Classrooms, All Online  How can we leverage people and communities online?  Specific considerations to consider?  Infrastructure, tribal/rural areas vs. urban settings  Are there more things we need to think about? Preparation of faculty and students. 12
  • 13. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Goals and Objectives  Gain an understanding of how we think about educational technologies, and how they support pedagogy and learning  See many examples of educational technologies, and technology enabled pedagogies to help you understand what’s possible  Hopefully, inspire you to explore educational technologies that you might use in your course(s)  Today will not be a hands on workshop, though we may be able to do demos over lunch and at the end of the workshop 13
  • 14. Part 2: Setting the Stage 14
  • 15. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Global Events Affecting Education…  Global financial crisis  Dramatic reduction in education budgets, continuing rise in costs, and rise in student loan debt  Changing perceptions of the value of a university degree  Rush for development in many countries  Scale of the numbers of students eligible for education but for whom there is no capacity 15
  • 16. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. A Time of Change…  Rise of competency-based education / prior learning assessment  Recognition of the “half-life” of learning in many disciplines  Transition to continual learning in many career paths  Rapidly changing learner attributes  Rise of openly accessible learning materials and opportunities, at scale  Wikipedia, Open Educational Resources, OpenCourseWare, Creative Commons licensing  Khan Academy, Codecademy 16 CC-BY • Adapted From: Muramatsu, B. (2013, April). Rethinking education: Course consumption & 21st century learning. Invited Presentation at Harvard Business Publishing, April 22, 2013.
  • 17. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Day of the MOOC 17
  • 18. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. AVC  http://avc.com/ 18 AVC Online Learning and Higher Ed  http://www.avc.com/a_vc/2013/04/online-learning- and-higher-ed.html 18 CC-BY • Wilson, F. (2013, April 21). Online learning and higher ed. Retrieved from http://www.avc.com/a_vc/2013/04/online-learning-and-higher-ed.html But I am also a big fan of what happens when a teacher and a small group of students get together in a classroom and real personal interaction happens. So if you are in the higher education business, you had better be getting your hands dirty with this stuff. The only way to really learn something is to do it yourself.
  • 19. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Our Approach  Our approach is technology in the service of pedagogy  Educational technology is not new  Digital learning is becoming more dominant  Current era is based in research and development going back to the 1960s 19
  • 22. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. EdTech Strategy at MIT  Support faculty and students with experimenting and adopting innovative practices in teaching and learning  Innovative approach in delivering GIRs  Make powerful tools and experiments accessible to students.  Leverage content and resources across courses and programs  Facilitate hands-on learning in new ways  Develop educationally valuable software tools 22
  • 23. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. EdTech Strategy at MIT  Inform development of educational infrastructure and services  Develop platforms (not one-of) that render sustainability.  Implement test-beds for promising educational technologies and new services, to advance teaching and learning.  Develop plans for the incubation, early implementation, and the transitioning of delivery systems to long-term core service providers 23
  • 24. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. MIT Educational Technology Initiatives Educational Value / Opportunity Potential Value / Impact TEAL (8.01, 8.02) Create an active learning environment for large lecture classes Cost effective TEAL model for other departments, Virtual TEAL iLab Expand range of experiments available for students via remote access to labs Online lab courses, significantly more lab experiences, more sophisticated labs (utilization of high cost/rare equipment) Mathlets (18.03, 8.07, 16.90) Interactive applets to promote deeper understanding of mathematical concepts (relevance to systems behavior; transference) Utilization by other departments, create additional Mathlets, implement concept with other content areas STAR (7.012, 7.03) Bring research software into the classroom bridging research and education STAR resources enriching online courses HyperStudio (Metamedia, Cultura) Tools to support language and culture education Flexible online collaborative environments 24
  • 25. MIT Educational Technology Initiatives Educational Value / Opportunity Potential Value / Impact NB (2.003, 24.02) Collaboratively annotate and review documents and problem sets Online discussion of problem sets, exams, solutions; enable interaction around OCW PDFs Math CI Online community where instructors of communication-intensive courses in mathematics can share materials and actively discuss teaching ideas. of communication-intensive courses; Promote pedagogical knowledge sharing; Being used by the entire Math Department; Possible use at other MIT departments and beyond OpenCourseWare Sharing MIT’s course materials with the world Self-learners, faculty can view models of MIT courses Experimental Learning Environments Classrooms to support faculty experiments, T/L Innovations, e,g., Project-Based Learning Continuous curriculum improvement Athena Clusters Contemporary learning spaces; student community spaces Support new collaboration forms 25
  • 27. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. U.S., Australia, China, India, Africa: iLabs Consortium iLabs: “If you can’t come to the lab… the lab will come to you!” 27 Shake table (Civil Eng., 2004) Dynamic signal analyzer (EECS, 2004) Order of magnitude more lab experiences More lab time to users/researchers More sophisticated labs available Communities of scholars created around iLabs Sharing educational & research content
  • 28. Contemporary Practices: Active and Blended Learning 28
  • 29. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Electricity & Magnetism with Studio Physics  Studio format  Visualization / simulation  Desktop lab experiments  Student teams 29
  • 31. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. STAR: Software Tools for Academics and Researchers Innovative tools to bring the practice of research to the process of learning 31 StarGenetics StarBiochem protein visualization genetic cross simulator StarOrf gene finder StarMolSim materials modeling StarHydro hydrology visualization StarHPC parallel programming http://star.mit.edu
  • 32. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. PhET: phet.ucolorado.edu
  • 33. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. ARTEMiS: Interactive Content and Applications 33 3D Interactive Earth Cycles 3D Interactive Tectonics ARTEMiS
  • 34. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. ARTEMiS: Visualization Intensive Learning Experiences 34 Fluvial Environment Gravity Vignette (SUTD) Glacial Structures
  • 36. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. What course or topics are you teaching that you believe would be improved with the use of educational technologies? 36
  • 37. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. What can be improved with educational technology?  Biology Course: Use some of sites (STAR, Curriki) and have students work with them  TeacherEd Course: Bringing the school classroom into courses thru video of student teachers, building learning  Many subjects: Improve understanding (videos of English), can make lecture more interesting (use films to teach history; use images of maps on the computer to teach geography)  Classroom Assessment Course: Online formative assessment/assignment  ICT in Education: NGrid, Google Earth and Google Maps  Collaborative projects between schools  Collaborate with teachers at other schools  Collaboratively develop questions  Use sites to work with individual students  Videos of different teaching strategies, advantages and disadvantages of prospective students  Videos to motivate  Need to pair the use of these technologies with an assessment – it’s just good teaching practice 37
  • 38. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. What can be improved with educational technology?  Examples:  Spreadsheets, PowerPoint, Word  Facebook  Google documents / drive / forms / hangouts  DropBox  Skype  Video  Watching them  Producing them  Online Collections  STAR, Curriki, PhET 38
  • 40. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.  http://visualizingcultures.mit.edu/ Visualizing Cultures 40
  • 42. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Massively “Open” Online Course  “Open” has multiple meanings  In the Open University sense, open enrollment  In the licensing sense, Creative Commons licensing  In the cost sense, Free or low cost for a certificate  Course  There is an instructor or instructional team  Often little or no interaction with the instructional team, support provided by peers through discussion forums (in some cases self-forming study groups)  Formal “certification” varies 42
  • 43. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Massively “Open” Online Course (cont.)  Participants have multiple reasons for participating  Independent learners  Professionals upgrading skills  Students with no access to the course or the perceived level of sophistication  Students taking a similar course for credit looking for additional practice, learning opportunities  And many, many more…  Engagement  Varies greatly depending on the reason for participating  Registrants -> Completion for Certificate 7-10% 43
  • 44. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. What’s unique?  Scale  Thousands – Tens of Thousands – Hundreds of Thousands of simultaneous participants  Have to mostly get it right the first time, in “regular” classes there’s lots of opportunity to redirect and clarify  Content (mostly video) and (formative) assessments are tightly coupled  Many innovative activities / assessments  Circuit Simulator, etc.  Automatically evaluated 44
  • 45. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Who has taken, or is taking, a MOOC? What are your thoughts about the educational technologies being used in the MOOC(s)? How effective are they? 45
  • 47. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Modularity of Content and Activities  Pros:  Promotes reusability, and perhaps learner choice  Aligns with learning sciences: Many short activities  Aligns with competency-based learning: Focus on specific skills  Cons:  Modularity for modularity’s sake, same problem with learning objects  May lead to desire to over-structure courses and activities 47
  • 48. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Student Attention in 50 Minute Lecture  Attention 48 Attention Minutes Hartley, J. & Davies, I. (1978)
  • 49. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Breaking Up a Class into Blocks of Time  Segmenting lectures tablet 49 CC-BY-NC-SA • Aleman, L. & Brauneis, A.. (2013). Best practices for teaching and learning.
  • 50. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Modularity through “Concept Based Approaches”  Focus on learning outcomes…  …or describing content / activities by concepts or topics  MIT is developing tools and infrastructure  Video Concept Browser (showing today)  Concept map authoring, linking concepts and content (not showing today) 50
  • 51. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Video Recordings of University Lectures  Rationale  Resource for students that miss class / want to review  Use for distance learning  Typically replay the lecture as a whole  Pros  “Easy” from an institutional perspective 51
  • 52. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Video Recordings of University Lectures  Cons  Not necessarily interactive, even if the original class was highly interactive  Doesn’t necessarily support learning  Typically lecture as a whole – 1 hour, 1.5 hours long (e.g., OpenCourseWare videos)  Can form the basis for MOOCs, or distance learning  “Easy” to do, but is it representing your institution well, or serving student learning well? 52
  • 53. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. MIT’s Approach: OEIT Video Concept Browser  Record lectures as normal  In MIT’s case there is we have a professional camera operator using a professional HD camera  Tag videos with concepts / topics during the lecture  Teaching assistant (or top student)  Concept + time (e.g., Bloom’s Taxonomy definition / 11:32 am)  No special tools or technology needed! (Though we’re now using some to help.)  This would be even more effective if the segments were tied to learning otcomes 53 “Easy” “Easy”
  • 54. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. OEIT Video Concept Browser  Concept-tagged video on web for student viewing  “Bookmarks” to playback video from the concept at the specified time  What’s needed?  Video tagged by concept and time  Video player and hosting that can play video from an arbitrary time  YouTube or Amazon S3/Cloudfront with free / low-cost 3rd party player (e.g., JWPlayer, Flowplayer, Sublime player)  That’s it! (We built a simple web app to make this easier) 54 Idea from Stanford Learning Lab circa late 1990s
  • 55. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Screenshot of TechTV with Bookmarks 55 s
  • 56. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Screenshot of oeit-vcb.mit.edu  Screenshot  Demo http://oeit-vcb.mit.edu/ 56
  • 58. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Embedded Assessment  What is it?  Putting mechanisms for students to check their understanding / mastery of concepts directly in course materials  Primarily for formative (self-check, understanding) not summative (exams or formal assignments)  Why is it different?  Current tools (Virtual Learning Environments and Learning Management Systems) separate the act of taking a quiz / answering a question from reading or interacting with course content  Assessments, anywhere, anytime 58
  • 59. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Open Embedded Assessment  Screenshot  Demo http://oea.herokuapp.com/ 59
  • 62. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Construct a course/activity/project in collaboration, with a colleague at another university, that uses educational technologies to improve teacher education. What is the educational problem to address? How might you address the problem with an educational technology? What are the obstacles? Be specific! 62
  • 63. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Possible Projects  Divide virtual classrooms into smaller groups  Divide into small groups, discussion boards within the forums  Online courses  Use webinars to conduct live online sessions, to support all existing content  Videos of lectures  Establish iLab for a universities  Seek collaborators to participate, including those that have resources to host labs, etc.  Link iLab to link universities together 63
  • 64. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Possible Projects (cont.)  Student understanding in courses—misconception analysis  MUD Card – “What’s the muddiest, unclear, point in a course  Could use MOOCs and analytics to get to aggregated misconceptions  Content repository  Share videos, lectures by universities  Share quality materials  Develop a web page for each subject in a program  Content, video, etc.  And social community of people interested in the program/topic  Subject forum—for teachers and student teachers 64
  • 65. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Possible Projects (cont.)  General Methods of Teaching Course  Students often forget the general methods in subsequent courses  Students can upload the best practices in teaching practicum, match these real life experiences with  Lack of practical labs  Share videos of examples of student teaching 65
  • 66. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Participants’ Important Take Aways  Different resource sites (iLabs, PhET, etc.)  Video lectures and tagging  MOOCs  Need to use technology  Blended learning: and how to bring technology into teaching  Focus on learning! 66
  • 67. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Simple, Proven, Compatible & Adaptable  Simple  Easy to use, doesn’t  Proven  Activities, educational technologies need to work for what we want to do  Compatible  With the culture of the course  Adaptable  Usable in multiple settings, by multiple audiences, shouldn’t have to rewrite everything for each possible use 67
  • 68. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Resources  ARTEMiS: http://mit-artemis.org/  CritiqueIt: http://edu.critiqueit.com  Curriki: http://www.curriki.org/  NMC Horizon Report: http://www.nmc.org/horizon-project/horizon-reports/horizon-report-higher-ed-edition  OEIT: http://oeit.mit.edu/  P2PU: http://p2pu.org  PhET: http://phet.ucolorado.edu/  Project Kaleidoscope: http://projectkaleidoscope.org/  Russian Revolution: http://web.mit.edu/russia1917/  STAR: http://star.mit.edu/  Visualizing Cultures: http://visualizingcultures.mit.edu/ 68

Editor's Notes

  1. Cite as: Kumar, V. & Muramatsu, B. (2013a, September). Contemporary educational technologies: a perspective from MIT. Workshop presented to the EDC Pre-STEP Program. Lahore: Pakistan. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
  2. Creator has requested no credit
  3. Present this Table of In